Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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      We will mail you new results for this query: keywords==citizen participation
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    Open Stad : Werken aan duurzame en democratische steden
    Nijs, K. de; Levelt, Melika ; Majoor, S. ; Hasanov, Mustafa ; Karnenbeek, Lilian van; Schönfeld, Kim von; Tan, W.G.Z. - \ 2020
    Den Haag : Platform31 - ISBN 9789492644176 - 153 p.
    citizen participation - urban planning
    In an open city, residents, entrepreneurs and social organizations think along with the municipality about what the city should look like. How does that think along? What does it deliver? And what does that require from all parties involved? In the magazine "Open city: working on sustainable and democratic cities" the researchers from R-LINK explain how it works on the basis of 14 practical examples. They also present 4 rules for successful step-by-step area development in co-creation between citizens, entrepreneurs and the government. A more gradual and searching form of urban development has emerged in the last ten years. Spatial planning is given a more "open" character there, both in the final image and in access for other players. This allows smaller-scale parties and citizens to participate in the process and the production of urban space. In such an "open city" there is more room for experimentation and better consideration is given to the dynamics and complexity of the city and its residents. This development of the "open city" fits in with the focus of the long-term NWO-VerDuS research project R-LINK. It examines how small-scale bottom-up initiatives in area development can contribute to solving social issues. In the magazine "Open city: working for sustainable and democratic cities", the researchers explore how this open, more demand-oriented and incremental approach to urban planning works in practice, including challenges and dilemmas. For this, we zoom in on the experiences of initiators and governments with 14 projects in Amsterdam and Groningen. In this way, the researchers come to important lessons for those who want to work for a more open city.
    The myth of participation An open city: a nice theory or should we be more optimistic?
    Tan, W.W.Y. - \ 2020
    citizen participation - urban planning
    The Netherlands is a self-made land through strategic planning and development. The making of this and is made possible by the close collaboration of many different stakeholders. Participation in an open city means that citizens, entrepreneurs, social organisations should be able to collaboratively think, and implement urban development. Does such an open city exist only in theory or can we be more optimistic?

    Van terp tot zandrug en van drooglegging tot stadsontwikkeling – Nederland dankt zijn bestaan aan gebiedsontwikkeling. Om dit mogelijk te maken, is een nauwe samenwerking tussen vele partijen nodig. Participatie in een open stad betekent een stad waar bewoners, ondernemers en maatschappelijke organisaties meedenken en meedoen in het vormgeven van de ruimte. Bestaat zo’n stad alleen in theorie of moeten we hoopvoller zijn?
    Consultants as intermediaries: Their perceptions on citizen involvement in urban development
    Stapper, E.W. ; Veen, M. Van der; Janssen-Jansen, L.B. - \ 2020
    Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space 38 (2020)1. - ISSN 2399-6544 - p. 60 - 78.
    citizen participation - Consultancy - development agreement - urban development

    Planning consultants are increasingly hired to organize citizen participation processes for urban development projects. However, the ways in which planning consultants engage in and perceive the involvement of citizens in urban development projects remain relatively understudied. This article opens the black box of consultancy employees’ perceptions toward citizens in urban development processes. Employees from two consultancy firms in the Netherlands were interviewed, and several focus groups were organized. This research shows that consultants have wide-ranging views concerning the ways of incorporating citizens’ interests in urban development projects. With the use of Q-methodology, a typology of how consultants engage with citizens is proposed. Furthermore, we show that the different perceptions of consultants lead to a different approach in identifying the needs and problems of citizens. This finding gives insight into the context in which decisions about urban development are made.

    Meer met mate: co-creatie en leren
    Schönfeld, Kim von; Tan, W.G.Z. - \ 2019
    In: Meer met meer: Bijdragen aan de Plandag 2019. - Groningen : Stichting Planologische Discussiedagen - ISBN 9789081921763 - p. 154 - 161.
    citizen participation - urban planning - Social learning
    In the context of 'more-with-more', citizens are often asked to do more: they have to participate more, do more themselves and take on more responsibility. At the same time, this also requires more administration and flexible working from the government.
    This can result in a more involved attitude from both sides, and in building better-tuned results and knowledge. But this does not happen automatically, and we still too often start from the ideal of participation and co-creation, as a result of which we do not look sufficiently at which forms of this lead to which outcomes and consequences. Social learning is an analytical concept that can help with this: by looking better at how we gain knowledge and skills through interaction with others, we can get a better grip on which factors respond to each other in which way. This article introduces two cases from Groningen, the Netherlands, and discusses three main lessons that flow from this, regarding "desired" results; speed and efficiency; and personal backgrounds and timing of collaboration. The conclusion reflects on five concrete consequences that this has for planning practice.
    Het stedelijk laboratorium als lege huls? Het gevaar van het verzuimen van wetsnormen in een ‘experiment’
    Karnenbeek, Lilian van; Tan, W.G.Z. - \ 2019
    In: Meer met meer. - Groningen : Stichting Planologische Discussiedagen - ISBN 9789081921763 - p. 182 - 190.
    citizen participation - urban planning - experiments
    Co-creation and Co-design for Community-Linked Developments in Copenhagen
    Tan, W.G.Z. - \ 2019
    citizen participation - co-creation
    R-LINK visits Copenhagen!
    Copenhagen adopted a local strategic vision of ‘Co-create Copenhagen’ seeking new ways of collaborating with citizens and various interests groups. This is activated across various levels of scale from community gardens to urban transformation zones with the objective of climate adaption and citizen inclusion. The invitation from the University of Copenhagen gave the R-LINK team (Lilian van Karnebeek, Karin de Nijs, Wendy Tan, Kim von Schönfeld, Michiel Stapper, and Annemiek Rijckenberg, Menno van der Veen) a wonderful opportunity to visit examples of community-linked developments in Copenhagen last November.
    Wat is er gebeurd met Planners’ Paradise? Een analyse van Nederlands gemeentelijk grondbeleid
    Nieland, Elin ; Meijer, R. ; Jonkman, Arend ; Hartmann, Thomas - \ 2019
    In: Meer met meer. - Groningen : Stichting Planologische Discussiedagen - ISBN 9789081921763 - p. 30 - 37.
    citizen participation - urban planning - Social learning
    Community-Linked Incremental Urban Developments
    Tan, W.W.Y. - \ 2019
    incremental urban developments - citizen participation - strategic planning
    Ladder op, ladder af: 50 jaar participatie
    Tan, W.G.Z. ; Levelt, Melika ; Stapper, Michiel - \ 2019
    Rooilijn 52 (2019)3. - ISSN 1380-2860 - p. 160 - 167.
    citizen participation - urban planning
    The role of the citizen in planning processes is rapidly changing. At least, that's how it is assumed. The debate around this issue is not new. In the 60s, there was a call for less technocratic and top-down planning approach. In this article, we discuss how the perspective on citizen participation in planning has develop in time (in The Netherlands) and what impact it has had on planning practice. De rol van de burger in ruimtelijke planvorming is in verandering. Althans, dat is de gedachte. Het debat hierover is echter niet nieuw. Al in de jaren zestig ontstond een roep om minder technocratisch en top-down tot plannen te komen. In dit artikel bespreken we hoe de kijk op de participatierol van burgers in de loop van de tijd is veranderd en welke weerslag dat had op de praktijk: is er in de loop van de tijd wezenlijk iets veranderd of is er niets nieuws aan de horizon?
    De kunst van het loslaten : Onderzoek naar nieuwe partnerschap tussen overheid, markt en burgers
    Tan, W.G.Z. - \ 2018
    Ruimte en Wonen (2018)3. - ISSN 2543-103X - p. 38 - 47.
    citizen participation - urban planning
    The citizen is given a leading role in this new age of civil participation to co-create their built environment. The idea behind this is that with this approach the democracy is improved, the active citizen can express their desires of their living environment and the government can reduce their costs. This sounds ideal but also idealistic. Where is the boundary to such interactions and what assumptions lay behind this new approach? The research consortium of R-LINK asks some critical questions and seeks answers for the above.
    Exploring urban adaptation practice : Focus on co-production and multi-level governance
    Carter, J. ; Lefebre, Filip ; Connelly, Angela ; Terenzi, Alberto ; Mendizabal, Maddalen ; Dumonteil, Margaux ; Sips, K. ; Pansaerts, Resi ; Feliu, Efrén ; Verstraeten, G. ; Coninx, I. - \ 2017
    In: Full Programme: ECCA (European Conference on Climate Adaptation) 2017. - - p. 267 - 270.
    co-production - collaboration - citizen participation - multi-level governance - science-policy interface - financing constraints - european cities
    Fachgespräch Verbraucherarbeit und Soziale Innovationen
    Wahlen, Stefan - \ 2016
    consumer policy - citizen participation - consumer organization - consmption governance
    Contribution to a debate on how consumer initiatives can be supported.
    The interaction triangle as a tool for understanding stakeholder interactions in marine ecosystem based management
    Rockmann, C. ; Leeuwen, J. van; Goldsborough, D.G. ; Kraan, M.L. ; Piet, G.J. - \ 2015
    Marine Policy 52 (2015). - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 155 - 162.
    traditional ecological knowledge - fisheries management - environmental assessment - citizen participation - resource-management - risk communication - uncertainty - governance - framework - science
    Expectations about ecosystem based management (EBM) differ due to diverging perspectives about what EBM should be and how it should work. While EBM by its nature requires trade-offs to be made between ecological, economic and social sustainability criteria, the diversity of cross-sectoral perspectives, values, stakes, and the specificity of each individual situation determine the outcome of these trade-offs. The authors strive to raise awareness of the importance of interaction between three stakeholder groups (decision makers, scientists, and other actors) and argue that choosing appropriate degrees of interaction between them in a transparent way can make EBM more effective in terms of the three effectiveness criteria salience, legitimacy, and credibility. This article therefore presents an interaction triangle in which three crucial dimensions of stakeholder interactions are discussed: (A) between decision makers and scientists, who engage in framing to foster salience of scientific input to decision making, (B) between decision makers and other actors, to shape participation processes to foster legitimacy of EBM processes, and (C) between scientists and other actors, who collaborate to foster credibility of knowledge production. Due to the complexity of EBM, there is not one optimal interaction approach; rather, finding the optimal degrees of interaction for each dimension depends on the context in which EBM is implemented, i.e. the EBM objectives, the EBM initiator’s willingness for transparency and interaction, and other context-specific factors, such as resources, trust, and state of knowledge.
    Gender perspectives on decentralisation and service users’ participation in rural Tanzania
    Masanyiwa, Z.S. ; Niehof, A. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2014
    The Journal of Modern African Studies 52 (2014)1. - ISSN 0022-278X - p. 95 - 122.
    citizen participation - health systems - decision space - lessons - government - africa - uganda - accountability - women
    Increasing participation in decision-making processes by service users is one of the objectives of decentralisation reforms in Tanzania. The argument is that decentralisation enhances participation by all sections of the community, and by women in particular, and results in decisions that better reflect local needs. This paper examines the impact of decentralisation reforms on service users’ participation for delivery of water and health services in rural Tanzania, using a gender perspective and principal-agent theory. The paper investigates how decentralisation has fostered spaces for participation and how men and women use these spaces, and identifies factors that constrain or encourage women’s participation. It shows that decentralisation reforms have created spaces for service users’ participation at the local level. Participation in these spaces, however, differs between men and women, and is influenced by the sociocultural norms within the household and community. Men have gained more leverage than women to exercise their agency as principals. Women’s participation is contributing to addressing practical gender needs, but strategic gender needs have been less adequately addressed because gendered power relations have been largely untouched by the reforms.
    Readiness and willingness of the public to participate in integrated water management: some insights from Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey (also presentated at UNESCO-IHE, Delft NL)
    Ker Rault, P.A. ; Jeffrey, P.J. ; Vreugdenhil, H.S.I. ; Slinger, J.H. - \ 2013
    Water Policy 15 (2013). - ISSN 1366-7017 - p. 101 - 120.
    citizen participation
    Although public participation has received much attention in the context of integrated water resources management, little is known about the readiness and willingness of the wider public to participate. The top-down perception that the public is poorly organised, has limited knowledge and is not interested in participation is a major barrier for the implementation of participation. We illustrate, through four medium-scale surveys in the Levant, that the potential for public participation is present, even in countries with limited exercise of democracy. The study demonstrates that the public is willing to participate and knowledgeable about water management challenges at both the institutional and household level. These conditions for participation are particularly present in countries where water stress is high. The preferred style of participation is active involvement, in order to have a channel to communicate, express opinions and exchange personal understanding of the situation in which one lives.
    Advancing the deliberative turn in natural resource management: An analysis of discourses on the use of local resources
    Rodela, R. - \ 2012
    Journal of Environmental Management 96 (2012)1. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 26 - 34.
    public-participation - citizen participation - impact assessment - democracy - slovenia - policy - power
    The natural resource management literature stresses the need for public participation and community involvement in resource management and planning. Recently, some of this literature turned to the theory on deliberative democracy and demonstrated that a deliberative perspective on participation can help to challenge established practices and contribute with new ideas about how to conduct participation. The purpose of this paper is to consider the latest developments in deliberative democracy and outline the implications arising from these insights for a "deliberative turn" in resource management. A bottom-up protected area establishment, the Goricko Landscape Park, is examined. The empirical case is discussed from a discursive perspective, which relied on John Dryzek's approach to discourse analysis here used to explore the construction of discourses on the use of local natural resources. Two discourses are identified and the way these interfaced with the participatory park establishment process is considered. Findings indicate that advocates of the two discourses engaged differently with the participatory tools used and this had important implications for the park establishment. The case study suggests that, in contexts where participation has been recently introduced, knowledge of discourses on the use of local natural resources and of mobilization strategies actors may pursue could usefully assist in the design and implementation of participatory processes.
    Participatory Decision Making for Sanitation Improvements in Unplanned Urban Settlements in East Africa
    Hendriksen, A. ; Tukahirwa, J. ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2012
    The Journal of Environment & Development 21 (2012)1. - ISSN 1070-4965 - p. 98 - 119.
    water-resources management - citizen participation - stakeholder - uganda - sector
    Solving the problem of inadequate access to sanitation in unplanned settlements in East Africa needs to combine social and technical dimensions in such a manner that they fit the local context. The modernized mixtures approach offers an analytical framework for identifying such solutions, but this approach requires effective methods for participatory decision making. This article intends to contribute to filling this gap by identifying and further elaborating an appropriate multicriteria decisionmaking tool. The multicriteria decision analysis methodology, Proact 2.0, offers an adequate solution as it creates the possibility to connect knowledge, experiences, and preferences from scientists, experts, and policy makers with those of the end users. We show in particular that users not always prefer the most optimal sanitation system, defined from an “expert” point of view. This article concludes that using Proact 2.0 can lead to substantial improvements in decision making in the field of sanitation in unplanned settlements in East Africa.
    Local Community Participation in Italian National Parks Management: Theory versus Practice
    Buono, F. ; Pediaditi, K. ; Carsjens, G.J. - \ 2012
    Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 14 (2012)2. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 189 - 208.
    protected area management - citizen participation - public-participation - nature conservation - stakeholder theory - decision-support - risk-assessment - network - implementation - perceptions
    The need for participation of local communities in the management of protected areas (PAs) is widely acknowledged, and its implementation is viewed as an indicator of sustainable practice. Such participation is increasingly mentioned in the recent European Union (EU) policy and legislation, yet little statutory guidance and few minimum requirements are available. Italy, as an EUMember State, has committed itself to incorporate participation in PA management. However, to date, there has been no assessment of how participation has materialized in practice. This paper presents the results of an investigation of participatory practices focusing specifically on local community involvement in Italian National Park management. The investigation is based on a review of the stateof- the-art theory on participation in PA management, specifically addressing the following questions: what levels of participation are preferable, what methods should be utilized in order to enable effective PA management and who should participate? The results show a discrepancy between best practice theory and practice for the case of Italy. More importantly, the results indicate the need for the development of practical guidance and a common participation framework for PA management in Europe
    Patient-expert partnerships in research: how to stimulate inclusion of patient perspectives
    Elberse, J.E. ; Caron-Flinterman, J.F. ; Broerse, J.E.W. - \ 2011
    Health Expectations 14 (2011)3. - ISSN 1369-6513 - p. 225 - 239.
    health research - public involvement - citizen participation - biomedical-research - challenges - knowledge - communities - engagement - services - dialogue
    Objective To gain more insight into exclusion mechanisms and inclusion strategies in patient–expert partnerships. Background Patient participation in health research, on the level of ‘partnerships with experts’ is a growing phenomenon. However, little research is conducted whether exclusion mechanisms take place and to what extent patients’ perspectives are included in the final outcomes of these partnerships. Case study A dialogue meeting attended by experts, patients and patient representatives to develop a joint research agenda. Different inclusion strategies were applied during the dialogue meeting to avoid possible exclusion. Method Data were collected by the means of audio and video recordings, observations, document analysis and evaluative interviews. The data are clustered using a framework that divides exclusion mechanisms in three categories: circumstances, behaviour and verbal communication. The data are analysed focusing on the experiences of participants, observation of occurrence of exclusion and difference between input and outcome of the dialogue meeting. Results The circumstances of the dialogue and the behaviour of the participants were experienced as mainly inclusive. Some exclusion was observed particularly with respect to verbal communication. The input of the patients was less visible in the outcome of the dialogue meeting compared to the input of the experts. Conclusion This case study reveals that exclusion of patients’ perspective occurred during a dialogue meeting with experts, despite the fact that inclusion strategies were used and patients experienced the dialogue meeting as inclusive. To realize a more effective patient–expert partnership, more attention should be paid to the application of some additional inclusion strategies.
    Informal Participatory Platforms for Adaptive Management. Insights into Niche-finding, Collaborative Design and Outcomes from a Participatory Process in te Rhine Basin
    Moellenkamp, S. ; Lamers, M.A.J. ; Huesmann, C. ; Rotter, S. ; Pahl-Wostl, C. ; Speil, K. ; Pohl, W. - \ 2010
    Ecology and Society 15 (2010)4. - ISSN 1708-3087 - p. 41 - 41.
    social-ecological-systems - water-resources management - public-participation - citizen participation - transitions - resilience - governance - mechanisms
    New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multistakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1) the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2) the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3) the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions
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