Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Lignine : groene grondstof voor chemicaliën en materialen
    Dam, Jan van; Harmsen, Paulien ; Bos, Harriëtte ; Gosselink, Richard - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Groene grondstoffen ) - ISBN 9789463430197 - 54
    lignine - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - toepassingen - bioraffinage - productieprocessen - lignin - biobased chemicals - biobased economy - applications - biorefinery - production processes
    De mogelijkheden voor het gebruik van lignine worden in dit boekje toegelicht. Deze uitgave heeft als doel meer informatie te geven over de eigenschappen van lignine en de vele mogelijkheden die lignine biedt als grondstof voor chemicaliën en materialen voor de biobased economy.
    Biobased itaconzuur en methacrylzuur : Chemische bouwstenen van de toekomst
    Es, D.S. van - \ 2016
    Fluids Processing Benelux (2016)4. - ISSN 1874-7914 - p. 46 - 47.
    biobased economy - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - zuren - biomassa - glucose - biochemie - biobased economy - biobased chemistry - biobased chemicals - acids - biomass - glucose - biochemistry
    Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research is van plan een flinke stap te zetten in de productie van biobased itaconzuur en methacrylzuur. Deze zuren kunnen bouwstenen zijn voor hoogwaardige materialen, zoals biobased verf en drukinkt. De stoffen worden geproduceerd uit biomassa (glucose) en vormen alternatieven voor fossiele grondstoffen. Voor verdere ontwikkeling wordt samengewerkt met de Amerikaanse agrifoodproducent Archer Daniels Midland, leverancier voor de verfindustrie EOC Belgium en de Nederlandse verfproducent Van Wijhe Verf. Daan van Es, is senioronderzoeker bij Wageningen UR en treedt op als projectleider.
    Inhoudsstoffen - Waarde van inhoudsstoffen : Kennisclip Bogo-project e-learning
    Baltissen, A.H.M.C. - \ 2016
    Groen Kennisnet
    plant composition - plant extracts - economic viability - biobased chemicals - biobased economy - horticulture - teaching materials - plantensamenstelling - plantextracten - economische haalbaarheid - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - tuinbouw - lesmaterialen
    Deze kennisclip maakt onderdeel uit van de lesmodule Biobased Economy van het CIV T&U.
    Inhoudsstoffen - Wat zijn inhoudsstoffen? : Kennisclip Bogo-project e-learning
    Baltissen, A.H.M.C. - \ 2016
    Groen Kennisnet
    plantensamenstelling - plantextracten - biomassa - biobased economy - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - lesmaterialen - tuinbouw - plant composition - plant extracts - biomass - biobased economy - biobased chemicals - teaching materials - horticulture
    Deze kennisclip maakt onderdeel uit van de lesmodule Biobased Economy van het CIV T&U.
    Development of a lactic acid production process using lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock
    Pol, E.C. van der - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Eggink, co-promotor(en): Ruud Weusthuis. - Wageningen : s.n. - ISBN 9789462576735 - 167
    lignocellulose - biomass - biobased chemicals - sugarcane bagasse - lactic acid - sugars - byproducts - inhibitors - pretreatment - bacillus coagulans - furfural - saccharification - fermentation - quantitative techniques - production processes - lignocellulose - biomassa - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - suikerrietbagasse - melkzuur - suikers - bijproducten - remmers - voorbehandeling - bacillus coagulans - furfural - versuikering - fermentatie - kwantitatieve technieken - productieprocessen

    The availability of crude oil is finite. Therefore, an alternative feedstock has to be found for the production of fuels and plastics. Lignocellulose is such an alternative feedstock. It is present in large quantities in agricultural waste material such as sugarcane bagasse.

    In this PhD thesis, lignocellulose is chemically and enzymatically pretreated to depolymerise sugars present in this structure. The released sugar monomers are fermented by micro-organisms to lactic acid, which is a precursor for the bioplastic PLA. In this thesis, it is shown that it is possible to produce lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass with high yields and high productivities.

    Plants4Cosmetics : perspectives for plant ingredients in cosmetics
    Boeriu, C.G. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1603) - 38
    cosmetics - plants - flavonoids - phenols - pigments - plant pigments - polysaccharides - geranium - hyacinthus - chrysanthemum - orchidaceae - skin - hair - oil plants - medicinal plants - natural products - biobased chemicals - biobased economy - cosmetica - planten - flavonoïden - fenolen - pigmenten - plantenpigmenten - polysacchariden - geranium - hyacinthus - chrysanthemum - orchidaceae - huid - haar - olieleverende planten - medicinale planten - natuurlijke producten - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy
    In opdracht van Bio Base Westland en de TKI Tuinbouw Koepel PPS Plantenstoffen, heeft Wageningen UR – Food & Biobased Research een exploratieve desktop studie uitgevoerd gericht op de identificatie van veelbelovende routes voor de valorisatie van plantinhoudstoffen - waaronder ook reststromen uit de tuinbouw - voor de cosmetische industrie. Een uitgebreide analyse van de beschikbare informatie werd uitgevoerd om de mogelijkheden voor de Nederlandse tuinbouwsector te bepalen. Er is gekeken naar marktkansen in de cosmetische industrie met inbegrip van natuurlijke en biologische ingrediënten.
    Isolation, characterization and engineering of Bacillus smithii : a novel thermophilic platform organism for green chemical production
    Bosma, E.F. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Willem de Vos; John van der Oost, co-promotor(en): Richard van Kranenburg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575073 - 220
    bacillus smithii - bacillus (bacteria) - biobrandstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - thermofielen - metabolische profilering - genoomanalyse - mutaties - isolatie - bioengineering - karakterisering - bacillus smithii - bacillus (bacteria) - biofuels - biobased chemicals - thermophiles - metabolic profiling - genome analysis - mutations - isolation - bioengineering - characterization

    Due to the globally increasing demand for chemicals and fuels and the high environmental impact and limited amount of fossil resources, there is a growing interest in green chemicals and fuels derived from renewable resources. As described in Chapter 1, one of the most feasible alternatives on the short term is microbial conversion of the sugars in biomass to fuels and chemicals in a biorefinery. To be economically and ethically feasible, non-food biomass should be used as a resource, which is often difficult with currently used production organisms. Also, to be economically feasible, the costs of green chemicals and fuels need to be further reduced to be below the costs of products based on fossil resources. To do so, other organisms than the currently most-used platform organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae should be used. Ideally, this alternative organism is genetically accessible, has high productivity, titre and yield, is flexible in carbon source, robust, moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, facultatively anaerobic and has little nutritional requirements. The organisms that come closest to these criteria are thermophilic bacilli, which form a diverse class of organisms in the family of Bacillaceae. This thesis describes the isolation, characterization and metabolic engineering of Bacillus smithii, a novel potential thermophilic platform organism.

    Chapter 2 provides more detail on the use of thermophilic microorganisms as platform organisms for green chemical production in a biorefinery concept. As commercially available enzyme mixtures used in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of biomass have their optimum temperature around 50-60°C, using a moderately thermophilic organism would reduce the costs of the SSF process compared to when using mesophiles by reducing the amount of required enzyme. Also, thermophilic processes are less prone to contaminations, and substrate and product solubility are increased. Several successful examples of the application of facultatively anaerobic thermophiles for green chemical production from lignocellulose in an SSF setting are for example Bacillus coagulans for lactic acid production and Bacillus licheniformis for 2,3-butanediol production. However, whereas strongly developed genetic toolboxes are available for current mesophilic production organisms, these tools are still in their infancy for thermophilic organisms. Such tools are required to optimize production and to study metabolism. Thermophilic organisms show a wide variety in metabolism and in many cases the metabolism of these organisms is still poorly understood, hampering full optimization. Chapter 2 furthermore provides an overview of transformation, integration and counter-selection methods currently used for thermophiles. Although several deletion mutants have been constructed using these methods, not all of them are entirely markerless and most are not suited as high-throughput engineering tools, stressing the need for further research in this area.

    Despite several facultatively anaerobic thermophiles being described as genetically accessible, this feature is still one the major bottlenecks in developing these organisms into platform organisms. Therefore, in Chapter 3, we set out to isolate a facultatively anaerobic, moderately thermophilic bacterium that was genetically accessible and produced high titers of organic acids. A total of 267 strains of different thermophilic bacilli species were isolated from compost and screened for C5 and C6 sugar utilization and acid production. The 44 best strains were screened for genetic accessibility via electroporation. Only 3 strains tested positive for this, namely Geobacillus thermodenitrificans strains ET 144-2 and ET 251 and B. smithii strain ET 138. In subsequent evaluations in lab-scale bioreactors at 55°C and pH 6.5 on glucose, the two G. thermodenitrificans strains performed poorly whereas B. smithii performed well with high titers, yields and productivity of mainly lactate. In similar lab-scale reactors, this strain also performed well on xylose and at pH 5.5 and was still able to perform for 48 at pH 4.5. The electroporation protocol for this strain was optimized, resulting in a maximum efficiency of 5x103 colonies per µg plasmid pNW33n. Two other B. smithii strains, among which the type strain DSM 4216T, were also shown to be transformable with pNW33n. This is the first time that genetic accessibility is described for B. smithii and it is the first step towards developing it into a platform organism, for which it appears to be suitable based on its efficient C5 and C6 sugar utilization and acid production profile.

    In order to become a platform organism and to study its atypical metabolism, a genetic toolbox needs to be established for B. smithii. Chapter 5 describes the development of a markerless gene deletion method for B. smithii. For strains ET 138 and DSM 4216T, the ldhL gene was markerlessly removed via double homologous recombination using plasmid pNW33n. Despite the replicative nature of this plasmid at 55°C, mixtures of single and double crossovers were readily obtained. A pure double crossover deletion mutant was obtained after several transfers on a more defined medium containing acetate or lactate and PCR-based screenings. To eliminate the possibility of mixed genotypes, we subsequently developed a lacZ-counter-selection system, which is based on the toxicity of high X-gal concentrations in the presence of the plasmid-encoded lacZ gene. Using this method, the sporulation-specific sigma factor sigF and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1-α pdhA were consecutively removed from the B. smithii ET 138 genome in a markerless way. An initial evaluation of the growth and production profiles of the mutant strains in tubes showed that removal of the ldhL gene eliminates l-lactate production and causes a severe decrease in anaerobic growth and production capacities. B. smithii mutants lacking the sigF gene were unable to sporulate and removal of the pdhA gene eliminated acetate production and rendered the strains auxotrophic for acetate.

    From the Sugar Platform to biofuels and biochemicals : Final report for the European Commission Directorate-General Energy
    Taylor, R. ; Nattrass, L. ; Alberts, G. ; Robson, P. ; Chudziak, C. ; Bauen, A. ; Libelli, I.M. ; Lotti, G. ; Prussi, M. ; Nistri, R. ; Chiaramonti, D. ; lópez-Contreras, A.M. ; Bos, H.L. ; Eggink, G. ; Springer, J. ; Bakker, R. ; Ree, R. van - \ 2015
    E4tech/Re-CORD/Wageningen UR - 183
    chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - gevalsanalyse - suiker - chemische industrie - europa - karteringen - biobased economy - biobased chemistry - biobased chemicals - case studies - sugar - chemical industry - europe - surveys - biobased economy
    Numerous potential pathways to biofuels and biochemicals exist via the sugar platform1. This study uses literature surveys, market data and stakeholder input to provide a comprehensive evidence base for policymakers and industry – identifying the key benefits and development needs for the sugar platform. The study created a company database for 94 sugar-based products, with some already commercial, the majority at research/pilot stage, and only a few demonstration plants crossing the “valley of death”. Case studies describe the value proposition, market outlook and EU activity for ten value chains (acrylic, adipic & succinic acids, FDCA, BDO, farnesene, isobutene, PLA, PHAs and PE). Most can deliver significant greenhouse savings and drop-in (or improved) properties, but at an added cost to fossil alternatives. Whilst significant progress has been made, research barriers remain around lignocellulosic biomass fractionation, product separation energy, biological inhibition, chemical selectivity and monomer purity, plus improving whole chain process integration. An assessment of EU competitiveness highlights strengths in R&D, but a lack of strong commercial activity, due to the US, China and Brazil having more attractive feedstock and investment conditions. Further policy development, in particular for biochemicals, will be required to realise a competitive European sugar-based bioeconomy.
    High-performance inhoudsstoffen vinden hun weg naar de markt
    Meer, I.M. van der; Vollebregt, M. - \ 2015
    Kennis & Innovatie (2015)3. - p. 2 - 4.
    biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - plantextracten - rubber - reststromen - kleurstoffen (dyes) - plantaardige pesticiden - innovaties - biobased economy - biobased materials - biobased chemicals - plant extracts - rubber - residual streams - dyes - botanical pesticides - innovations
    High-performance inhoudsstoffen uit biomassa ontstijgen de onderzoekslaboratoria en duiken op in proefprojecten met bedrijven en concrete toepassingen in eindproducten. Het tempo waarmee dit gebeurt en de onderliggende markt drivers verschillen per productgebied, zo blijkt uit een rondje langs biobased projecten op het gebied van kleurstoffen, farmaceutische producten/functional foods, gewasbescherming en natuurrubber.
    Twee vliegen in één klap : duurzame vervangers voor zorgwekkende stoffen zijn kansrijk
    Zundert, M. van; Es, D.S. van - \ 2015
    Chemie Magazine 57 (2015)7/8. - ISSN 1572-2996 - p. 28 - 29.
    chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - marktverkenningen - vervangmiddelen - chemicaliën - biobased chemicals - biobased economy - market surveys - substitutes - chemicals
    De lijst van zeer zorgwekkende stoffen is lang. Onderzoeker Daan van Es van de Wageningen UR liep de lijst door en ziet goede kansen voor biobased vervangers.
    De lignineraffinaderij
    Didde, R. ; Gosselink, R.J.A. ; Haveren, J. van - \ 2014
    WageningenWorld 2014 (2014)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 32 - 39.
    lignine - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - bioraffinage - biomassaconversie - onderzoek - lignin - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - biobased chemicals - biorefinery - biomass conversion - research
    Lignine geeft planten stevigheid, maar deze verbinding is ook een schatkist vol waardevolle basischemicaliën. Wageningse onderzoekers maken die stap voor stap open. Een duurzaam alternatief voor aardolie is daarmee binnen handbereik.
    Chemicals from biobased feedstocks : integration on multiple length scales
    Bitter, J.H. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461739773 - 24
    biomass conversion - biobased chemicals - renewable resources - biorefinery - catalysis - catalysts - biomassaconversie - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - vervangbare hulpbronnen - bioraffinage - katalyse - katalysatoren
    RIVM ZZS-2-BIO project : the biobased replacement potential of hazardous substances
    Es, D.S. van - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research no. 1506) - ISBN 9789462573529 - 74
    chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - marktverkenningen - vervangmiddelen - chemicaliën - biobased chemicals - biobased economy - market surveys - substitutes - chemicals
    A quick scan of the ZZS (zeer zorgwekkende stoffen) list of 371 substances of very high concern shows that there is significant potential in biobased replacement of part of the list. It is shown that in many cases easily implementable biobased alternatives are already available or in advanced stages of development. However, in some cases safe, biobased alternatives are still in early development. This in spite of a growing need for replacement, as is the case for e.g. high polarity aprotic solvents such as DMF, or NMP. Since solvents like NMP enable the manufacturing of environmentally friendly water borne coatings and paints, as well as the development of various carbohydrate based materials, finding effective substitutes should be given high priority. Unfortunately, currently there are no Dutch national science programs that could support or initiate this. Also more advanced, indirect type of replacement appears feasible. An example of possible short term implementation is the partial replacement of toxic ethylene oxide for the production of ethylene glycol by the hydrogenolysis of glucose to ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. Other advanced level replacements require more time, and deeper analysis in order to assess the impact on product/value chains. A shortlist of nine substances that could be replaced by biobased alternatives on short term is also presented in this quick scan report. The suggested biobased alternatives for this shortlist are either already commercially available or close to commercialisation. This quick scan results in a number of recommendations.
    Specific conversion of amino acids as a means for their separation
    Teng, Y. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Sanders, co-promotor(en): Elinor Scott. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570658 - 205
    aminozuren - scheiding - elektrodialyse - conversie - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - onderzoek - biobased economy - amino acids - separation - electrodialysis - conversion - biobased chemicals - research - biobased economy
    Aminozuren (AZ) zijn interessante uitgangspunten voor stikstofhoudende (amine) chemicaliën. Zij kunnen gewonnen worden als mengsel uit de hydrolyse van potentieel goedkope eiwitten verkregen van de bijproducten van de biobrandstofproductie of agrarische en voedselafvalstromen. Echter, AZ verkregen van zulke bronnen bevinden zich in een mengsel. Hierdoor is een scheiding nodig om de individuele AZ te verkrijgen voor vervolgomzettingen en toepassingen. Electrodialyse (ED) is een veelbelovende scheidingsmethode die toegepast kan worden in continue modus en op grote schaal.
    Suiker als grondstof voor de Nederlandse chemische industrie; Gewassen, processen, beleid
    Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Lips, S.J.J. ; Bos, H.L. ; Smit, B. ; Berkum, S. van; Helming, J. ; Jongeneel, R. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : FBR Wageningen (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1494)
    industriële grondstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - chemische industrie - suikergewassen - biobased economy - feedstocks - biobased chemicals - chemical industry - sugar crops - biobased economy
    Suiker speelt een belangrijke rol in de biobased economy. Voor de chemische industrie kan suiker als vervanging dienen van fossiele grondstoffen voor de productie van chemicaliën en materialen zoals bioplastics. Door zeer veel partijen wordt er momenteel gewerkt aan de verdere ontwikkeling van een scala aan chemicaliën en materialen uit suikers. Dit rapport bestaat uit 2 delen: deel 1 beschrijft de potentiele vraag naar suikers voor de chemie, deel 2 beschrijft de bedrijfseconomische aspecten.
    Harry Bitter, Professor Biobased Commodity Chemistry
    Bitter, J.H. - \ 2014
    Wageningen UR
    chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - vervangbare hulpbronnen - katalyse - universitair onderzoek - biobased chemistry - biobased chemicals - biobased economy - renewable resources - catalysis - university research
    Harry Bitter, Professor Biobased Commodity Chemistry, works on more efficient, cheaper processes and catalysts to produce chemicals from biomass.
    Bamboo : Analyzing the potential of bamboo feedstock for the biobased economy
    Poppens, R.P. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Elbersen, H.W. - \ 2013
    NL Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs - 32
    bamboos - bambusa - applications - biobased economy - biobased materials - biobased chemicals - fibre plants - bamboes - bambusa - toepassingen - biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - vezelgewassen
    Bamboos are a large group of rapidly growing woody grasses, that can be sustainably managed in short-cycled harvesting schemes in many parts of the world. Bamboo stands can be managed by individual producers and its production does not require large investments. This makes bamboo an ideal crop for rural development, especially in developing countries. Bamboo plants are among the most versatile and widely utilized plants, with applications varying from edible shoots to soil protection and construction. Bamboo technical properties are also favorable for biobased applications, such as paper, bio-chemicals and bio-energy.
    Duurzaamheid van biobased producten uit plantaardige olie: energiegebruik en broeikasgasemissie
    Bos, H.L. ; Meesters, K.P.H. ; Corre, W.J. ; Conijn, J.G. ; Patel, M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - ISBN 9789461737045 - 52
    chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - biodiesel - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - levenscyclusanalyse - plantaardige oliën - energiegebruik - broeikasgassen - biobased chemicals - biobased economy - biodiesel - sustainability - life cycle assessment - plant oils - energy consumption - greenhouse gases
    Dit boek gaat in op een vergelijking van producten uit natuurlijke olie. Drie oliegewassen zijn in de studie vergeleken: oliepalm, koolzaad en soja. Uit deze gewassen kan een veelheid van biobased producten gemaakt worden: biodiesel, polyol voor polyurethaan en harsen zijn in de studie als eindproduct omschreven. Voor alle onderzochte producten geldt, dat vervanging van een fossiel product door een vergelijkbaar biobased product leidt tot een verlaging van de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en van het gebruik van fossiele energie.
    Green building blocks for biobased plastics: biobased processes and market development
    Harmsen, P.F.H. ; Hackmann, M.M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Green raw materials ) - ISBN 9789461736109 - 77
    bioplastics - biopolymeren - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - vinylkunststoffen - polyesters - amiden - polyurethanen - rubber - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - bioplastics - biopolymers - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - biobased materials - vinyl plastics - polyesters - amides - polyurethanes - rubber - biobased chemicals
    From a chemical perspective, nearly all building blocks for plastics can be made using renewable raw materials. However, not every process is commercially feasible. Processes often remain inefficient, products have insufficient purity or the raw materials are simply too expensive. This publication provides more insight into the processes that are currently under development and the companies involved, as well as the current development stage (from R&D to commercial production).
    Biobest products : openbaar eindrapport : Technische Ontwikkeling voor de Productie van Acetaatzouten als Alternatief Strooimiddel : TOPAAS
    Claassen, P.A.M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1399) - ISBN 9789461736925 - 25
    zout - zouten (activiteit) - acetaten (zouten) - productieprocessen - fermentatie - bioraffinage - chemicaliën uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - salt - salting - acetates (salts) - production processes - fermentation - biorefinery - biobased chemicals - biobased economy
    De technisch-economische evaluatie van een conceptueel calcium-magnesium-acetaat (CMA) productie proces op basis van biomassa leidt tot een minimale verkoopprijs van CMA die competitief is met de marktprijs van CMA dat uit fossiele grondstoffen is geproduceerd. Dit gunstige resultaat wordt veroorzaakt door de economische winst die verkregen wordt doordat in TOPAAS niet alleen CMA maar ook waterstof wordt geproduceerd. De geschiktheid van bermgras voor de productie van CMA en waterstof is, op kleine schaal, experimenteel bewezen. Er is een aanzet gemaakt voor de optimalisatie van de voorbehandeling. Diverse organische restfracties zoals overdatum-producten of restanten voedsel uit grootkeukens en voedingsmiddelenindustrie zijn geanalyseerd. De samenstelling ervan wijst op geschiktheid voor acetaatproductie. De fermentatieve productie van acetaat en waterstof is op continue schaal bewerkstelligd tot en met een aanvaardbare acetaat concentratie. TOPAAS is het acroniem van “Technische Ontwikkeling voor de Productie van Acetaatzouten als Alternatief Strooimiddel”.
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