Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    ROMAN, Few-Foods-Diet and ADHD in Practice
    Frankena, Klaas - \ 2020
    Wageningen University & Research
    ADHD - nutrition - few-foods - diet - children - ODD - prevention - food-induced
    Data underlying: Retrospective Outcome Monitoring of ADHD and Nutrition (ROMAN): the effectiveness of the few-foods diet in general practice. Frontiers in Psychiatry
    Retrospective Outcome Monitoring of ADHD and Nutrition (ROMAN) : The Effectiveness of the Few-Foods Diet in General Practice
    Pelsser, Lidy ; Frankena, Klaas ; Toorman, Jan ; Rodrigues Pereira, Rob - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-0640
    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - children - diet - few-foods - food-induced - nutrition - oppositional defiant disorder - prevention

    Introduction: Double-blind placebo-controlled studies investigating the effect of a few-foods diet (FFD) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have provided consistent evidence that ADHD can be triggered by foods, indicating the existence of a food-induced ADHD subtype. In 2001 the “few-foods” approach was included in an ADHD treatment protocol. This approach consists of (a) determining, by means of an FFD, whether food is a trigger of ADHD; (b) reintroducing, in FFD responders, foods to assess which foods are incriminated; (c) finally composing a personalised diet eliminating the involved foods only. In the Netherlands the few-foods approach is applied in practice. We aimed to retrospectively assess its effectiveness on ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in real life. Methods: Data from all children who started the few-foods approach in three specialised healthcare facilities during three consecutive months were included. Behavior was assessed at start and end of the 5-week FFD, using the ADHD Rating Scale and a structured psychiatric interview. Clinical responders (behavioral improvements ≥40%) proceeded with the reintroduction phase. Results: Data of 57 children, 27 taking medication and 15 following some elimination diet at start, were available. No differences were noted between parental scores of children with and without medication or some elimination diet at start. 21/27 (78%) children stopped taking medication during the FFD. 34/57 (60%) children were ADHD responders, 20/29 (65%) children meeting ODD criteria were ODD responders. 26/34 (76%) ADHD responders started the reintroduction phase; 14/26 (54%) still participated at six months. Teacher data were available of 18/57 (32%) children. 9/18 (50%) children were ADHD responders. Conclusion: The FFD, if applied by trained specialists, may lead to clinically relevant reduction of ADHD and ODD symptoms in general practice, and a concomitant decrease of ADHD medication. These results corroborate the existence of an ADHD subgroup with food-induced ADHD. Defining and eliminating the incriminated foods, i.e. the underlying causal triggers, may result in secondary prevention of food-induced ADHD. Research into underlying mechanism(s) is of vital importance: finding an easier method or biomarkers for diagnosing food-induced ADHD and ascertaining the incriminated foods may lead to redundancy of the few-foods approach.

    The Gut Microbiota in the First Decade of Life
    Derrien, Muriel ; Alvarez, Anne Sophie ; Vos, Willem M. de - \ 2019
    Trends in Microbiology 27 (2019)12. - ISSN 0966-842X - p. 997 - 1010.
    children - evolution - gut microbiota - health - intervention - plasticity

    Appreciation of the importance of the gut microbiome is growing, and it is becoming increasingly relevant to identify preventive or therapeutic solutions targeting it. The composition and function of the gut microbiota are relatively well described for infants (less than 3 years) and adults, but have been largely overlooked in pre-school (3–6 years) and primary school-age (6–12 years) children, as well as teenagers (12–18 years). Early reports suggested that the infant microbiota would attain an adult-like structure at the age of 3 years, but recent studies have suggested that microbiota development may take longer. This development time is of key importance because there is evidence to suggest that deviations in this development may have consequences in later life. In this review, we provide an overview of current knowledge concerning the gut microbiota, its evolution, variation, and response to dietary challenges during the first decade of life with a focus on healthy pre-school and primary school-age children (up to 12 years) from various populations around the globe. This knowledge should facilitate the identification of diet-based approaches targeting individuals of this age group, to promote the development of a healthy microbiota in later life.

    Ethnic Group Differences in Dietary Diversity of School-Aged Children in Indonesia: The Roles of Gender and Household SES
    Kunto, Yohanes Sondang ; Bras, Hilde - \ 2019
    Food and Nutrition Bulletin 40 (2019)2. - ISSN 0379-5721 - p. 182 - 201.
    children - dietary diversity - ethnicity - gender - Indonesia - socioeconomic status

    Background: Despite the importance of dietary diversity for nutritional status, studies on issues surrounding ethnicity and dietary diversity in developing countries are limited. Objective: We analyzed cross-ethnic differences in dietary diversity and examined the roles of gender and household socioeconomic status (SES) in 3 Indonesian ethnic groups with different kinship systems: Javanese (bilateral), Batak (patrilineal), and Minangkabau (matrilineal). Methods: Data were from the Indonesian Family Life Survey 2000-2015 that consisted of 6478 school-aged children (7-12 years of age) born to 3878 mothers. The children’s dietary diversity was measured using a Berry-Index. We used cluster-robust multivariate linear regression models. Results: Gendered dietary diversity occurred for ethnic groups with unilineal kinship but was less evident for ethnic with bilateral kinship. Batak and Minangkabau girls, rather than boys, had higher dietary diversity because boys from these 2 ethnic groups consumed low-status foods (eg, tubers and vegetables) less often. Household SES influenced ethnic-related dietary diversity differently, perhaps because of food culture. Batak children from lower SES households consumed fruits and dairy products less often, most likely to enable them to consume the pricier but culturally preferable animal-source foods. This lowered their dietary diversity. Conclusion: The overall results indicate gendered and household SES-related effects of ethnicity on dietary diversity. Nutrition interventions targeting boys should be on policy-makers’ agendas. Boys should be advised to consume healthy low-status foods more often to improve their dietary diversity. The Batak case shows that children from lower SES backgrounds should depend less on the pricier foods to enable them varying their diet better.

    Greenery and Education : The positive effects of greenery in urban environments
    Hiemstra, J.A. ; Vries, S. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2019
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 7 p.
    learning - children - universities - climate - educational institutions - education - social welfare - well-being - health - pupils - students - schools - leren - kinderen - universiteiten - klimaat - onderwijsinstellingen - onderwijs - sociaal welzijn - welzijn - gezondheid - leerlingen - studenten - scholen
    Greenery in and around schools and nurseries and on campuses enhances the ambience of educational institutions, both inside and out. It has a positive effect on the health and general well-being of students and staff alike, improving student’s performance and their ability to concentrate, as well as enhancing the social climate. This document provides insights into the benefits of greenery for learning and well-being, including references to scientific literature. It concludes with some tips on how to ensure the successful and beneficial inclusion of greenery.
    Dose, timing, and source of protein intake of young people with spastic cerebral palsy
    Anker–van der Wel, Ieke ; Smorenburg, Ana R.P. ; Roos, Nicole M. de; Verschuren, Olaf - \ 2019
    Disability & Rehabilitation 42 (2019)15. - ISSN 0963-8288 - p. 2192 - 2197.
    Cerebral palsy - children - disability - muscle - nutrition - protein intake

    Purpose: Since the dose, timing and source of dietary protein intake are important for muscle growth and development, the aim of this study was to examine the dose, timing and source of protein intake of young people with cerebral palsy. Materials and methods: Dietary intake was assessed in 19 children with spastic cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I–V; Eating and Drinking Classification System levels I–V; 10 males, 9 females; mean [SD] age 11 years 2 months [3 years 3 months]) using a 3-day food diary. The data were analyzed for three age categories (4–8, 9–13, and 14–17 years). Results: Average 3-day protein intake (62.1 g [27.9 g]) was within the recommended boundaries with a minimum of 1.0 g/kg body weight/day and a maximum of 4.1 g/kg body weight/day. However, dinner was the only mealtime that provided at least 25 g of protein, which is needed for optimal muscle maintenance. The main food groups that contributed to protein intake were ‘milk and milk products’, ‘meat, meat products and poultry’, and ‘bread’. Conclusions: These observations suggest timing of protein intake can be improved with higher intakes during breakfast and lunch to better support skeletal muscle growth and development.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Recent studies have shown that smaller muscles and early atrophy are already present at young age in individuals with cerebral palsy. Besides physical training, adequate protein intake (with optimal dose, timing and source of protein) may be a key factor in the prevention and treatment of loss of muscle mass in children with cerebral palsy. In a relatively small sample this study shows that overall protein intake (dose) was in line with recommendations and also that the source of the protein seemed sufficient to contain all essential amino acids. Improvement of the timing of protein intake throughout the day, with higher intakes during breakfast and lunch, seems important to better support skeletal muscle growth and development.

    Effectiveness of Probiotics in Children with Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders and Functional Constipation A Systematic Review
    Wegh, Carrie A.M. ; Benninga, Marc A. ; Tabbers, Merit M. - \ 2018
    Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 52 (2018)supp. 1. - ISSN 0192-0790 - p. S10 - S26.
    children - functional gastrointestinal disorders - gut microbiota - probiotics

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotics on functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) and functional constipation (FC). Methods: A systematic review was conducted, searching PubMed and Cochrane databases from inception to January 2018 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of probiotics in children aged 4 to 18 years with FAPD or children aged 0 to 18 years with FC. Results: A total of 657 citations were identified. Finally, 11 RCTs for FAPD and 6 RCTs for FC were included. Some evidence exists for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (n=3) in reducing frequency and intensity of abdominal pain in children with irritable bowel syndrome. There is no evidence to recommend L. reuteri DSM 17938 (n=5), a mix of Bifidobacterium infantis, Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum (n=1), Bifidobacterium lactis (n=1) or VSL#3 (n=1) for children with FAPD. No evidence exists to support the use of Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus LCR35 (n=1), B. lactis DN173 010 (n=1), B. longum (n=1), L. reuteri DSM 17938 (n=1), a mix of B. infantis, B. breve and B. longum (n=1), or Protexin mix (n=1) for children with FC. In general, studies had an unclear or high risk of bias. Conclusions: Insufficient evidence exists for the use of probiotics in FAPD and FC, only L. rhamnosus GG seems to reduce frequency and intensity of abdominal pain but only in children with irritable bowel syndrome. A better understanding of differences in gut microbiota in health and disease might lead to better probiotic strategies to treat disease.

    Combining food-based dietary recommendations using Optifood with zinc-fortified water potentially improves nutrient adequacy among 4- to 6-year-old children in Kisumu West district, Kenya
    Kujinga, Prosper ; Borgonjen-van den Berg, Karin J. ; Superchi, Cecilia ; Hove, Hermine J. ten; Onyango, Elizabeth Opiyo ; Andang'o, Pauline ; Galetti, Valeria ; Zimmerman, Michael B. ; Moretti, Diego ; Brouwer, Inge D. - \ 2018
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 14 (2018)2. - ISSN 1740-8695
    children - diets - Optifood - water - zinc
    Children in developing countries often face multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Introduction of zinc-fortified water can increase zinc intake, but additional recommendations are required to address overall diet nutrient adequacy. We developed and tested food-based recommendations (FBRs) that included zinc-fortified water for children aged between 4 and 6 years from rural Kenya to achieve the best possible nutrient adequacy. Dietary intakes of 60 children aged 4–6 years, from Kisumu West district, Kenya, were assessed using a quantitative multipass 24-hr recall. Linear programming model parameters were derived, including a list of foods consumed, median serving sizes, and distribution of frequency of consumption. By using the Optifood linear programming tool, we developed FBRs for diets including zinc-fortified water. FBRs with nutrient levels achieving ≥70% recommended nutrient intake (RNI) of the World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations RNI for most of the 12 considered nutrients were selected as the final recommendations for the children. With no FBRs and no zinc-fortified water, percent RNI coverage range was between 40% and 76% for zinc, improving to 66–101% after introduction of zinc-fortified water. The final set of FBRs achieved nutrient adequacy for all nutrients except for vitamin A (25% RNI) and folate (68% RNI). Introduction of zinc-fortified water combined with FBRs will likely improve the nutrient adequacy of diets consumed by children in Kenya but needs to be complemented with alternative interventions to ensure dietary adequacy.
    The Impact of Social and Financial Education on Savings Attitudes and Behavior Among Primary School Children in Uganda
    Supanantaroek, Suthinee ; Lensink, Robert ; Hansen, Nina - \ 2017
    Evaluation Review 41 (2017)6. - ISSN 0193-841X - p. 511 - 541.
    attitudes - children - financial literacy - intervention - saving and spending - social and financial education - training
    Background: Saving plays a crucial role in the process of economic growth. However, one main reason why poor people often do not save is that they lack financial knowledge. Improving the savings culture of children through financial education is a promising way to develop savings attitudes and behavior early in life. Objectives: This study is one of the first that examines the effects of social and financial education training and a children’s club developed by Aflatoun on savings attitudes and behavior among primary school children in Uganda, besides Berry, Karlan, and Pradhan. Research design: A randomized phase in approach was used by randomizing the order in which schools implemented the program (school-level randomization). The treatment group consisted of students in schools where the program was implemented, while in the control group the program was not yet implemented. The program lasted 3 months including 16 hours. We compared posttreatment variables for the treatment and control group. Subjects: Study participants included 1,746 students, of which 936 students were from 22 schools that were randomly assigned to receive the program between May and July 2011; the remaining 810 students attended 22 schools that did not implement the program during the study period. Measures: Indicators for children’s savings attitudes and behavior were key outcomes. Results: The intervention increased awareness of money, money recording, and savings attitudes. It also provides some evidence—although less robust—that the intervention increased actual savings. Conclusions: A short financial literacy and social training can improve savings attitudes and behavior of children considerably.
    Greenery and Education : A summary of the positive effects of greenery on well-being in educational environments
    Hiemstra, J.A. ; Vries, S. de; Spijker, J.H. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research - 7
    learning - children - universities - climate - educational institutions - education - social welfare - well-being - health - pupils - students - schools - leren - kinderen - universiteiten - klimaat - onderwijsinstellingen - onderwijs - sociaal welzijn - welzijn - gezondheid - leerlingen - studenten - scholen
    Greenery in and around schools, childcare centres and on campuses is good for the climate at education institutions, both inside and out. It has a positive effect on the health and general well-being of students and staff alike, improving student performance and their ability to concentrate, as well as fostering the social climate. This document provides information on the benefits of greenery in relation to education and well-being, including references to scientific literature. It concludes with some tips on how to ensure the successful and beneficial inclusion of greenery.
    The effect of fiber and prebiotics on children’s gastrointestinal disorders and microbiome
    Wegh, Carrie A.M. ; Schoterman, Margriet H.C. ; Vaughan, Elaine E. ; Belzer, Clara ; Benninga, Marc A. - \ 2017
    Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 11 (2017)11. - ISSN 1747-4124 - p. 1031 - 1045.
    children - dietary fiber - functional gastrointestinal disorders - Gut microbiota - oligosaccharides - prebiotics

    Introduction: The bacteria received upon birth are the start of colonization of the approximately 1014 bacteria that are present in the mature human gastrointestinal tract, better known as the microbiota. The gut microbiota is implicated in gastrointestinal health, nutrient metabolism and benefits such as prevention of infection. Dietary fiber, including prebiotics, escape digestion in the small intestine and reach the colon intact, where they are partially or completely fermented by the gut microbiota. Areas covered: The possible interactions between dietary fiber, prebiotics and microbiota are discussed as well as how this relates to functional gastrointestinal disorders. During the first years of life the microbiota have not yet reached a stable state and is sensitive to disturbance by environmental factors. An imbalance in the microbiota early in life is found to be associated with several functional gastrointestinal disorders such as colic, functional abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. Expert commentary: A better understanding of how gut microbial changes in early-life can impact gastrointestinal health might lead to new treatments or disease prevention. Nutritional strategies with fiber or prebiotics may support health due to modification of colonic microbiota composition and metabolic activity, for example by growth stimulation of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus.

    Are school meals a viable and sustainable tool to improve the healthiness and sustainability of children´s diet and food consumption? A cross-national comparative perspective
    Oostindjer, Marije ; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica ; Wang, Qing ; Skuland, Silje Elisabeth ; Egelandsdal, Bjørg ; Amdam, Gro V. ; Schjøll, Alexander ; Pachucki, Mark C. ; Rozin, Paul ; Stein, Jarrett ; Lengard Almli, Valerie ; Kleef, Ellen van - \ 2017
    Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 57 (2017)18. - ISSN 1040-8398 - p. 3942 - 3958.
    children - food behavior - health - learning - School meals - sustainability

    There is little agreement among governments, institutions, scientists and food activists as to how to best tackle the challenging issues of health and sustainability in the food sector. This essay discusses the potential of school meals as a platform to promote healthy and sustainable food behavior. School meal programs are of particular interest for improving public diet because they reach children at a population scale across socio-economic classes and for over a decade of their lives, and because food habits of children are more malleable than those of adults. Current research on the history and health implications of school meal programs is reviewed in a cross-national comparative framework, and arguments explored that speak for the need of a new developmental phase of school meals as an integrative learning platform for healthy and sustainable food behavior. Nutritional, social, practical, educational, economical, political, and cultural perspectives and challenges linked to the implementation of healthy and sustainable school meals are discussed. Finally, the need for long-term interventions and evaluations is highlighted and new research directions are proposed.

    Monitoringsonderzoek Gezonde Schoolpleinen : monitor van het proces Gezonde Schoolpleinen van 70 Icoonscholen, inspiratie voor een gezond schoolplein en landelijke bekendheid van het proces Gezonde Schoolpleinen
    Goossen, Martin ; Pleijte, Marcel ; Langers, Fransje ; Donders, Josine ; Vries, Sjerp de - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2814) - 89
    basisscholen - kinderen - gebiedsontwikkeling - campus - gezondheid van kinderen - architectuur - ontwerp - sociale gevolgen - cognitieve ontwikkeling - lichamelijke activiteit - gezondheid - elementary schools - children - area development - campus - child health - architecture - design - social impact - cognitive development - physical activity - health
    Interventiestudie Gezonde Schoolpleinen : Het effect op leerlingen van het herinrichten van schoolplein tot gezond schoolplein
    Vries, S. de; Langers, F. ; Goossen, C.M. ; Rijn, S.E.M. van; Vlasblom, E. ; Sterkenburg, R.P. ; Pierik, F.H. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2830) - 113
    kinderen - scholen - basisscholen - gebiedsontwikkeling - campus - gezondheid van kinderen - speelterreinen - spel - kwaliteit van het leven - sociaal welzijn - welzijn - vragenlijsten - beweging - concentreren - concentratie - children - schools - elementary schools - area development - campus - child health - playgrounds - play - quality of life - social welfare - well-being - questionnaires - movement - concentrating - concentration
    Groen en leren : de meerwaarde van groen voor het welbevinden in de leeromgeving samengevat
    Spijker, J.H. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research - 7
    beplantingen - onderwijs - leren - schoolterrein - leerprestaties - openbaar groen - klimaat - temperatuur - gezondheid - sociaal welzijn - luchtkwaliteit - lichamelijke activiteit - lichamelijke fitheid - stressfactoren - kinderen - plantations - education - learning - school site - educational performance - public green areas - climate - temperature - health - social welfare - air quality - physical activity - physical fitness - stress factors - children
    de meerwaarde van groen voor het welbevinden in de leeromgeving samengevat
    ‘Cuteifying’ spaces and staging marine animals for Chinese middle-class consumption
    Ong, Chin Ee - \ 2017
    Tourism Geographies 19 (2017)2. - ISSN 1461-6688 - p. 188 - 207.
    Animal–human relations - children - China - enclave - habitus - hyperreality - middle class - staging - theme parks
    In this paper, Chimelong Ocean Kingdom in Zhuhai is considered an aestheticised space for the growing Chinese middle class. Located within the booming and fast-urbanising Pearl River Delta, the theme park is a sizeable project consisting of rides, marine mammal enclosures and a well-equipped state-of-the-art circus. Utilising ethnography, including visitor interviews, and discourse analysis of websites, mobile apps and promotional materials, the theme park is found to deploy animal motifs in three key ways: as spectacular backdrops for amusement rides, as objects of biodiversity-based edutainment and as highly personified agents in visitor relations. Building on existing literature on decontextualised animal display – where emphasis on the provision of a natural habitat is replaced by simulated and actual proximity of animals to the visitors – I argue that the ‘out-of-situ’, cuteified and hyperreal stagings of Chimelong's animals have been shaped by two further China-specific processes. The first is the engagement with the theme park space as a sanitised and safe environment for a then one-child policy inspired child-centred visitation. The second refers to the retail-oriented consumerist experiences demonstrated by the new Chinese middle class. Both processes have brought about an aestheticising endeavour in line with the idealisation of other (Chinese) middle-class spaces, and have positioned Chinese theme parks as key nodes in our understanding of leisure and tourism spaces and of middle-class landscapes in contemporary China. Such an examination is made at a juncture where and when abuse of marine mammals is allegedly on the rise, and sheds light on the social processes shaping the popularity of such experiences in contemporary China.
    Fruit & Veggie Challenge
    Lambalgen, Jorien van; Willemsen-Regelink, M.H. ; Top, R. van den - \ 2016
    nutrition - fruit - vegetables - children
    6 leerzame challenges over fruit & groente met 10 quizvragen, 1 stelling en 1 uitdaging
    Smaakmissie vlees, vis en vervangers : Handleiding groep 5-6
    Vernooij, Annelou ; Top, R. van den - \ 2016
    Steunpunt Smaaklessen
    nutrition - children - health - feeding habits - diets - teaching materials
    Mitchel is een danser en hij organiseert een dansbootcamp voor kinderen. Nou krijgt hij ineens allerlei vragen van ouders over het eten tijdens de bootcamp. Vooral over vlees, vis, vega.. de eiwitten dus. Mitchel is erg druk met het bedenken van zijn moves en heeft dus helemaal geen tijd om dit uit te zoeken. Kunnen de leerlingen hem helpen om de juiste keuzes te maken en zorgen dat er informerende bordjes bij het buffet komen te staan? Ga op Smaakmissie! In deze Smaakmissie ontdekken leerlingen van alles over vlees, vis, peulvruchten ei en noten door zelf op onderzoek uit te gaan, zowel binnen als buiten de klas. De Smaakmissie bestaat uit 6 interactieve lessen met aanvullend een digibordmodule. Lees hier hoe de Smaakmissie werkt en ga aan de slag!
    Smaakmissie moestuin
    Vernooij, A.A.M. ; Top, R. van den - \ 2016
    nutrition - children
    De tuinvrouw heeft hulp nodig! In haar moestuin groeit heel veel. Maar ze is benieuwd wat er bij de school allemaal kan groeien. Help haar en ga op Smaakmissie! In deze Smaakmissie ontdekken leerlingen van alles over de moestuin. Ze gaan zelf aan de slag in de moestuin en ontdekken zo van alles over de plantjes. De Smaakmissie Moestuin bestaat uit interactieve lessen en activiteiten met aanvullend een digibordmodule. Lees hier hoe de Smaakmissie werkt en ga aan de slag!
    Duplicaatvoedingsonderzoek bij kinderen 2014 : eerste resultaten
    Wilson-van den Hooven, E.C. ; Alewijn, M. ; Top, H.J. van den; A, D.L. van der; Roos, A.M. ; Drijvers, J.J.M.M. ; Etemad, Z. ; Ocké, M.C. - \ 2015
    Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM Briefrapport 2015-0170) - 40
    voedselconsumptie - schadelijke stoffen - voeding en gezondheid - voedselveiligheid - kinderen - gezondheid van kinderen - besmetters - voedingsonderzoek - food consumption - noxious substances - nutrition and health - food safety - children - child health - contaminants - nutrition research
    This report describes the consumption of children who participated in a
    duplicate diet study. Furthermore it provides additional information on
    the collected duplicate diets, for example if a child had followed a
    specific diet. Duplicate diet studies are conducted periodically since 1976
    in the Netherlands and provide the opportunity to monitor the quantities
    of certain substances people ingest daily over time (chemicals,
    mycotoxins). Moreover, it can be assessed if these quantities remain
    within the safety limits.
    This duplicate diet study was conducted during the spring and autumn of
    2014 by RIVM and RIKILT and was commissioned by the Dutch Food and
    Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA). Parents/ carers of 126
    children aged 2 to 6 years in the region of Wageningen participated in
    the study. They collected duplicate portions (duplicate diet) of all foods
    and beverages their child consumed over a 24-hour period. They also
    kept food diaries to record what the child had consumed during the day.
    The duplicate diets were processed into freeze-dried samples and stored
    at RIKILT.
    The results of this study showed that for many children less duplicate
    diet was collected than what they probably consumed. This should be
    taken into account when interpreting the results of dietary exposure to
    harmful substances.
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