Firms’ willingness to invest in a water fund to improve water-related ecosystem services in the Lake Naivasha basin, Kenya
Mulatu, D.W. ; Oel, P.R. van; Veen, A. van der - \ 2015
Water International 40 (2015)3. - ISSN 0250-8060 - p. 463 - 482.
tropical forestry projects - environmental services - market actors - payments - management - behavior - private - choice - impact
A valuation scenario was designed using a contingent-valuation approach and presented to decision makers in business firms in Kenya’s Lake Naivasha basin to test how applicable a water fund might be as a potential financing mechanism for a payment for water-related ecosystem services scheme. The findings indicate that measuring a firm’s willingness to invest in ecosystem services could help determine whether a firm would invest and engage with other stakeholders to pool their investments in ecosystem services. Linking the institutional decision-making behaviour of a firm and its willingness to invest in a water fund is the novelty of this article.
How Investor Perceptions Drive Actual Trading and Risk-Taking Behavior
Hoffmann, A.O.I. ; Post, T. ; Pennings, J.M.E. - \ 2015
Journal of Behavioral Finance 16 (2015)1. - ISSN 1542-7560 - p. 94 - 103.
common-stock investment - individual investors - attitudes - overconfidence - expectations - performance - choice - crisis - money - real
Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors’ perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risktaking behavior? To answer this question, we combine monthly survey data with matching brokerage records to construct a panel dataset allowing us to simultaneously examine investor perceptions and behavior. We find that investor perceptions and changes therein are important drivers of actual trading and risk-taking behavior: Investors with higher levels of and upward revisions of return expectations are more likely to trade, have higher turnover, trade larger amounts per transaction, and use derivatives. Investors with higher levels of and upward revisions in risk tolerance are more likely to trade, have higher buy-sell ratios, use limit orders more frequently, and hold riskier portfolios. Investors with higher levels of risk perception are more likely to trade, have higher turnover, have lower buy-sell ratios, and hold riskier portfolios. Keywords: Individual investors, Investment decisions, Investor perceptions, Trading behavior, Risk-taking behavior
Insects as food: Exploring cultural exposure and individual experience as determinants of acceptance
Tan Hui Shan, G. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Tinchan, P. ; Stieger, M.A. ; Steenbekkers, L.P.A. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 42 (2015). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 78 - 89.
edible insects - psychological distance - quality perception - consumers - neophobia - attitudes - choice - preferences - rejections - knowledge
Edible insects have attracted much Western interest in recent years due to their nutritional and environmental advantages. Consumers, however, remain aversive towards a class of items that is not traditionally considered to be food. While the focus is often on the Western disgust, looking at consumer perceptions in a culture that considers insects to be delicious could provide new insights into the psychological and cultural mechanisms that underpin these evaluations. This cross-cultural qualitative study explores how cultural exposure and individual experience contribute towards the contrasting evaluations of insects as food by those who do and do not eat them. Eight focus groups were conducted across two cultures—four in Thailand where insects are part of the local food culture, and four in the Netherlands where insects are generally not recognised as food. Within these cultures, two groups consisted of individuals who have experience with eating insects, and two groups consisted of individuals with little or no experience with insects as food. Cultural exposure created expectations of which species were more appropriate to eat and how they should be prepared, whereas individual experiences determined whether judgements were made based on memories of past eating experiences or based on the visual properties and item associations. This study provides insights into the acceptance and rejection factors of unfamiliar food items and identifies the factors to be considered when introducing novel food items that are not yet culturally acceptable as food.
Examining heterogeneity in elderly consumers’ acceptance of carriers for protein-enriched food: A segmentation study
Zanden, L.D.T. van der; Kleef, E. van; Wijk, R.A. de; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 42 (2015). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 130 - 138.
functional food - perceived healthiness - older-adults - choice - willingness - knowledge - market - claim - model - age
Elderly face an increased risk of nutritional deficiencies due to reduced appetites and increased nutritional needs. The development of appealing enriched functional foods holds a great potential for improving the nutritional status of this group of consumers. However, the elderly population is strongly heterogeneous, which poses a challenge to fulfilling their nutritional needs. Therefore, this study aimed to illustrate and examine the heterogeneity in elderly consumers’ acceptance of carriers for enrichment. In an online survey, respondents (N = 303, Mage = 66.9) were asked to rate their willingness to trial purchase a set of carriers enriched with protein, that varied systematically in terms of healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy), novelty (novel vs. traditional), and meal type (meal component vs. snack). Overall, respondents reported low willingness to purchase protein-enriched foods and indicated that they preferred to consume more protein-rich conventional foods, should they need to increase their protein intake. The identification of heterogeneity in carrier acceptance, especially regarding product novelty and meal type, suggested that there was room for improvement in product acceptance. Indeed, willingness to trial and repeat purchase protein-enriched carriers were considerably higher for product formats that were tailored to six subgroup of respondents. These findings underline the merits of taking heterogeneity into account when commercialising functional foods among elderly. Future studies may want to look into additional ways to reduce scepticism among elderly regarding the use of enriched food.
Consumer behaviour towards vegetables: a study on domestic processing of broccoli and carrots by Dutch households
Bongoni, R. ; Verkerk, R. ; Dekker, M. ; Steenbekkers, B. - \ 2015
Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 28 (2015)3. - ISSN 0952-3871 - p. 219 - 225.
different cooking methods - food quality - health - fruit - consumption - interventions - determinants - attributes - choice - impact
Background: Preferences for sensory properties (e.g. taste and texture) are assumed to control cooking behaviour with respect to vegetables. Conditions such as the cooking method, amount of water used and the time-temperature profile determine the nutritional quality (e.g. vitamins and phytochemicals) of cooked vegetables. Information on domestic processing and any underlying motives can be used to inform consumers about cooking vegetables that are equally liked and are nutrient-rich. Methods: Two online self-reporting questionnaires were used to identify domestic processing conditions of broccoli and carrots by Dutch households. Questions on various aspects of domestic processing and consumer motives were included. Descriptive data analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were performed for both vegetables, separately, to group consumers with similar motives and behaviour towards vegetables. Results: Approximately 70% of consumers boiled vegetables, 8–9% steamed vegetables, 10–15% stir fried raw vegetables and 8–10% stir fried boiled vegetables. Mainly texture was used as a way to decide the ‘doneness’ of the vegetables. For both vegetables, three clusters of consumers were identified: texture-orientated, health-orientated, or taste-orientated. The texture-orientated consumers are identified as the most prevalent (56–59%) group in the present study. Statistically significant associations are found between domestic processing conditions and clusters, whereas no such association are found between demographic details and clusters. Conclusions: A wide variation in domestic processing of broccoli and carrots is found in the present study. Mainly sensory properties (i.e. texture and taste) determined the domestic processing conditions. The findings of the present study can be used to optimise cooking to yield vegetables that meet consumer’s specific sensory preference and are higher in nutrients, and as well as to communicate with target consumer groups.
The impact of evoked consumption contexts and appropriateness on emotion responses
Piqueras Fiszman, B. ; Jaeger, S.R. - \ 2014
Food Quality and Preference 32 (2014)Part C. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 277 - 288.
food experience - acceptability - choice - questionnaires - ratings - package - design
Sensory and consumer scientists are seeing the need to explore broader measures, such as product-driven emotions, to be able to fully understand and satisfy consumers’ demands. However, to date, the consumer methodologies used in food-related emotion research have neglected a crucial element linked to emotions: the consumption context. This is a concern, because consumers’ emotional responses to food are elicited by many other sources apart from the sensory properties of the food itself. The present research aimed to fill in this gap of knowledge by exploring how evoked consumption contexts affect responses obtained from an emotion questionnaire. Two food stimuli (apple and chocolate brownie) and three different consumption contexts (a ‘weekend breakfast’, an ‘afternoon snack’, and ‘after a special dinner’) were used to vary the level of product-context appropriateness. A within-subject design was used in which 157 participants first completed an emotion questionnaire (36 terms, checklist format) in response to each of the evoked consumption contexts (presented in written format). A week later, the same participants completed the same emotion questionnaire while imagining themselves eating an apple or chocolate brownie (shown as images) without any given context (control condition), and then under the three different contexts (random monadic sequential order). When the chocolate brownie was the food stimulus, 20 of 36 emotion responses were significantly different from context to context (including the no-context condition). Conversely, only 9 significant differences were established when apple was the food stimulus. It was also found that frequency of use of positive emotion terms was higher in those consumption contexts that were considered more appropriate, whereas negative emotion terms were more frequently selected when the context was perceived as less appropriate for the product. Taken together, these findings highlight how the context in which a food is consumed (even if imagined) can affect consumers’ emotion responses towards it. More broadly, they demonstrate the reciprocal effect that the context and the product have on the elicited emotion responses, which are not situationally invariant. This research also explored how psychological traits related to emotional eating affected the emotion responses and found that in general higher emotional eaters selected a higher number of emotion terms (positive and negative). This study represents a needed advance in food-related emotion research, and upon replication of the results with other product-context combinations, could offer an easy-to-implement methodology that should more closely match the emotion responses that consumers would elicit in real-life situations while eating and drinking.
Colour, pleasantness, and consumption behaviour within a meal
Piqueras Fiszman, B. ; Spence, C. - \ 2014
Appetite 75 (2014). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 165 - 172.
sensory-specific satiety - subsequent food-intake - in-home consumption - stimulus specificity - variety - choice - flavor - cues - red - acceptance
It is often claimed that colour (e.g., in a meal) affects consumption behaviour. However, just how strong is the evidence in support of this claim, and what are the underlying mechanisms? It has been shown that not only the colour itself, but also the variety and the arrangement of the differently-coloured components in a meal influence consumers’ ratings of the pleasantness of a meal (across time) and, to a certain extent, might even affect their consumption behaviour as well. Typically, eating the same food constantly or repeatedly leads to a decrease in its perceived pleasantness, which, as a consequence, might lead to decreased intake of that food. However, variation within a meal (in one or several sensory attributes, or holistically) has been shown to slow down this process. In this review, we first briefly summarize the literature on how general variety in a meal influences these variables and the major theories that have been put forward by researchers to explain them. We then go on to evaluate the evidence of these effects based mainly on the colour of the food explaining the different processes that might affect colour-based sensory-specific satiety and, in more detail, consumption behaviour. In addition, we also discuss the overlap in the definitions of these terms and provide additional hypothesis as to why, in some cases, the opposite pattern of results has been observed.
Emotion responses under evoked consumption contexts: A focus on the consumers’ frequency of product consumption and the stability of responses
Piqueras Fiszman, B. ; Jaeger, S.R. - \ 2014
Food Quality and Preference 35 (2014). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 24 - 31.
food acceptability - choice - appropriateness - questionnaires - preferences - experience - ratings
Previous research has demonstrated that the context in which a certain food is consumed (even if imagined) can affect consumers’ associative emotional responses to that product. In three separate studies we extended this line of research by: (1) replicating these previous findings with consumers from another country and another product category; (2) investigating the impact of participants’ product consumption frequency on their associative emotional responses; and (3) examining whether the emotional associations involved in eating certain products in evoked contexts are stable through time. The results of this work support previous findings demonstrating the impact of the consumption context (and its perceived appropriateness) on consumers’ reported emotional associations with a food product, and that this result is generalizable across nationalities. We also confirm that the associative emotion profiles of more emotion-laden product categories (in comparison with more neutral ones; e.g. chocolate vs. fruit) are more variable between contexts. In addition, the emotional associative profiles obtained from two groups of participants that were either high or low frequent consumers of the food stimuli did not differ to any significant extent. Finally, the emotion responses provided under evoked consumption contexts seemed to be consistent (stable) across time. Taken together, this study strengthens the rationale for evoking consumption contexts during emotion-related tasks, demonstrating that this methodology provides repeatable results and insights that go beyond the product and the consumer. Keywords Emotion responses; Consumption context; Appropriateness; Consumer research; Stability; Frequency of consumption
It is not just a meal, it is an emotional experience – A segmentation of older persons based on the emotions that they associate with mealtimes
Uijl, L.C. den; Jager, G. ; Graaf, C. de; Waddell, W.J. ; Kremer, S. - \ 2014
Appetite 83 (2014). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 287 - 296.
food neophobia - olfactory impairment - eating behavior - consumer - questionnaire - spendthrifts - tightwads - choice - attitudes - motives
Worldwide, the group of older persons is growing fast. To aid this important group in their food and meal requirements, a deeper insight into the expectations and experiences of these persons regarding their mealtimes and snack times is needed. In the current study, we aim to identify consumer segments within the group of vital community-dwelling older persons on the basis of the emotions they associate with their mealtimes and snack times (from now on referred to as mealtimes). Participants (n¿=¿392, mean age 65.8 (years)¿±¿5.9 (SD)) completed an online survey. The survey consisted of three questionnaires: emotions associated with mealtimes, functionality of mealtimes, and psychographic characteristics (health and taste attitudes, food fussiness, and food neophobia). Consumer segments were identified and characterised based on the emotions that the respondents reported to experience at mealtimes, using a hierarchical cluster analysis. Clusters were described using variables previously not included in the cluster analysis, such as functionality of mealtimes and psychographic characteristics. Four consumer segments were identified: Pleasurable averages, Adventurous arousals, Convivial indulgers, and Indifferent restrictives. These segments differed significantly in their emotional associations with mealtimes both in valence and level of arousal. The present study provides actionable insights for the development of products and communication strategies tailored to the needs of vital community-dwelling older persons.
Meal pattern analysis for effects of compound feed formulation in mid to late lactating dairy cows fed hay and compound feed both ad libitum
Leen, F. ; Navarro-Villa, A. ; Fowers, R. ; Martin-Tereso, J. ; Pellikaan, W.F. - \ 2014
Animal Production Science 54 (2014)10. - ISSN 1836-0939 - p. 1752 - 1756.
diet selection - rumen function - behavior - cattle - choice - concentrate - performance - drinking - silage - system
The Kempen System is a dairy feeding system allowing ad libitum access to pelleted compound feed (CF) and hay. This system allows high DM intake (DMI) up to 30 kg DM (80% CF), but small and frequent CF meals are essential to reduce negative ruminal pH fluctuations. Little is known about feed intake patterns of cows on ad libitum and separated access to CF and hay. Meal pattern analysis was performed to evaluate feed intake behaviour of two different isoenergetic and isonitrogenous CF (starch vs fibre), contrasting in neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and starch content. Twenty primi- and multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (203 ± 35.4 days in milk) received grass hay ad libitum with one of the two CF also offered ad libitum. Meal criteria, the shortest non-feeding interval between feeding events separating two consecutive meals, were used to cluster feeding events into separate meals. The meal criteria were determined per cow by fitting the log10-transformed feeding intervals to Gaussian–Gaussian probability density functions. The DMI of CF fibre (18.8 ± 0.54 kg) tended to be greater (P = 0.09) than starch (18.1 ± 0.54 kg/day), while that of grass hay (4.8 ± 0.29 kg) was unaffected (P = 0.23). The CF meal size did not differ (P = 0.26) between treatments (starch 2.9 vs fibre 3.0 ± 0.11 kg/meal), but number of meals per day (6.36 ± 0.229, P = 0.87) and meal durations (64 ± 3.5 min, P = 0.87) did not differ between treatments. The differences in CF formulation were insufficient to create detectable differences in feed intake nor intake behaviour patterns
Human protein status modulates brain reward responses to food cues1–3
Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Heuvel, E.M. van den; Boesveldt, S. ; Finlayson, G. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2014
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (2014)1. - ISSN 0002-9165 - p. 113 - 122.
leverage hypothesis - energy-intake - taste - breakfast - appetite - satiety - carbohydrate - mechanisms - receptors - choice
Background: Protein is indispensable in the human diet, and its intake appears tightly regulated. The role of sensory attributes of foods in protein intake regulation is far from clear. Objective: We investigated the effect of human protein status on neural responses to different food cues with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The food cues varied by taste category (sweet compared with savory) and protein content (low compared with high). In addition, food preferences and intakes were measured. Design: We used a randomized crossover design whereby 23 healthy women [mean SD age: 22 +/- 2 y; mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 22.5 +/- 1.8] followed two 16-d fully controlled dietary interventions involving consumption of either a low-protein diet (0.6 g protein center dot kg body weight(-1) center dot d(-1), similar to 7% of energy derived from protein, approximately half the normal protein intake) or a high-protein diet (2.2 g protein center dot kg body weight(-1) center dot d(-1), similar to 25% of energy, approximately twice the normal intake). On the last day of the interventions, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to odor and visual food cues were measured by using fMRI. The 2 interventions were followed by a 1 -d ad libitum phase, during which a large array of food items was available and preference and intake were measured. Results: When exposed to food cues (relative to the control condition), the BOLD response was higher in reward-related areas (orbitofrontal cortex, striatum) in a low-protein state than in a high-protein state. Specifically, BOLD was higher in the inferior orbitofrontal cortex in response to savory food cues. In contrast, the protein content of the food cues did not modulate the BOLD response. A low protein state also increased preferences for savory food cues and increased protein intake in the ad libitum phase as compared with a high-protein state. Conclusions: Protein status modulates brain responses in reward regions to savory food cues. These novel findings suggest that dietary protein status affects taste category preferences, which could play an important role in the regulation of protein intake in humans. This trial was registered at www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=3288 as NTR3288.
Understanding contracts in evolving agro-economies: Fermers, dekhqans and networks in Khorezm, Uzbekistan
Djanibekov, U. ; Assche, K.A.M. van; Boezeman, D. ; Djanibekov, N. - \ 2013
Journal of Rural Studies 32 (2013). - ISSN 0743-0167 - p. 137 - 147.
danube delta - moral hazard - choice - agriculture - governance - lessons - reform - risk
We combine institutional economic perspectives and actor-network theory to elucidate the role of contracts in the evolution of transitional agricultural systems. Such combination of theories can shed a light on the mutual constitution of actors and institutions, and the formation of economic strategies. We argue that forms and functions of contracts can only be understood in an evolutionary context. In a case study of the Khorezm region, Uzbekistan, where several waves of reform created two principal actors - commercial farms (called fermers locally) responsible for state-ordered production and semi-subsistence smallholders (called dekhqans locally) - it is demonstrated how in the self-transformation of the actor-network, and thus the shifts in forms and roles of contracts, several network features play a role: interdependencies between the actors, the essential actant of the irrigation and drainage system, formal/informal dialectics. Time horizons, risk/benefit calculations, trust and cooperation forms emerge in the self-reproducing network and leave space for certain contractual forms and functions. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effect of Replacing Sugar with Non-Caloric Sweeteners in Beverages on the Reward Value after Repeated Exposure
Griffioen-Roose, S. ; Smeets, P.A.M. ; Weijzen, P.L.G. ; Rijn, I. van; Bosch, I. van den; Graaf, C. de - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)11. - ISSN 1932-6203
body-weight - artificial sweetener - energy density - food-intake - satiety - brain - choice - flavor - adults - taste
Background: The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. Objective: To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty drink (soft drink) versus nutrient-rich drink (yoghurt drink) on reward value after repeated exposure. Design: We used a randomized crossover design whereby forty subjects (15 men, 25 women) with a mean +/- SD age of 21 +/- 2 y and BMI of 21.5 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2) consumed a fixed portion of a non-caloric sweetened (NS) and sugar sweetened (SS) versions of either a soft drink or a yoghurt drink (counterbalanced) for breakfast which were distinguishable by means of colored labels. Each version of a drink was offered 10 times in semi-random order. Before and after conditioning the reward value of the drinks was assessed using behavioral tasks on wanting, liking, and expected satiety. In a subgroup (n=18) fMRI was performed to assess brain reward responses to the drinks. Results: Outcomes of both the behavioral tasks and fMRI showed that conditioning did not affect the reward value of the NS and SS versions of the drinks significantly. Overall, subjects preferred the yoghurt drinks to the soft drinks and the ss drinks to the NS drinks. In addition, they expected the yoghurt drinks to be more satiating, they reduced hunger more, and delayed the first eating episode more. Conditioning did not influence these effects. Conclusion: Our study showed that repeated consumption of a non-caloric sweetened beverage, instead of a sugar sweetened version, appears not to result in changes in the reward value. It cannot be ruled out that learned associations between sensory attributes and food satiating capacity which developed preceding the conditioning period, during lifetime, affected the reward value of the drinks.
Participation of Italian farmers in rural development policy
Pascucci, S. ; Magistris, T. de; Dries, L.K.E. - \ 2013
European Review of Agricultural Economics 40 (2013)4. - ISSN 0165-1587 - p. 605 - 631.
agri-environmental contracts - transaction costs - european-union - design - conservation - perspective - information - services - schemes - choice
The aim of this paper is to study farmers' participation in rural development policy (RDP) measures. We investigate to what extent regional RDP priorities are driven by regional characteristics and moreover, whether regional-level policy priorities help to explain farmers' participation in RDP measures. We estimate a multilevel binary choice model that includes both farm-level and regional-level explanatory variables. We conclude that regional governments select RDP priorities based on the specific features of their region. Regional policy priorities play an important role in explaining farmers' participation in agri-environmental schemes but not in measures aimed at improving farmer competitiveness.
Food consumption value: developing a consumer-centred concept of value in the field of food
Dagevos, H. ; Ophem, J.A.C. van - \ 2013
British Food Journal 115 (2013)10. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 1473 - 1486.
emotions - choice - markets - model
Purpose – This paper seeks to argue that a new and broader definition of food value should be introduced that includes other factors than the traditional mantra of nutritional value, appearance, and the like. This paper introduces the concept of food consumption value (FCV). Design/methodology/approach – The development of FCV is based upon various research traditions and corresponding bodies of literature. The four constituting parts of FCV origins in different lines of scholarly theorising. These lines of thought are discussed separately. Collectively, they form the breeding ground of the concept of food consumption value. Findings – The consumer-centred framework of FCV consists of four elements. Product value refers to food’s features and functionalities like taste or texture. Process value refers to consumers’ interest in the practices and processes of food production. Ethical considerations (consumer concerns) are thus taken into account. Furthermore, FCV encompasses location value and emotional value. Location value refers to the setting in which food is purchased or consumed. Emotional value is the most elusive element of FCV, because it refers to “feel goods” such as experience, entertainment, (self) indulgence or identity values with respect to the consumption of food products or brands. Practical implications – The message of FCV for (marketing) practitioners in the field of food is that value creation should depart from assessing consumer value in narrow senses such as value for money. The feelings that foods can arouse are anything but valueless intangibilities, but crucial assets of value creation and competitiveness. Another practical implication of FCV is that for value creation in the food supply chain it is a sine qua non that downstream (location value) and upstream (process value) are fine-tuned consistently and constructively. Originality/value – This paper is the first exploratory study on the development of the new concept of FCV that examines consumer value beyond tangible product attributes and price. This broader concept of FCV aims to interpret value in terms that adjust to today’s consumer-oriented food market. Though inspired by other interpretations of value in marketing and food studies, FCV differs from these.
The Norm Activation Model: An exploration of the functions of anticipated pride and guilt in environmental behaviour
Onwezen, M.C. ; Antonides, G. ; Bartels, J. - \ 2013
Journal of Economic Psychology 39 (2013). - ISSN 0167-4870 - p. 141 - 153.
maximum-likelihood-estimation - self-conscious emotions - planned behavior - responsible behavior - decision-making - personal norms - intentions - choice - determinants - orientation
The Norm Activation Model (NAM; Schwartz, 1977) is a vested model that explains altruistic and environmentally friendly behaviour. Although research states that anticipated pride and guilt are associated with the NAM, these associations are not yet fully understood. The current study provides an overview of the literature that refers to anticipated pride and guilt within the NAM. Moreover, we aim to increase our understanding of these associations through theoretical arguments and a study conducted in the Netherlands. We hypothesised that anticipated pride and guilt cause individuals to behave themselves in a manner that is in line with personal norms. This proposition regarding the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt was confirmed by our study; anticipated emotions mediate the effects of personal norms on behaviour. These associations remained after including the Theory of Planned Behaviour in the NAM, although in the integrated NAM–TPB model, anticipated emotions affected behaviour via behavioural intentions. Implications regarding these findings are discussed.
Consumer acceptance of salt-reduced 'soy sauce' bread over repeated in home consumption
Kremer, S. ; Shimojo, R. ; Holthuysen, N.T.E. ; Koester, E.P. ; Mojet, J. - \ 2013
Food Quality and Preference 28 (2013)2. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 484 - 491.
food acceptability - repeated exposure - extended-use - choice - responses - variety - boredom - liking - memory - time
The stability of liking for salt reduced/re-formulated bread was tested in a home use test for three weeks. Salt was partially replaced by naturally brewed soy sauce. 56 Consumers were provided with regular bread (variant A) and another 59 were provided with salt-reduced soy sauce bread (variant B). During this period, the consumers were asked to exclusively consume the provided bread and to fill in a questionnaire each day from Monday till Saturday (i.e. 15 times in total). They were asked to provide information on the number of slices eaten per day, the type of filling they used and how much they had liked each slice of bread (in combination with the different types of fillings) on a nine-point hedonic scale. On average, the liking ratings of the regular bread (A) and the salt-reduced soy sauce bread (B) developed in different ways over the repeated in home exposure. The liking for the regular bread significantly decreased over time, whereas the liking for the salt-reduced bread, increased steadily although not significantly over the 15 exposure days. On an individual level, significant increases or decreases over time can be observed as well as flat time-preference curves. The results further support the notion that naturally brewed soy sauce is a functional salt replacer in Western foods. The results also confirm that first impressions of a new product may have little predictive value for its later success.
Consumption and perception of processed fruits in the Western Balkan region
Sijtsema, S.J. ; Zimmermann, K.L. ; Cvetkovic, M. ; Stojanovic, Z. ; Spiroski, I. ; Milosevic, J. ; Mora, C. ; Butigan, R. ; Mugosa, B. ; Esteve, M. ; Pohar, J. - \ 2012
Food Science and Technology = Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie 49 (2012)2. - ISSN 0023-6438 - p. 293 - 297.
countries - choice
The aim of the study was to gain a better understanding of the consumption and perception of processed fruits in Western Balkan countries in order to support consumer-oriented product development. In-depth interviews (n = 183) were used to explore the consumption of processed fruits, the motives to consume such fruits and the barriers to doing so in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. The Western Balkan region has a rich tradition of home-made fruit products, which might influence consumers' perception of processed fruits. Generally, more fruit juice is consumed in these countries than jams and dried fruits. Motives to consume fruit products are taste and health, and being a substitute when fresh fruit is unavailable. The most important barriers to the consumption of processed fruits are price and a preference for fresh fruits; also mentioned were availability, product safety and the absence of habitual consumption of such products. Consumers express that they prefer home-processed to industrial products, as they trust neither the producers nor the ingredients. Recommendations are presented for consumer-oriented product development and innovations in fruit processing, in which target groups, consumption moment, and perception of fruit and processed fruit should be taken into consideration.
|Flops analysis: a useful tool for future innovations. Part 2: The reduction of future flop risks
Koester, E. ; Mojet, J. - \ 2012
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 23 (2012)2. - ISSN 1722-6996 - p. 6 - 10.
flavor memory - food - complexity - curiosity - texture - choice - milk
After a thorough diagnostic analysis of a recent flop, including the verification of its possible causes and eventual repair of the product as described earlier (1), attention is given to the formulation of a new communal protocol for the formation of pro
Fruit and snack consumption related to sweet, sour and salty taste preferences
Sijtsema, S.J. ; Reinders, M.J. ; Hiller, S. ; Guardia, D. - \ 2012
British Food Journal 114 (2012)7. - ISSN 0007-070X - p. 1032 - 1046.
vegetable consumption - individual-differences - food preferences - health - choice - children - determinants - convenience - attitudes - consumers
Purpose – To better understand fruit consumption and its determinants this paper aims to explore the relationship between the consumption of different types of fruit and other snacks and consumer taste preferences for sweet, salty and sour is explored. Design/methodology/approach – Respondents (n=2,083) from Poland, Greece, Spain and The Netherlands filled out an online questionnaire in which the consumption of fresh fruit, sweet snacks, salty snacks, orange juice and dried fruit was measured as well as consumer self-reported taste preferences and personal orientations towards health, convenience, price and routine behaviours. Findings – A total of 29 percent of the total sample preferred salty tastes, whereas 21 percent preferred sweet tastes; 1 percent preferred sour tastes, and 39 percent indicated no preference. In contrast with the expectation that people who preferred sweet tastes consume more fruits and fruit products, the results imply that consumers with a sour taste preference consume more fruits and fruit products. In addition, consumers with a sour taste preference seem to be less convenience-oriented and have more routine behaviours with regard to fruit. In contrast, consumers with a sweet taste preference eat more chocolate bars and are more convenience-oriented. Research limitations/implications – The self-reported measurement of taste preferences requires further justification to be used as a measurement instrument, e.g. formulation of the items, different cultures and linkage with preferences based on sensory testing. Practical implications – These findings show that the sweet tooth hypothesis is much more complicated if we consider not only consumption, but also self-reported taste preferences. Originality/value – The paper explores self-reported taste preferences, the sweet tooth hypotheses and fruit consumption.