Estimation of residual energy intake and its genetic background during the growing period in pigs
Shirali, M. ; Doeschl-Wilson, A. ; Duthie, C. ; Knap, P.W. ; Kanis, E. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Roehe, R. - \ 2014
Livestock Science 168 (2014). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 17 - 25.
feed-intake - production traits - body-composition - nitrogen-excretion - chemical-analysis - yorkshire swine - growth - parameters - association - efficiency
The aims of this study were to (i) compare models estimating residual energy intake (REI) using either lean and fat tissue growth or their proxy traits (average daily gain (ADG) and backfat thickness (BF)); (ii) determine genetic characteristics of REI at different growth stages and the entire test period; and (iii) examine 9 genetic and phenotypic relationships of REI with other production traits. Data from 315 pigs of an F2 generation were used which originated from crossing Pietrain sires with a commercial crossbred dam population. Average daily protein (APD) and lipid deposition (ALD), as measurements of lean and fat tissue growth, were obtained using the deuterium dilution technique on live animals. During growth from 60 to 140 kg, REI was estimated using 4 different models for energy intake that included, besides other systematic effects, (1) ADG and BF; (2) APD and ALD; (3) and (4) incorporated the same covariables as the first two models, respectively, but pre-adjusted for systematic effects. Genetic parameters and estimated breeding values were obtained based on univariate animal models using REML analysis. Over the entire growing period, heritabilities of different REI using different models were all estimated at 0.44 and their genetic correlations were at unity. At different growth stages heritabilities for REI were greater ranging from 0.47 to 0.50. Genetic correlations between REI estimates at different stages of growth, obtained using genetic model 4, indicated that REI at 60 to 90 kg was non-significantly (P>0.05) associated with REI at 90–120 kg (0.32±0.29) and 120–140 kg (0.28±0.28), but REI of the latter growth stages showed a significant (P
Nitrogen excretion at different stages of growth and its association with production traits in growing pigs
Shirali, M. ; Doeschl-Wilson, A. ; Knap, P.W. ; Duthie, C. ; Kanis, E. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Roehe, R. - \ 2012
Journal of Animal Science 90 (2012)6. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1756 - 1765.
meat quality - carcass characteristics - body-composition - feed-intake - phosphorus consumption - chemical-analysis - halothane gene - performance - losses
The objectives of this study were to determine nitrogen loss at different stages of growth and during the entire growing period and to investigate the associations between nitrogen excretion and production traits in growing pigs. Data from 315 pigs of an F-2 population which originated from crossing Pietrain sires with a commercial dam line were used. Nitrogen retention was derived from protein retention as measured using the deuterium dilution technique during different stages of growth (60 to 90 kg, 90 to 120 kg, and 120 to 140 kg). Pigs were fed ad libitum with 2 pelleted diets containing 17% (60 to 90 kg) and 16.5% (90 to 120 and 120 to 140 kg) CP. Average daily nitrogen excretion (ADNE) within each stage of growth was calculated on the basis of the accumulated difference between average daily nitrogen intake (ADNI) and average daily nitrogen retention (ADNR). Least ADNE, nitrogen excretion per BW gain (NEWG) and total nitrogen excretion (TNE) were observed during growth from 60 to 90 kg. In contrast, the greatest ADNE, NEWG, and TNE were found during growth from 120 to 140 kg. Statistical analyses indicated that gender, housing type, the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene, and batch influenced nitrogen excretion (P <0.05), but the degree and direction of influences differed between growth stages. Gender differences showed that gilts excreted less nitrogen than barrows (P <0.05), which was associated with decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR; feed: gain) and lipid: protein gain ratio. Single-housed pigs showed reduced nitrogen excretion compared with group-housed pigs (P <0.05). In comparison to other genotypes, pigs carrying genotype NN (homozygous normal) at the RYR1 locus had the least nitrogen excretion (P <0.05) at all stages of growth except from 60 to 90 kg. The residual correlations indicated that NEWG and TNE have large positive correlations with FCR (r = 0.99 and 0.91, respectively) and moderate negative correlations with ADG (r = -0.53 and -0.48, respectively), for the entire growing period. Improvement in FCR, increase in ADG and reduction in lipid: protein gain ratio by 1 phenotypic SD reduced TNE per pig by 709 g, 307 g, and 211 g, respectively, over the entire growing period. The results indicate that nitrogen excretion changes substantially during growth, and it can be reduced most effectively by improvement of feed efficiency and to a lesser extent through the improvement of BW gain or body composition or both.
Inter-laboratory reproducibility of fast gas chromatography-electron impact-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-EI-TOF/MS) based plant metabolomics
Allwood, J.W. ; Erban, A. ; Koning, S. ; Dun, W.B. ; Luedemann, A. ; Lommen, A. ; Kay, L. ; Löscher, R. ; Kopka, J. ; Goodacre, R. - \ 2009
Metabolomics 5 (2009)4. - ISSN 1573-3882 - p. 479 - 496.
minimum reporting standards - independent component analysis - liquid-chromatography - chemical-analysis - cucumis-melo - transcriptomics - toxicogenomics - hepatotoxicity - identification - metabolites
The application of gas chromatography¿mass spectrometry (GC¿MS) to the `global¿ analysis of metabolites in complex samples (i.e. metabolomics) has now become routine. The generation of these data-rich profiles demands new strategies in data mining and standardisation of experimental and reporting aspects across laboratories. As part of the META-PHOR project¿s (METAbolomics for Plants Health and OutReach: http://www.meta-phor.eu/) priorities towards robust technology development, a GC¿MS ring experiment based upon three complex matrices (melon, broccoli and rice) was launched. All sample preparation, data processing, multivariate analyses and comparisons of major metabolite features followed standardised protocols, identical models of GC (Agilent 6890N) and TOF/MS (Leco Pegasus III) were also employed. In addition comprehensive GC×GC¿TOF/MS was compared with 1 dimensional GC¿TOF/MS. Comparisons of the paired data from the various laboratories were made with a single data processing and analysis method providing an unbiased assessment of analytical method variants and inter-laboratory reproducibility. A range of processing and statistical methods were also assessed with a single exemplary dataset revealing near equal performance between them. Further investigations of long-term reproducibility are required, though the future generation of global and valid metabolomics databases offers much promise