Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Optimization of soybean processing into kinema, a Bacillus-fermented alkaline food, with respect to a minimum level of antinutrients
    Sharma, A. ; Kumari, S. ; Wongputtisin, P. ; Nout, M.J.R. ; Sarkar, P.K. - \ 2015
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 119 (2015)1. - ISSN 1364-5072 - p. 162 - 176.
    vitro protein digestibility - histamine-forming bacteria - unguiculata l. walp - cicer-arietinum l. - biogenic-amines - trypsin-inhibitor - phytic acid - antinutritional factors - chemical-composition - nutritional quality
    Aims Optimization of traditional processing of soybeans using response surface methodology (RSM) to achieve a minimum level of antinutritional factors (ANFs) in kinema. Methods and Results Central composite rotatable designs were used to optimize the processing stages of kinema preparation. In each stage, the linear or quadratic effects of independent variables were significant in minimizing ANF levels. The predicted optimum condition for soaking was when the raw beans–water ratio was 1 : 10, and the soaking temperature, time and pH were 10°C, 20 h and 8·0 respectively. Here, tannins content (TC), phytic acid content (PAC) and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) decreased (P <0·05). While haemagglutinating activity (HA) level remained unchanged (P <0·05), total biogenic amines content (TBAC) increased. The optimum condition for cooking was optimally soaked beans–water ratio of 1 : 5, and cooking pressure and time were 1·10 kg cm-2 and 20 min respectively. Here, TC, PAC, TIA and HA decreased (P <0·05), but TBAC remained unchanged compared to optimally soaked beans. TC and HA went below the level of detection. The optimum condition for fermentation was obtained when inoculum load was 103 total cells g-1 grits, and fermentation temperature and time were 37°C and 48 h respectively. Fermentation of optimally cooked beans caused a reduction (P <0·05) of PAC. While TIA remained unchanged (P <0·05), TBAC increased. In kinema, TC, PAC, TIA and HA decreased (P <0·05) over raw beans by 100, 61, 71 and 100% respectively. Good agreement was observed between predicted values and experimental values. Conclusions The processing treatments significantly minimized the level of ANFs in soybeans. Significance and Impact of the Study RSM was successfully deployed to obtain the optimum condition for kinema-making with a minimum level of ANFs without impairing sensory attributes of the product. The results are useful for commercial production of kinema.
    Molecular chemistry in humic Ferralsols from Brazilian Cerrado and forest biomes indicates a major contribution from black carbon in the subsoil
    Marques, F.A. ; Buurman, P. ; Schellekens, J. ; Vidal-Torrado, P. - \ 2015
    Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 113 (2015). - ISSN 0165-2370 - p. 518 - 528.
    soil organic-matter - stabilization mechanisms - chemical-composition - analytical pyrolysis - fire - spain - gc/ms
    Soil organic matter (OM) stability plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. The molecular characterisation of soil OM may contribute to an understanding of the feedback mechanisms between soil OM and climate. Umbric Ferralsols with humic properties (humic Ferralsols) are characterised by a thick dark carbon-rich A horizon, and co-occur next to Umbric Ferralsols without humic characteristics. They are concentrated in south-eastern Brazil which suggests an environmental control. In order to understand OM stability in these soils, humic Ferralsols from three Brazilian biomes were studied, including Cerrado (savanna), subtropical forest and tropical forest. The studied soils were developed on several geological substrates, including basalt, gneiss, chamokites, phyllite and tertiary sediments. The molecular composition of the free light fraction (FLF), occluded light fraction (OLF) and 0.1 M NaOH extractable OM of samples from topsoil and subsoil from eight profiles was examined using analytical pyrolysis (pyrolysis-GC/MS). The light fraction reflects litter and charcoal, obtained by density fractionation before (FLF) and after (OLF) ultrasonic disruption; the NaOH extractable fraction (humic acid + fulvic acid) reflects more decomposed material. The chemical differences among soils from different Brazilian biomes were much smaller than the vertical gradient within each profile. The results showed that, within the light fractions, the content of which varied between 2% and 22% of the total carbon content (Ct), black carbon (BC) derived pyrolysis products showed a higher abundance in the topsoil. In the extractable OM, which varied between 46% and 88% of Ct, BC derived pyrolysis products showed a higher abundance in the subsoil. This suggests a continuous input of BC and an increase in the degree of decomposition with depth. Pyrolysis products associated with BC contributed up to 10% to the extractable pyrolysable fraction in the subsoil. The results suggest that degradation of charcoal, which is translocated to the subsoil by macroscopic soil organisms, results in a relative high contribution from naphthalene, 2-ethenylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, benzene, dibenzofuran and benzonitrile (subsoil) compared to (other) polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; C1-, C2- and C3-naphthalenes and fluorene) in relatively fresh charcoal (topsoil). The results highlight the importance of the subsoil in studies of the long term effects of fire on soil OM and suggest that BC is an important factor that underlies carbon stability in humic Ferralsols
    Non-destructive detection of flawed hazelnut kernels and lipid oxidation assessment using NIR spectroscopy
    Pannico, A. ; Schouten, R.E. ; Basile, B. ; Woltering, E.J. ; Cirillo, C. - \ 2015
    Journal of Food Engineering 160 (2015). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 42 - 48.
    corylus-avellana l. - fatty-acid-composition - near-infrared spectroscopy - reflectance spectroscopy - vis/nir spectroscopy - chemical-composition - quality - storage - fungal - seeds
    Microbial contamination, seed browning, bad taste and lipid oxidation are primary causes of quality deterioration in stored hazelnuts, affecting their marketability. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to detect flawed kernels and estimate lipid oxidation in in-shell and shelled hazelnuts was investigated. ‘Mortarella’ hazelnuts were measured twice by NIR spectroscopy, first in-shell, and then as kernels. Afterwards, the kernels were evaluated visually, externally and internally, and by sensory evaluation with a subsequent measurement of fat oxidation. A satisfactory PLS model was created for the detection of flawed kernels. For lipid oxidation estimation the best performance of PLS models was obtained by first removing the flawed kernels from the calibration set. The PLS model for the K232 extinction coefficient, that is indicative of lipid primary oxidation, was able to predict K232 for both in-shell (R2 = 0.79) and shelled (R2 = 0.85) hazelnuts. Our results suggest, for shelled hazelnuts, a two-step NIR procedure: a first PLS model to detect and separate flawed kernels and then a second PLS model to grade healthy kernels by lipid oxidation levels.
    Fungal treated lignocellulosic biomass as ruminant feed ingredient: A review
    Kuijk, S.J.A. van; Sonnenberg, A.S.M. ; Baars, J.J.P. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Cone, J.W. - \ 2015
    Biotechnology Advances 33 (2015)1. - ISSN 0734-9750 - p. 191 - 202.
    white-rot fungi - solid-state fermentation - in-vitro digestibility - chromatography mass-spectrometry - spent wheat straw - oil palm fronds - pleurotus-ostreatus - ceriporiopsis-subvermispora - chemical-composition - trametes-versicolor
    In ruminant nutrition, there is an increasing interest for ingredients that do not compete with human nutrition. Ruminants are specialists in digesting carbohydrates in plant cell walls; therefore lignocellulosic biomass has potential in ruminant nutrition. The presence of lignin in biomass, however, limits the effective utilization of cellulose and hemicellulose. Currently, most often chemical and/or physical treatments are used to degrade lignin. White rot fungi are selective lignin degraders and can be a potential alternative to current methods which involve potentially toxic chemicals and expensive equipment. This review provides an overview of research conducted to date on fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ruminant feeds. White rot fungi colonize lignocellulosic biomass, and during colonization produce enzymes, radicals and other small compounds to breakdown lignin. The mechanisms on how these fungi degrade lignin are not fully understood, but fungal strain, the origin of lignocellulose and culture conditions have a major effect on the process. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Pleurotus eryngii are the most effective fungi to improve the nutritional value of biomass for ruminant nutrition. However, conclusions on the effectiveness of fungal delignification are difficult to draw due to a lack of standardized culture conditions and information on fungal strains used. Methods of analysis between studies are not uniform for both chemical analysis and in vitro degradation measurements. In vivo studies are limited in number and mostly describing digestibility after mushroom production, when the fungus has degraded cellulose to derive energy for fruit body development. Optimization of fungal pretreatment is required to shorten the process of delignification and make it more selective for lignin. In this respect, future research should focus on optimization of culture conditions and gene expression to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms involved and allow the development of superior fungal strains to degrade lignin in biomass.
    Improving the feeding value of straws with Pleurotus ostreatus
    Khan, N.A. ; Hussain, S. ; Ahmad, N. ; Alam, S. ; Bezabhi, M. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Yu, P. ; Cone, J.W. - \ 2015
    Animal Production Science 55 (2015)2. - ISSN 1836-0939 - p. 241 - 245.
    chemical-composition - wheat-straw - digestibility - fermentation - diets - fiber
    The high content of lignin in cell walls is the major limiting factor in the digestion and utilisation of cereal crop residues by ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the white rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus (P. ostreatus), to degrade lignin and to enhance the rumen degradability of maize stover, rice straw, wheat straw and their mixture in equal proportion on a dry-matter (DM) basis. Four samples of each substrate were incubated aerobically in triplicate with P. ostreatus for 0 (Control), 21, 28 and 35 days under solid-state conditions (temperature, 24°C; humidity, 70 ± 5%). The changes in chemical composition, DM and nutrient losses, and rumen fermentation characteristics using in vitro DM digestibility (DMD) and the in vitro gas-production (GP) technique were measured. The results showed that incubation with P. ostreatus decreased (P <0.001) the contents of neutral detergent fibre and lignin with a concomitant increase (P <0.001) in the contents of ash and crude protein. The losses of nutrients differed (P <0.001) among the straw types, with rice straw and maize stover showing the largest (P <0.05) lignin degradation compared to wheat and mixed straws. The DMD and 72-h cumulative GP increased (P <0.001) consistently with increasing fungal incubation period and for all substrates the highest values of DMD and GP were measured after 35 days of incubation with P. ostreatus. The lignin degradation was strongly associated with hemicellulose degradation (r = 0.71) across the various straws. Results of the present study demonstrated that incubation of low-quality crop residues with P. ostreatus under solid-state conditions upgrades their feeding value by reducing the content of lignin and increasing the content of crude protein and ruminal degradation.
    Characterization and comparison of phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and instrumental taste profile of juices from different botanical origins
    Granato, D. ; Karnopp, A.R. ; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2015
    Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 95 (2015)10. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 1997 - 2006.
    red wines - vitamin-c - chemical-composition - sensory properties - fruit juices - chemometrics - milk - proanthocyanidins - carotenoids - beverages
    BACKGROUND The European Union registered a consumption of about 10.7 billion litres of juices in 2011 and a great part of this amount is imported from other countries, which makes the monitoring of their quality essential. This work was aimed at mapping the quality of various juices from different botanical origins from instrumental taste, chemical marker and antioxidant capacity perspectives. It also characterized the individual phenolic composition of juices previously classified according to their antioxidant activity and total phenolic material level. RESULTS Overall, by using correlation analysis and chemometrics (HCA and PCA), data showed that total phenolics, specifically gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, anthocyanins, flavanols and flavonols, are the main contributors to the antioxidant activity. Elderberry and pomegranate juices presented the highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity. On the other hand, orange, apple and cranberry juices had the lowest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, DPPH and CUPRAC. CONCLUSION The use of chemometrics coupled to ANOVA seems to be a suitable approach to evaluate the quality of fruit juices from different botanical origins. Additionally, the instrumental taste profile correlated well with the chemical composition and antioxidant capacity, showing its potential application in assessing the functionality of juices
    Satellite observations indicate substantial spatiotemporal variability in biomass burning NOx emission factors for South America
    Castellanos, P. ; Boersma, K.F. ; Werf, G.R. van de - \ 2014
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14 (2014). - ISSN 1680-7316 - p. 3929 - 3943.
    ozone monitoring instrument - fire emissions - trace gases - tropospheric chemistry - chemical-composition - nitrogen-dioxide - tropical forest - b experiment - model tm5 - brazil
    Biomass burning is an important contributor to global total emissions of NOx (NO+NO2). Generally bottom-up fire emissions models calculate NOx emissions by multiplying fuel consumption estimates with static biome-specific emission factors, defined in units of grams of NO per kilogram of dry matter consumed. Emission factors are a significant source of uncertainty in bottom-up fire emissions modeling because relatively few observations are available to characterize the large spatial and temporal variability of burning conditions. In this paper we use NO2 tropospheric column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) from the year 2005 over South America to calculate monthly NOx emission factors for four fire types: deforestation, savanna/grassland, woodland, and agricultural waste burning. In general, the spatial patterns in NOx emission factors calculated in this work are consistent with emission factors derived from in situ measurements from the region but are more variable than published biome-specific global average emission factors widely used in bottom-up fire emissions inventories such as the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Satellite-based NOx emission factors also indicate substantial temporal variability in burning conditions. Overall, we found that deforestation fires have the lowest NOx emission factors, on average 30% lower than the emission factors used in GFED v3. Agricultural fire NOx emission factors were the highest, on average a factor of 1.8 higher than GFED v3 values. For savanna, woodland, and deforestation fires, early dry season NOx emission factors were a factor of ~1.5–2 higher than late dry season emission factors. A minimum in the NOx emission factor seasonal cycle for deforestation fires occurred in August, the time period of severe drought in South America in 2005, supporting the hypothesis that prolonged dry spells may lead to an increase in the contribution of smoldering combustion from large-diameter fuels, offsetting the higher combustion efficiency of dryer fine fuels. We evaluated the OMI-derived NOx emission factors with SCIAMACHY NO2 tropospheric column observations and found improved model performance in regions dominated by fire emissions.
    Critical parameters in cost-effective alkaline extraction for high protein yield from leaves
    Zhang, C. ; Sanders, J.P.M. ; Bruins, M.E. - \ 2014
    Biomass and Bioenergy 67 (2014). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 466 - 472.
    leaf protein - functional-properties - chemical-composition - amino-acids - tea-leaves - biomass - concentrate - refinery - feed
    Leaves are potential resources for feed or food, but their applications are limited due to a high proportion of insoluble protein and inefficient processing. To overcome these problems, parameters of alkaline extraction were evaluated using green tea residue (GTR). Protein extraction could be maximized to 95% of total protein, and, after precipitation by pH adjustment to 3.5, 85% of extracted protein was recovered with a purity of 52%. Temperature, NaOH amount, and extraction time are the protein yield determining parameters, while pH and volume of extraction liquid are critical parameters for production cost. The cost of energy and chemicals for producing 1 t GTR proteins is minimized to 102€, and its nutritional value is comparable to soybean protein. Furthermore, this technology was successfully applied to other sources of biomass and has potential to be used as a part of an integrated bio-refinery process.
    Comparison of plant-based expression platforms for the heterologous production of geraniol
    Vasilev, N. ; Schmitz, C. ; Dong, L. ; Ritala, A. ; Imseng, N. ; Hakkinen, S.T. ; Krol, A.R. van der; Eibl, R. ; Oksman-Caldentey, K.M. ; Bouwmeester, H.J. ; Fischer, R. ; Schillberg, S. - \ 2014
    Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture: an international journal on in vitro culture of higher plants 117 (2014)3. - ISSN 0167-6857 - p. 373 - 380.
    mevalonate kinase-deficiency - pelargonium-graveolens - chemical-composition - catharanthus-roseus - response factor - mentha-spicata - essential oils - sweet basil - mouse model - biosynthesis
    We compared the ability of different plant-based expression platforms to produce geraniol, a key metabolite in the monoterpenoid branch of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis pathway. A geraniol synthase gene isolated from Valeriana officinalis (VoGES) was stably expressed in different tobacco systems. Intact plants were grown in vitro and in the greenhouse and were used to generate cell suspension and hairy root cultures. VoGES was also transiently expressed in N. benthamiana. The highest geraniol content was produced by intact transgenic plants grown in vitro (48 µg/g fresh weight, fw), followed by the transient expression system (27 µg/g fw), transgenic plants under hydroponic conditions in the greenhouse and cell suspension cultures (16 µg/g fw), and finally hairy root cultures (9 µg/g fw). Differences in biomass production and the duration of cultivation resulted in a spectrum of geraniol productivities. Cell suspension cultures achieved a geraniol production rate of 1.8 µg/g fresh biomass per day, whereas transient expression produced 5.9 µg/g fresh biomass per day (if cultivation prior to agroinfiltration is ignored) or 0.5 µg/g fresh biomass per day (if cultivation prior to agroinfiltration is included). The superior productivity, strict process control and simple handling procedures available for transgenic cell suspension cultures suggest that cells are the most promising system for further optimization and ultimately for the scaled-up production of geraniol
    Capturing flavors from Capsicum baccatum by introgression in sweet pepper
    Eggink, P.M. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Maliepaard, C.A. ; Haanstra, J.P.W. ; Rooij, H. de; Vogelaar, A. ; Gutteling, E.W. ; Freymark, G. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Visser, R.G.F. - \ 2014
    Theoretical and Applied Genetics 127 (2014)2. - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 373 - 390.
    plastid compartment size - lycopersicon-esculentum - volatile compounds - anthracnose resistance - chemical-composition - gas-chromatography - sensory evaluation - mass-spectrometry - candidate gene - essential oils
    The species Capsicum baccatum includes the most common hot peppers of the Andean cuisine, known for their rich variation in flavors and aromas. So far the C. baccatum genetic variation remained merely concealed for Capsicum annuum breeding, due to post-fertilization genetic barriers encountered in interspecific hybridization. However, to exploit the potential flavor wealth of C. baccatum we combined interspecific crossing with embryo rescue, resulting in a multi-parent BC2S1 population. Volatile and non-volatile compounds plus some physical characters were measured in mature fruits, in combination with taste evaluation by a sensory panel. An enormous variation in biochemical composition and sensory attributes was found, with almost all traits showing transgression. A population-specific genetic linkage map was developed for QTL mapping. BC2S1 QTLs were validated in an experiment with near-isogenic lines, resulting in confirmed genetic effects for physical, biochemical and sensory traits. Three findings are described in more detail: (1) A small C. baccatum LG3 introgression caused an extraordinary effect on flavor, resulting in significantly higher scores for the attributes aroma, flowers, spices, celery and chives. In an attempt to identify the responsible biochemical compounds few consistently up- and down-regulated metabolites were detected. (2) Two introgressions (LG10.1 and LG1) had major effects on terpenoid content of mature fruits, affecting at least 15 different monoterpenes. (3) A second LG3 fragment resulted in a strong increase in Brix without negative effects on fruit size. The mapping strategy, the potential application of studied traits and perspectives for breeding are discussed.
    The Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia
    Gkogka, E. ; Hazeleger, W.C. ; Posthumus, M.A. ; Beumer, R.R. - \ 2013
    Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants 16 (2013)6. - ISSN 0972-060X - p. 714 - 729.
    plant essential oils - tea tree oil - escherichia-coli o157-h7 - helicobacter-pylori - mastic gum - listeria-monocytogenes - chemical-composition - in-vitro - antibacterial activity - staphylococcus-aureus
    The essential oil of the resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia (mastic oil) was studied in vitro against a wide range of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms with a diffusion and a dilution method. Furthermore its chemical composition was analyzed by means of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and the possibility of using the essential oil in food preservation was discussed. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of mastic oil were estimated for 6 species of bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus), 2 species of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii) and 3 species of fungi (Penicillium roquefortii, Aspergillus flavus and Eurotium amstelodami). GC-MS analysis revealed a chemotype dominated by monoterpenes, principally alpha-pinene and beta-myrcene comprising more than 90 % of the mastic oil. Both methods showed Cl. perfringens as the most susceptible microorganism followed by S. cerevisiae and Z. bailii. With the exception of C. jejuni, Gram-positive were found to be more susceptible to the essential oil than Gram-negative microorganisms and all fungi appeared very resistant to mastic oil. Based on the observed MICs, the contribution of mastic oil to the preservation of bakery/confectionary products at the amounts currently used for flavoring purposes is likely to be negligible.
    Lead binding to soil fulvic and humic acids: NICA-Donnan modeling and XAFS spectroscopy
    Xiong, J. ; Koopal, L.K. ; Tan, W. ; Fang, L. ; Wang, W. ; Zhao, W. ; Liu, T. ; Zhang, J. ; Weng, L. - \ 2013
    Environmental Science and Technology 47 (2013)20. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 11634 - 11642.
    natural organic-matter - metal-ion binding - conditional affinity spectra - ombrotrophic peat bog - proton binding - chemical-composition - contaminated soils - cation-binding - molecular-size - substances
    Binding of lead (Pb) to soil fulvic acid (JGFA), soil humic acids (JGHA, JLHA), and lignite-based humic acid (PAHA) was investigated through binding isotherms and XAFS. Pb binding to humic substances (HS) increased with increasing pH and decreasing ionic strength. The NICA-Donnan model described Pb binding to the HS satisfactorily. The comparison of the model parameters showed substantial differences in median Pb affinity constants among JGFA, PAHA, and the soil HAs. Milne’s “generic” parameters did not provide an adequate prediction for the soil samples. The Pb binding prediction with generic parameters for the soil HAs was improved significantly by using the value nPb1 = 0.92 instead of the generic value nPb1 = 0.60. The nPb1/nH1 ratios obtained were relatively high, indicating monodentate Pb binding to the carboxylic-type groups. The nPb2/nH2 ratios depended somewhat on the method of optimization, but the values were distinctly lower than the nPb1/nH1 ratios, especially when the optimization was based on Pb bound vs log [Pb2+]. These low values indicate bidentate binding to the phenolic-type groups at high Pb concentration. The NICA-Donnan model does not consider bidentate binding of Pb to a carboxylic- and a phenolic-type group. The EXAFS results at high Pb loading testified that Pb was bound in bidentate complexes of one carboxylic and one phenolic group (salicylate-type) or two phenolic groups (catechol-type) in ortho position.
    Factors Causing Compositional Changes in Soy Protein Hydrolysates and Effects on Cell Culture Functionality
    Gupta, A.J. ; Gruppen, H. ; Maes, D. ; Boots, J.W. ; Wierenga, P.A. - \ 2013
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61 (2013)45. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 10613 - 10625.
    hamster ovary cells - recombinant therapeutic protein - maillard reaction-products - metabolic flux analysis - in-vitro digestibility - amino-acids - trypsin-inhibitor - soybean meals - cho-cells - chemical-composition
    Soy protein hydrolysates significantly enhance cell growth and recombinant protein production in cell cultures. The extent of this enhancement in cell growth and IgG production is known to vary from batch to batch. This can be due to differences in the abundance of different classes of compounds (e.g., peptide content), the quality of these compounds (e.g., glycated peptides), or the presence of specific compounds (e.g., furosine). These quantitative and qualitative differences between batches of hydrolysates result from variation in the seed composition and seed/meal processing. Although a considerable amount of literature is available that describes these factors, this knowledge has not been combined in an overview yet. The aim of this review is to identify the most dominant factors that affect hydrolysate composition and functionality. Although there is a limited influence of variation in the seed composition, the overview shows that the qualitative changes in hydrolysate composition result in the formation of minor compounds (e.g., Maillard reaction products). In pure systems, these compounds have a profound effect on the cell culture functionality. This suggests that the presence of these compounds in soy protein hydrolysates may affect hydrolysate functionality as well. This influence on the functionality can be of direct or indirect nature. For instance, some minor compounds (e.g., Maillard reaction products) are cytotoxic, whereas other compounds (e.g., phytates) suppress protein hydrolysis during hydrolysate production, resulting in altered peptide composition, and, thus, affect the functionality.
    Passage of stable isotope-labeled grass silage fiber and fiber-bound protein through the gastroinstestinal tract of dairy cows
    Warner, D. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Pellikaan, W.F. - \ 2013
    Journal of Dairy Science 96 (2013)12. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 7904 - 7917.
    neutral detergent fiber - fresh perennial ryegrass - small-particle kinetics - in-sacco degradation - organic-matter - rumen fermentation - chemical-composition - nitrogen-fertilizer - digestion processes - physical structure
    Fractional passage rates are required to predict nutrient absorption in ruminants but data on nutrient-specific passage kinetics are largely lacking. With the use of the stable isotope ratio (d) as an internal marker, we assessed passage kinetics of fiber and fiber-bound nitrogen (N) of intrinsically labeled grass silage from fecal and omasal excretion patterns of d13C and d15N. In a 6 × 6 Latin square, lactating dairy cows received grass silages [455 g/kg of total diet dry matter (DM) ] in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement from ryegrass swards fertilized at low (45 kg of N/ha) or high (90 kg of N/ha) levels of N and harvested at 3 maturity stages. Feed intake (16.7 ± 0.48 kg of DM/d; mean ± standard error of the mean) and milk yield (26.7 ± 0.92 kg/d) increased at the high level of N fertilization and at decreasing maturity. Nutrient digestibility decreased with increasing plant maturity, particularly at the high level of N fertilization, essentially reflecting dietary treatment effects on the nutritional composition of the grass silage. Fractional rumen passage rates (K1) were highest and total mean retention time in the gastrointestinal tract (TMRT) was lowest when based on the external marker chromium mordanted fiber (Cr-NDF; 0.047/h and 38.0 h, respectively). Fecal d13C in the acid detergent fiber fraction (13CADF) provided the lowest K1 (0.023/h) and the highest TMRT (61.1 h) and highest peak concentration time (PCT; 24.3 h) among markers. In comparison, fecal fiber-bound N (15NADF) had a considerably higher K1 (0.032/h) and lower TMRT (46.4 h) than 13CADF. Total N (measured with 15NDM) had a comparable K1 (0.034/h) to that of 15NADF but provided the highest fractional passage rates from the proximal colon-cecum (K2; 0.37/h) and lowest PCT (17.4 h) among markers. A literature review indicated unclear effects of grass silage maturity on K1 and unknown effects of N fertilization on K1. Our study indicated no effect of advancing maturity on fecal K1 and a trend for K1 to increase with the high level of N fertilization. Parameter K2 increased, whereas PCT and TMRT generally decreased with the high level of N fertilization. Omasal digesta sampling largely confirmed results based on fecal sampling. Results indicate that the use of d13C and d15N can describe fiber-specific passage kinetics of forage.
    Safety of Novel Protein Sources (Insects, Microalgae, Seaweed, Duckweed, and Rapeseed) and Legislative Aspects for Their Application in Food and Feed Production
    Spiegel, M. van der; Noordam, M.Y. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2013
    Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 12 (2013)6. - ISSN 1541-4337 - p. 662 - 678.
    culturing aquatic organisms - cross-reactive allergen - sludge-grown algae - lemna-minor l. - heavy-metals - chemical-composition - atopic-dermatitis - edible insects - oilseed rape - turnip rape
    Novel protein sources (like insects, algae, duckweed, and rapeseed) are expected to enter the European feed and food market as replacers for animal-derived proteins. However, food safety aspects of these novel protein sources are not well-known. The aim of this article is to review the state of the art on the safety of major novel protein sources for feed and food production, in particular insects, algae (microalgae and seaweed), duckweed, and rapeseed. Potential hazards for these protein sources are described and EU legislative requirements as regard to food and feed safety are explained. Potential hazards may include a range of contaminants, like heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticide residues, as well as pathogens. Some safety aspects of novel protein sources are intrinsic to the product, but many potential hazards can also be due to production methods and processing conditions. These aspects should be considered in advance during product development. European law is unclear on several issues regarding the use of novel protein sources in food and feed products. For food product applications, the most important question for food producers is whether or not the product is considered a novel food. One of the major unclarities for feed applications is whether or not products with insects are considered animal-derived products or not. Due to the unclarities in European law, it is not always clear which Regulation and maximum levels for contaminants apply. For market introduction, European legislation should be adjusted and clarified.
    Nutrients and non-nutrients composition and bioactivity of wild and cultivated Coprinus comatus (O.F.Müll.) Pers.
    Stojkovic, D. ; Reis, F.S. ; Barros, L. ; Glamoclija, J. ; Ciric, A. ; Griensven, L.J.L.D. van; Sokovic, M. ; Ferreira, I.C.F.R. - \ 2013
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 59 (2013). - ISSN 0278-6915 - p. 289 - 296.
    antioxidant properties - edible mushrooms - chemical-composition - nutritional-value - mycelia - cells - broth - mice - cap
    Mushrooms have been reported as sources of biomolecules with various potential. Coprinus comatus was studied to obtain information about this species, comparing cultivated and wild samples. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids and phenolic acids were analyzed by chromatographic techniques coupled to different detectors. C. comatus methanolic extract was tested for its antioxidant potential (reducing power, radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and antimicrobial properties (tested towards Gram positive and negative bacteria, and microfungi). The toxicity for liver cells was tested in porcine liver primary cells. Both studied samples revealed similar nutritional value and energy contribution. The cultivated sample revealed the highest content in free sugars, monounsaturated fatty acids and tocopherols, while the wild mushroom was richer in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, organic acids and phenolic compounds. The cultivated species also revealed the highest antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity (with exception towards Gram negative bacteria and Aspergillus ochraceus). Both species revealed no toxicity towards porcine liver cells. The present study proved that cultivated and wild mushrooms from the same species could be excellent options as food and as sources of nutritional and bioactive compounds. Furthermore, differences in wild and cultivated samples were comparatively investigated for the first time.
    Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis): a seed source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, phytoserols, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity
    Chirinos, R. ; Zuloeta, G. ; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P. - \ 2013
    Food Chemistry 141 (2013)3. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 1732 - 1739.
    chemical-composition - oxidative stability - united-states - l. seeds - oil - foods - spectroscopy - cultivars - flaxseed - assay
    Fatty acids (FA), phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic ORAC antioxidant capacities were evaluated in 16 cultivars of Sacha inchi (SI) seeds with the aim to valorise them and offer more information on the functional properties of SI seeds. A high a linolenic (a-Ln) fatty acid content was found in all cultivars (¿3, 12.8–16.0 g/100 g seed), followed by linoleic (L) fatty acid (¿6, 12.4–14.1 g/100 g seed). The ratio ¿6/¿3 was within the 0.83–1.09 range. ¿- and d-tocopherols were the most important tocopherols, whereas the most representative phytosterols were ß-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Contents of total phenolics, total carotenoids and hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities ranged from 64.6 to 80 mg of gallic acid equivalent/100 g seed; from 0.07 to 0.09 mg of ß-carotene equivalent/100 g of seed; from 4.3 to 7.3 and, from 1.0 to 2.8 µmol of Trolox equivalent/g of seed, respectively, among the evaluated SI cultivars. Results showed significant differences (p <0.05) among the evaluated SI cultivars in the contents of ¿3, ¿6, antioxidant capacities and other evaluated phytochemicals. SI seeds should be considered as an important dietary source of health promoting phytochemicals.
    Physiological mechanisms in plant growth models: do we need a supra-cellular systems biology approach?
    Poorter, H. ; Anten, N.P.R. ; Marcelis, L.F.M. - \ 2013
    Plant, Cell & Environment 36 (2013)9. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 1673 - 1690.
    nitrogen-use efficiency - net assimilation rate - leaf-area - elevated co2 - carbon gain - tomato plants - gas-exchange - chemical-composition - biomass production - critical-appraisal
    In the first part of this paper, we review the extent to which various types of plant growth models incorporate ecophysiological mechanisms. Many growth models have a central role for the process of photosynthesis; and often implicitly assume C-gain to be the rate-limiting step for biomass accumulation. We subsequently explore the extent to which this assumption actually holds and under what condition constraints on growth due to a limited sink strength are likely to occur. By using generalized dose–response curves for growth with respect to light and CO2, models can be tested against a benchmark for their overall performance. In the final part, a call for a systems approach at the supra-cellular level is made. This will enable a better understanding of feedbacks and trade-offs acting on plant growth and its component processes. Mechanistic growth models form an indispensable element of such an approach and will, in the end, provide the link with the (sub-)cellular approaches that are yet developing. Improved insight will be gained if model output for the various physiological processes and morphological variables (‘virtual profiling’) is compared with measured correlation networks among these processes and variables. Two examples of these correlation networks are presented
    Comparative analyses of seeds of wild fruits or Rubus and Sambucus species from Southern Italy: fatty acid composition of the oil, total phenolic content, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the methanolic extracts
    Fazio, A. ; Plastina, P. ; Meijerink, J. ; Witkamp, R.F. ; Gabriele, B. - \ 2013
    Food Chemistry 140 (2013)4. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 817 - 824.
    chemical-composition - bioactive compounds - berry fruits - nitric-oxide - capacity - inhibition - anthocyanins - cultivar - disease - health
    Fruit seeds are byproducts from fruit processing. Characterisation of the bioactive compounds present in seeds and evaluation of their potential biological properties is therefore of particular importance in view of a possible valorisation of seeds as a source of health beneficial components. In this work, we have analysed the seeds of Sambucus and Rubus species in order to identify their bioactive components and to determine the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts. We first analysed their oil content, in order to assess the fatty acid profile and tocopherol content. Moreover, the methanolic extracts of the seeds were analysed for their total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities. Polyphenols were identified by HPLC–ESI–MS/MS analysis. Furthermore, extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the production of LPS-induced inflammatory mediators (NO, CCL-20) in RAW 264.7 cells. Our findings show that the methanolic extracts from Rubus seeds have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and could therefore represent an attractive source of bioactive compounds for food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutical applications.
    Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security.
    Huis, A. van - \ 2013
    Annual Review of Entomology 58 (2013). - ISSN 0066-4170 - p. 563 - 583.
    black soldier fly - greenhouse-gas emissions - edible insects - escherichia-coli - imbrasia-belina - climate-change - fish-meal - chemical-composition - infectious-diseases - processing methods
    With a growing world population and increasingly demanding consumers, the production of sufficient protein from livestock, poultry, and fish represents a serious challenge for the future. Approximately 1,900 insect species are eaten worldwide, mainly in developing countries. They constitute quality food and feed, have high feed conversion ratios, and emit low levels of greenhouse gases. Some insect species can be grown on organic side streams, reducing environmental contamination and transforming waste into high-protein feed that can replace increasingly more expensive compound feed ingredients, such as fish meal. This requires the development of cost-effective, automated mass-rearing facilities that provide a reliable, stable, and safe product. In the tropics, sustainable harvesting needs to be assured and rearing practices promoted, and in general, the food resource needs to be revalorized. In the Western world, consumer acceptability will relate to pricing, perceived environmental benefits, and the development of tasty insect-derived protein products.
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