A Public Survey on Handling Male Chicks in the Dutch Egg Sector
Gremmen, H.G.J. ; Bruijnis, M.R.N. ; Blok, V. ; Stassen, E.N. - \ 2018
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 31 (2018)1. - ISSN 1187-7863 - p. 93 - 107.
animal ethics - animal welfare - chicks - laying hens - public opinion
In 2035 global egg demand will have risen 50% from 1985. Because we are not able to tell in the egg whether it will become a male or female chick, billons of one day-old male chicks will be killed. International research initiatives are underway in this area, and governments encourage the development of an alternative with the goal of eliminating the culling of day-old male chicks. The Netherlands holds an exceptional position in the European egg trade, but is also the only country in the European Union where the downside of the egg sector, the practice of killing day-old male chicks, is a recurrent subject of societal debate. ‘Preventing the killing of young animals’ and ‘in ovo sex determination’ are the two alternative approaches available to solve this problem. It is clear that both approaches solve the problem of killing day-old male chicks, either by keeping them alive or by preventing them from living, but they also raise a lot of new animal welfare-related dilemmas. A thorough analysis was undertaken of these dilemmas and the results are presented in this article. The analysis resulted in an ethical framework based on the two main approaches in bioethics: a consequentialist approach and a deontological approach. This ethical framework was used to develop an online survey administered to ascertain Dutch public opinion about these alternative approaches. The results show that neither alternative will be fully accepted, or accepted by more than half of Dutch society. However, the survey does provide an insight into the motives that are important for people’s choice: food safety and a good treatment of animals. Irrespective of the approach chosen, these values should be safeguarded and communicated clearly.
Vermarkten van haantjes van legrassen
Leenstra, F.R. - \ 2017
poultry farming - killing of animals - chicks - poultry - young animals - animal welfare - animal production - animal health
Het haantje weer op de kaart
Leenstra, Ferry - \ 2016
animal welfare - animal production - chicks - hens - animal ethics - animal health
Mannelijke kuikens van legkippen leven niet langer dan een dag. Om die verspilling tegen te gaan, wordt geprobeerd het vlees van deze haantjes weer op tafel te krijgen. Met succes maar voorlopig is het beter te voorkomen dat deze haantjes het levenslicht zien.
Vermarkten van haantjes van legrassen : Samenvatting van en vervolg op rapport 739 (2013,Wageningen UR Livestock Research)
Leenstra, F.R. ; Steverink, M.H.A. ; Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 937) - 29
kuikens - hanen - hennen - slachtdieren - dubbel-doel rassen - markten - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - dierethiek - diergezondheid - chicks - cocks - hens - meat animals - dual purpose breeds - markets - animal welfare - animal production - poultry - animal ethics - animal health
Elevated levels of ingested plastic in a high Arctic seabird, the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis)
Trevail, A.M. ; Gabrielsen, G.W. ; Kühn, S. ; Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2015
Polar Biology 38 (2015)7. - ISSN 0722-4060 - p. 975 - 981.
atlantic-ocean - sea - debris - biodiversity - pacific - chicks
Plastic pollution is of worldwide concern; however, increases in international commercial activity in the Arctic are occurring without the knowledge of the existing threat posed to the local marine environment by plastic litter. Here, we quantify plastic ingestion by northern fulmars, Fulmarus glacialis, from Svalbard, at the gateway to future shipping routes in the high Arctic. Plastic ingestion by Svalbard fulmars does not follow the established decreasing trend away from human marine impact. Of 40 sampled individuals, 35 fulmars (87.5 %) had plastic in their stomachs, averaging at 0.08 g or 15.3 pieces per individual. Plastic ingestion levels on Svalbard exceed the ecological quality objective defined by OSPAR for European seas. This highlights an urgent need for mitigation of plastic pollution in the Arctic as well as international regulation of future commercial activity.
Goed kuiken uit grondei
Harn, J. van; Lourens, A. ; Brands, L. ; Sosef, M.P. - \ 2014
De Pluimveehouderij 44 (2014). - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 26 - 27.
pluimveehouderij - broedeieren - grondeieren - broedproductie - kuikens - prestatie-onderzoek - dierlijke productie - poultry farming - hatching eggs - floor eggs - brood rearing - chicks - performance testing - animal production
In onderzoek van Wageningen UR Livestock Research bleek dat de broedresultaten slechter zijn bij grondeieren, maar dat de kuikens daaruit net zo goed presteren.
Jackdaw nestlings can discriminate between conspecific calls but do not beg specifically to their parents
Zandberg, E.C.A. ; Jolles, J.W. ; Boogert, N.J. ; Thornton, A. - \ 2014
Behavioral Ecology 25 (2014)3. - ISSN 1045-2249 - p. 565 - 573.
food-caching corvids - vocal recognition - corvus-monedula - gymnorhinus-cyanocephalus - offspring recognition - tactical deception - provisioning calls - crows - chicks - young
The ability to recognize other individuals may provide substantial benefits to young birds, allowing them to target their begging efforts appropriately, follow caregivers after fledging, and establish social relationships later in life. Individual recognition using vocal cues is likely to play an important role in the social lives of birds such as corvids that provision their young postfledging and form stable social bonds, but the early development of vocal recognition has received little attention. We used playback experiments on jackdaws, a colonial corvid species, to test whether nestlings begin to recognize their parents’ calls before fledging. Although the food calls made by adults when provisioning nestlings were individually distinctive, nestlings did not beg preferentially to their parents’ calls. Ten-dayold nestlings not only responded equally to the calls of their parents, neighboring jackdaws whose calls they were likely to overhear regularly and unfamiliar jackdaws from distant nest boxes, but also to the calls of rooks, a sympatric corvid species. Responses to rooks declined substantially with age, but 20- and 28-day-old nestlings were still equally likely to produce vocal and postural begging responses to parental and nonparental calls. This is unlikely to be due to an inability to discriminate between calls, as older nestlings did respond more quickly and with greater vocal intensity to familiar calls, with some indication of discrimination between parents and neighbors. These results suggest that jackdaws develop the perceptual and cognitive resources to discriminate between conspecific calls before fledging but may not benefit from selective begging responses. Key words: begging, Corvidae, Corvus monedula, food calls, parental care, social cognition, vocal recognition.
Goed in de veren blijven
Jong, I.C. de; Gunnink, H. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Haas, E.N. de - \ 2014
De Pluimveehouderij 44 (2014)9. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 24 - 25.
pluimveehouderij - huisvesting van kippen - strooisel - verenpikken - dierenwelzijn - kuikens - hennen - diergedrag - diergezondheid - poultry farming - chicken housing - litter (plant) - feather pecking - animal welfare - chicks - hens - animal behaviour - animal health
Is jong geleerd oud gedaan? WUR Livestock Research heeft onderzoek gedaan naar het belang van strooisel en huisvesting in de opfok voor veren pikken in de vroege leg.
Marktkansen voor een combi-kip : vermarkten van haantjes van legrassen
Leenstra, F.R. - \ 2013
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 739) - 23
dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - doden van dieren - kuikens - samenleving - onderzoek - hanen - animal welfare - animal production - poultry - killing of animals - chicks - society - research - cocks
Overzicht van de kansen om haantjes van legrassen te vermarkten en van de aspecten, waarmee rekening gehouden moet worden. Haantjes kunnen een aantrekkelijk product opleveren, met culinaire meerwaarde.
In vivo screening of five phytochemicals/extracts and a fungal immunomodulatory protein against colibacillosis in broilers
Peek, H.W. ; Halkes, S.B.A. ; Mes, J.J. ; Landman, W.J.M. - \ 2013
Veterinary Quarterly 33 (2013)3. - ISSN 0165-2176 - p. 132 - 138.
dietary betaine - avian eimeria - herb polysaccharides - anticoccidial drugs - immune-responses - coccidiosis - tenella - chicks - resistance - performance
Besides the anticoccidial drug resistance problem, increasing consumer concerns about food safety and residues have propelled the quest for alternative prevention and control strategies amongst which phytotherapy has gained appeal due to a renewed interest in natural medicine.Objective: The objective was in vivo screening of four phytochemicals/extracts and a fungal immunomodulatory protein (FIP) against an Eimeria acervulina infection in broilers.Animals and methods: Four phytochemicals/extracts (extract from Echinacea purpurea, betaine (Betain™), curcumin, carvacrol (two different doses)), and a recombinant FIP from Ganoderma lucidum cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli were investigated for their anticoccidial potential. The experiment was conducted in a battery cage trial with 54 cages of eight birds each. Broilers infected with E. acervulina (a low and high infection dose of 104 and 105 sporulated oocysts, respectively) and treated with the phytochemicals/extracts or the FIP were compared with broilers treated with the anticoccidial salinomycin sodium (Sacox®) and with an untreated uninfected and an untreated infected control group. Coccidiosis lesion scores, body weight gains and oocyst shedding were used as parameters.Results: The results showed a coccidiosis infection dose effect on the mean coccidiosis lesion scores. The phytochemicals/extracts and the FIP failed to reduce coccidiosis lesion scores and oocyst shedding, while salinomycin efficiently controlled the E. acervulina infection and enabled significantly higher body weight gains.Conclusion: In conclusion, the selected phytochemicals/extracts and the FIP did not reduce the lesions of an experimentally induced E. acervulina infection.
In vivo screening of five phytochemicals/extracts and a fungal immunomodulatory protein against colibacillosis in broilers
Peek, H.W. ; Halkes, S.B.A. ; Tomassen, M.M.M. ; Mes, J.J. ; Landman, W.J.M. - \ 2013
Avian Pathology 42 (2013)3. - ISSN 0307-9457 - p. 235 - 247.
infectious-bronchitis virus - eimeria-tenella - immune-responses - dietary betaine - antimicrobial resistance - herb polysaccharides - commercial broilers - ganoderma-lucidium - escherichia-coli - chicks
Five phytochemicals/extracts (an extract from Echinacea purpurea, a ß-glucan-rich extract from Shiitake, betaine [Betain™], curcumin from Curcuma longa [turmeric] powder, carvacrol and also a recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein [FIP] from Ganoderma lucidum) cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli were investigated for their anticolibacillosis potential in three chicken experiments, which were conducted in floor pens. Birds that were inoculated with E. coli intratracheally were treated with the phytochemicals/extracts or the FIP and compared with doxycycline-medicated and non-medicated infected broilers. Non-medicated and non-infected birds were used as negative controls. Mortality, colibacillosis lesions and body weight gains were used as parameters. Considering the sum of dead birds and chickens with generalized colibacillosis per group, there was no significant difference between the positive control groups and birds treated with phytochemicals/extracts or the FIP. In contrast, doxycycline-treated birds showed significantly lower mortality and generalized colibacillosis. Moreover, none of the phytochemicals/extracts and the FIP improved recovery from colibacillosis lesions, while all doxycycline-treated broilers recovered completely. The negative control birds and doxycycline-treated groups consistently showed the highest weight gains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of reisolates showed that they were genetically indistinguishable from the inoculation strain. In conclusion, none of the tested phytochemicals/extracts and the FIP significantly reduced the E. coli-induced mortality and generalized colibacillosis, and nor did they improve recovery from colibacillosis lesions.
Effect of substrate during early rearing on floor- and feather fecking behaviour in young and adult laying hens
Jong, I.C. de; Gunnink, H. ; Rommers, J.M. ; Bracke, M.B.M. - \ 2013
Archiv für Geflügelkunde 77 (2013)1. - ISSN 0003-9098 - p. 15 - 22.
gallus-gallus-domesticus - burmese red junglefowl - ground pecking - wood-shavings - cannibalism - chicks - fowl - experience - quality
An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that providing adequate substrate to laying hens during early rearing stimulates pecking to the floor and reduces featherpecking when adult. Laying hens were either provided withwood shavings or sand from day 1 onwards or from day 21 onwards. Chicks without substrate were either reared on mesh matting or chick paper until day 21. Behaviour was observed during rearing and the production period. Moreover, feather damage was scored at the end of rearing and at 40 weeks of age. Results showed that providing substratein early rearing indeed stimulated floor pecking. At four weeks of age, more gentle feather pecking was observed when previously housed on chick paper or mesh matting as compared to continuous housing on sand or wood shavings. However, initial differences in floor- and feather peckingdisappeared with age and only some minor effects were observed at the end of rearing and during production. Atthe end of the rearing period, only the groups that were firsthoused on mesh matting and from three weeks of agehoused on sand, showed significantly more feather damage.No differences in feather damage between the treatmentswere found at 40 weeks of age. This experiment showed thatfloor pecking was stimulated in early rearing when providing substrate. Although the absence of substrate at an early age seems to stimulate gentle feather pecking in early rearing, these effects were not clearly visible at a later age. It is suggested that hens may redirect their early pecking preferenceswhen adequate pecking substrate is provided atthree weeks of age.
Effects of hatching time and hatching system on broiler chick development
Ven, L.J.F. van de - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Kemp; Peter Groot Koerkamp, co-promotor(en): Henry van den Brand; A.V. van Wagenberg. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734471 - 173
vleeskuikens - kuikens - kunstmatig bebroeden - broedmachines - postnatale ontwikkeling - broedfactoren - broedinstallaties - dierfysiologie - groei - voedering - pluimveehouderij - broilers - chicks - artificial hatching - brooders - postnatal development - hatching factors - hatcheries - animal physiology - growth - feeding - poultry farming
Key words: hatching time, hatching system, chick physiology, broiler growth, chick quality.
Chicks hatch over a time window of 24-36 hours and are only removed from the hatcher when the majority of the chicks have hatched. Especially for the early hatching chicks this leads to delays in the first feed and water access and consequently negative effects on chick development. In an alternative hatching system, named Patio, the hatching and brooding phase are combined, thereby enabling direct posthatch feed and water access. Environmental conditions in Patio differ from those in hatchers, which may further influence chick quality, physiology, and growth. Chicks hatching at different moments may respond differently to these different conditions in both hatching systems. In this thesis, the first aim was to determine effects of hatching in the Patio system on hatchability, chick quality, and growth. The second aim was to determine the physiological status of chicks of different hatching moments, in the hatcher and the Patio system, at hatch, and at chick collection (21.5 d of incubation). Effects of hatching time and moment of first feed and water access on posthatch growth were also included.
Hatchability of fertile eggs was 1.03% higher in the Patio system compared to the hatcher, which was probably due to different climate conditions during the hatching phase. At hatching, chick physiology was not clearly affected by hatching system, but effects of moment of hatching in the hatch window were clear: longer incubation times led to increased organ weights and decreased yolk weights, suggesting a higher level of maturation in late hatching chicks. At the moment of chick collection, Patio chicks, having immediate feed and water access,showed larger body and organ weights, higher hepatic glycogen reserves, higher plasma glucose and T3 levels, and lower corticosterone levels compared to hatcher chicks which were fasted between hatching and chick collection. Usinga chick qualitative score based on physical traits and the incidence of second grade chicks, chick quality was lower in Patio than in hatcher chicks. However the quality scores used were not predictive for posthatch performance. Patio chicks showed improved posthatch growth compared to hatcher chicks, which was not related to different climate conditions during hatching, but to earlier feed and water access. Apart from higher growth from d0-7 in early and midterm vs late hatching chicks, effects of hatching time on growth were not clear from this thesis.
In conclusion, despite considerable differences in climate and other environmental factors, effects of hatching system on physiology of broiler chickens at hatch and growth performance up to slaughter age are limited. Perinatal chick physiology is affected by the moment of hatching in the hatch window, and by posthatch conditions in the hatching system, especially early feed and water access.
Alternatief voor doden eendagskuikens
Woelders, H. - \ 2012
V-focus 9 (2012)5a. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 46 - 47.
pluimveehouderij - kuikens - dierenwelzijn - doden van dieren - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - hennen - diergezondheid - poultry farming - chicks - animal welfare - killing of animals - animal production - poultry - hens - animal health
Zo’n 45 miljoen eendagskuikens worden jaarlijks gedood in Nederland, omdat ze ongeschikt zijn voor de eierproductie of voor kippenvlees. Al tientallen jaren is er maatschappelijk verzet tegen. Wageningen UR zoekt sinds 2005 naar alternatieven. Een andere mogelijkheid dan het doden lijkt dichterbij te komen.
Kostprijs opfokleghen fors toegenomen : kostprijsberekening opfok van leghennen aangepast met uitgangspunten 2012
Vermeij, I. ; Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2012
De Pluimveehouderij 42 (2012)7. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 34 - 36.
pluimveehouderij - kostenanalyse - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - hennen - huisvesting van kippen - kuikens - investering - poultry farming - cost analysis - farm management - hens - chicken housing - chicks - investment
De kostprijzen liggen ruim 40 eurocent per hen hoger dan in de vorige berekening uit 2010. De kostprijs per afgeleverde hen staat in tabel 1. In de 2e tabel staan de investeringskosten per hen en de kuikenprijs. In de 3e tabel staat de gevoeligheidsanalyse kostprijs 17-weekse hen.
Enhanced catch-up growth after a challenge in animals on organic feed
Huber, M. ; Coulier, L. ; Wopereis, S. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Nierop, D. ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. - \ 2012
biologische landbouw - diergezondheid - pluimveehouderij - pluimveevoeding - kippen - kuikens - organic farming - animal health - poultry farming - poultry feeding - fowls - chicks
A feeding experiment was performed in two generations of three groups of chickens with different immune responsiveness. All groups were fed identically composed feeds from either organic or conventional production. In the young animals of the second generation an immune challenge was imposed. The chickens fed conventional feed showed overall a higher weight gain, whereas feed intake of the groups was similar. The animals on organic feed showed an enhanced immune reactivity, a stronger reaction to the immune challenge, as well as an enhanced ’catch-up-growth’ after the challenge.
Natural and human-induced predation on Cape Cormorants at Dyer Island
Voorbergen, A. ; Boer, W.F. de; Underhill, L.G. - \ 2012
Bird Conservation International 22 (2012)1. - ISSN 0959-2709 - p. 82 - 93.
arctocephalus-pusillus-pusillus - south-africa - larus-argentatus - seabird predation - human disturbance - fur seals - availability - population - refuse - chicks
To develop conservation strategies for vulnerable seabird species that need attention, it is important to know which factors influence their breeding productivity. Predation of eggs and chicks can have large influences on seabird reproduction, especially when human disturbance facilitates predation. On Dyer Island, Kelp Gulls Larus dominicanus prey on Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis eggs and chicks, whereas Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus prey on Cape Cormorant fledglings in the waters surrounding the island. Kelp Gulls were estimated to predate 3.8% of the total number of Cape Cormorant eggs and 2.0% of the chicks on the island. These percentages can be expressed as a loss of 4.8% of Cape Cormorant fledglings, which is low compared to the estimated 24.3% mortality of Cape Cormorant fledglings by Cape fur seal predation. Human disturbance facilitated Kelp Gull egg and chick predation and increased the mobbing of cormorant fledglings by Kelp Gulls. Cormorant egg predation by gulls was more frequently reported in the late afternoon. Seal predation was more abundant at the northern side of the island compared to the southern side, was recorded more frequently in the morning, and increased through the breeding season. The altered abundance and distribution of prey, the availability of suitable breeding habitat and mortality from avian cholera, have also influenced the Cape Cormorant’s population size. Hence, the possibility that Cape Cormorants may be locked in a predator-pit, where seals and gulls prevent the population from increasing in size, needs further attention.
Geen ernstig ongerief
Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van; Gunnink, H. ; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. - \ 2011
De Pluimveehouderij 41 (2011)8. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 28 - 29.
pluimveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - kuikens - hanen - dierverzorging - poultry farming - animal welfare - chicks - cocks - care of animals
In een eerste inventariserende proef heeft Livestock Research gekeken wat de impact van het dubben van kammen is op het kuiken. Het blijkt geen groot probleem voor het dier.
Anders denken, anders doen
Bos, A.P. ; Janssen, A.P.H.M. - \ 2011
De Pluimveehouderij 41 (2011)3. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 34 - 35.
dierenwelzijn - pluimvee - stallen - vlees - kuikens - mestverwerking - ventilatie - stress management - ionisatie - vleeskuikens - dierlijke productie - animal welfare - poultry - stalls - meat - chicks - manure treatment - ventilation - stress management - ionization - broilers - animal production
Wilde ideeën die leiden tot een praktisch concept voor de vleeskuikenstal van de toekomst. Dat is de gedachte van het project Pluimvee met Smaak. De eerste schetsen zijn klaar.
Lesgeven blijkt lastig
Jong, I.C. de; Reuvekamp, B.F.J. ; Gunnink, H. - \ 2011
De Pluimveehouderij 41 (2011)14. - ISSN 0166-8250 - p. 30 - 31.
pluimveehouderij - verenpikken - huisvesting op dik strooisel - huisvesting van kippen - dierenwelzijn - hennen - kuikens - poultry farming - feather pecking - deep litter housing - chicken housing - animal welfare - hens - chicks
Wageningen UR Livestock Research heeft in twee opeenvolgende proeven onderzocht wat het effect is van vroeg strooisel op (veren)pikgedrag. Gaat strooisel in de vroege opfok verenpikken tegen? Een heldere vraag, maar het antwoord is vooralsnog genuanceerd.