Wildlife comeback in Flanders: tracing the fault lines and dynamics of public debate
Herzele, A. Van; Aarts, N. ; Casaer, J. - \ 2015
European Journal of Wildlife Research 61 (2015)4. - ISSN 1612-4642 - p. 539 - 555.
biodiversity conservation - scale frames - conflicts - forest - policy - discourse - science - europe - city
Conflicts and debates on wildlife issues often prove intractable or resistant to resolution. This paper develops a three-layered methodological approach to identify the fault lines and dynamics, which perpetuate social division and conflict. This approach was applied to the analysis of six publicly debated events that followed the comeback of the red fox and wild boar in Flanders, Belgium. The integrated findings demonstrate that conflict was not merely a manifestation of incompatible goals and views, but was highly determined by the conduct of the debate itself. The debates evolved along a few main fault lines, most notably belonging/not belonging, opportunity/threat and control by intervention/nature controls itself. A number of dynamics were identified along these fault lines, including the convergence and alignment of arguments (in particular, dichotomisation), the linking and scaling up of issues and the stigmatisation of outgroups. These processes were largely driven by the parties’ strategies to gain credibility and support with audiences. At the same time, however, they tended to magnify the problems, polarised positions along the fault lines, and thus hampered resolution. Furthermore, part of the debate served to confirm institutional roles and identities, which, in turn, contributed to the perpetuation of conflict. Contrasting views on nature were hardly a topic of discussion. Rather they were locked into dichotomies and classifications expressed by the contending parties. Together, the findings from this paper provide useful clues for transforming the dynamics perpetuating the conflict to different dynamics that allow for more constructive relations between the parties involved.
Limits of policy and planning in peri-urban waterscapes: the case of Ghaziabad, Delhi, India
Mehta, L. ; Karpouzoglou, T.D. - \ 2015
Habitat International 48 (2015). - ISSN 0197-3975 - p. 159 - 168.
periurban interface - political ecology - water management - cities - governance - city - adaptation - sanitation - lessons - science
The notion of the waterscape has been proposed to capture the interconnectedness of economic, political, cultural and social processes embedded in water. More recently recognised, yet still relatively under-theorised are waterscapes that are ‘in-between’ the city and the periphery. This article focuses on peri-urban Delhi, specifically the area around Ghaziabad. We show that peri-urban waterscapes do not fit into existing urban or rural planning models because these same models largely fail to recognise the peri-urban interface as a distinct form of territorial development. As a result a diverse range of mobilisations around water relevant to the peri-urban poor are systematically undermined while power asymmetries that shape access to water remain unrecognised. Peri-urban spaces thus continue to be planned as if in a transition towards urban modernity despite the complex social, political, technological and cultural realities these spaces represent. The failure to address current limits of policy and planning in peri-urban waterscapes has long term implications for the resilience, sustainability and transformative adaptation of both city and periphery.
“My body breaks. I take solution.” Inhalant use in Delhi as pleasure seeking at a cost
Gigengack, R.A. - \ 2014
International Journal of Drug policy 25 (2014)4. - ISSN 0955-3959 - p. 810 - 818.
volatile substance misuse - street children - india - intoxication - addiction - science - rights - city
Background: Inhalant use has existed in India since the 1970s and has increased significantly over the last decades, especially among street-oriented young people. The latter constitute a heterogeneous category: children from street families, children 'of' the street, rag pickers, and part-time street children. There are also inhalant-using schoolchildren and young people in slums. Methods: Fieldwork was conducted for 1 year. Team ethnography, multi-sited and comparative research, flexibility of methods and writing field notes were explicit parts of the research design. Most research was undertaken with six groups in four areas of Delhi, exemplifying six generic categories of inhalant-using street-oriented young people. Results: Inhalants in India are branded: Eraz-Ex diluter and whitener, manufactured by Kores, are used throughout Delhi; Omni glue in one specific area. There is a general lack of awareness and societal indifference towards inhalant use, with the exception of the inhalant users themselves, who possess practical knowledge. They conceive of inhalants as nasha, encapsulating the materiality of the substances and the experiential aspects of intoxication and addiction. Fragments of group interviews narrate the sensory appeal of inhalants, and an ethnographic vignette the dynamics of a sniffing session. These inhalant-using street children seek intoxication in a pursuit of pleasure, despite the harm that befalls them as a result. Some find nasha beautiful, notwithstanding the stigmatization, violence and bodily deterioration; others experience it as an overpowering force. Conclusion: A source of attraction and pleasure, inhalants ravage street children's lives. In this mysterious space of lived experience, their self-organization evolves. Distinguishing between hedonic and side effects, addiction helps to understand inhalant use as at once neurobiological, cultural, and involving agency. The implications are that India needs to develop a policy of treatment and employment to deal with the addiction. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans
Maas, M. ; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C. ; Roon, A.M. van; Takumi, K. ; Giessen, J.W.B. van der - \ 2014
Veterinary Parasitology 206 (2014)3-4. - ISSN 0304-4017 - p. 167 - 172.
human alveolar echinococcosis - red foxes - netherlands - transmission - switzerland - city - dogs
The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of Limburg, The Netherlands. This study was designed todetermine trends in the prevalence and worm burden of E. multilocularis in foxes in a popu-lar recreational area in the southern part of Limburg to assess the risk of infection for humansand to study the prevalence of E. multilocularis in dogs in the adjacent city of Maastricht.Thirty-seven hunted red foxes were tested by the intestinal scraping technique and nestedPCR on colon content. Additionally, 142 fecal samples of domestic dogs from Maastrichtwere analyzed by qPCR for the presence of E. multilocularis.In foxes, a significantly increased prevalence of 59% (95% confidence interval 43–74%)was found, compared to the prevalence of 11% (95% CI 7–18%) in 2005–2006. Average wormburden increased to 37 worms per fox, the highest since the first detection, but consistentwith the prediction about the parasite population for this region. Updated prediction onthe number of AE cases did not lead to an increase in previous estimates of human AE casesup to 2018. No dogs in the city of Maastricht tested positive, but results of questionnairesshowed that deworming schemes were inadequate, especially in dogs that were consideredat risk for infection.
Delivering planning objectives through regional-based land-use planning and land policy instruments: an assessment of recent experiences in the Dutch provincies
Straalen, F.M. van; Janssen-Jansen, L.B. ; Brink, A. van den - \ 2014
Environment and Planning C. Government and Policy 32 (2014)3. - ISSN 0263-774X - p. 567 - 584.
governance - institutions - netherlands - performance - devolution - patterns - rights - city
This paper evaluates the extent to which the introduction of four new regional planning and land policy instruments in the Netherlands improves the delivery of regional planning objectives. On the basis of case-study research, we identify why and to what extent the Dutch regional authorities—the provinces—have adopted these new instruments and assess whether or not the instruments offer opportunities for improving the delivery of regional planning objectives. The study shows that regional policies and plans are often implemented without consideration of their consequences for national or local planning objectives. As a result, the instruments may not address current policy delivery needs, and may even compound local policy failures. We conclude that the use of such instruments should be accompanied by a more thorough discussion of regional planning tasks and objectives, and a debate on the role of regional authorities within the multilevel governance setting.
Spatial variability of the Rotterdam urban heat island as influenced by urban land use
Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Steeneveld, G.J. ; Hove, L.W.A. van; Jacobs, C.M.J. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. - \ 2014
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 119 (2014)2. - ISSN 2169-897X - p. 677 - 692.
klimaatverandering - stedelijke gebieden - temperatuur - rotterdam - climatic change - urban areas - temperature - rotterdam - city - vegetation - design - street
Novel bicycle traverse meteorological measurements were made in Rotterdam to assess the spatial variation of temperature during a tropical day. Nocturnal spatial urban temperature differences of 7¿K were found to be related to city morphology. The coolest residential areas were green low-density urban areas. During midday measurements the downtown was up to 1.2¿K warmer than the surrounding rural area while a city park was 4.0¿K cooler than downtown. A regression analysis showed that the nocturnal measured urban heat island (UHI) can be linked to land use, namely plan area fraction of vegetation, built up area water and is most significant for vegetation. The vegetated area was derived from visible and near infrared aerial images. Neighbourhoods with vegetation (within an upwind radius of 700¿m) had a significantly reduced UHI during the night. From the traverse observation data a multiple linear regression model was constructed and independently validated with 3-year summertime UHI statistics derived from 4 urban fixed meteorological stations. In addition, two fixed rural stations were used; a WMO station at Rotterdam airport and a rural station further away from the city. Wind rose analysis shows that UHI is strongest from easterly directions and that the temperature signal of the WMO station is influenced by an UHI signal from both the airport runways and urban directions. A regression model reproduced the nighttime spatial variability of the UHI within a fractional bias of 4.3% and was used to derive an UHI map of Rotterdam and surroundings. This map shows that high density urban configurations lacking greenery or close to large water bodies are vulnerable to high nocturnal temperatures during heat waves. This warming effect of water bodies is also evident for an urban weather station located in the harbor area, which had a similar nocturnal UHI frequency distribution as the downtown urban weather station. The UHI map can be used as a valuable planning tool for mitigating nocturnal urban heat stress or identifying neighborhoods at risk during heat waves.
Low-cost housing developments in South Africa miss the opportunities for household level urban greening
Chackleton, C. ; Hebinck, P.G.M. ; Kaoma, M. ; Chishaleshale, M. ; Shackleton, S. ; Gambiza, J. ; Gumbo, D. - \ 2014
Land Use Policy 36 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 500 - 509.
small towns - open space - city - tree - inequality - services - policies - america - ecology - access
Most developing countries of the world are experiencing large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Many new migrants end up in low-cost or informal areas and slums with attendant environmental concerns. One dimension of improved urban sustainability is the provision of green spaces and trees. Whilst many countries have urban greening programmes for public spaces and streets, few have considered the status and potential contribution of trees from resident's own gardens. This paper reports firstly on the policy environment for urban forestry and greening in South Africa and secondly on the maintenance, use and appreciation of trees on private homesteads of residents of new and older low-income suburbs as well as informal housing areas from three small towns in South Africa. In particular we examine if the most recent centrally planned and built low-income housing schemes (called RDP suburbs in South Africa) have considered and incorporated plans or spaces for urban greenery in peoples’ homesteads. We found that broad environmental and sustainability concerns and statements are common in urban development and housing policies, but specific guidelines for implementation are generally absent. More specifically, urban forestry and tree planting are rarely mentioned in the broader land use and environmental policies other than the national forest act and subsequent regulations, but even there it is relatively superficial. In the study towns the prevalence, density and number of species of trees was lowest in the new RDP suburbs relative to the township and informal areas. Consequently, the contribution of tree products to local livelihoods was also lower in the RDP areas. Yet there were no differences in the level of appreciation of the value and intangible benefits of trees between residents from the three different suburbs. This shows that the failure to plan for and accommodate trees in new low-cost housing developments is missing an opportunity to improve overall urban sustainability and liveability and constraining the potential flows of tangible and intangible benefits to urban residents. Making opportunities for such in older suburbs is challenging because of space limitations and cost implications of retrospective provisions, but incorporation into plans for new low-cost housing development should be possible.
Climate proofing of the Zuidplaspolder: a guiding model approach to climate adaptation
Groot, M.A.M. de; Goosen, H. ; Steekelenburg, M.G.N. van - \ 2014
Regional Environmental Change 14 (2014)3. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 909 - 918.
polders - klimaatverandering - landgebruiksplanning - modellen - zuid-holland - polders - climatic change - land use planning - models - zuid-holland - vulnerability - sustainability - netherlands - landscape - knowledge - policies - tools - city
Climate change will have an impact on various sectors, such as housing, infrastructure, recreation and agriculture. Climate change may change spatial demands. For example, rising temperatures will increase the need for recreation areas, and areas could be assigned for water storage. There is a growing sense that, especially at the local scale, spatial planning has a key role in addressing the causes and impacts of climate change. This paper promotes an approach to help translate information on climate change impacts into a guiding model for adaptive spatial planning. We describe how guiding models can be used in designing integrated adaptation strategies. The concept of guiding models has been developed in the 1990s by Tjallingii to translate the principles of integrated water management in urban planning. We have integrated information about the present and future climate change and set up a climate adaptation guiding model approach. Making use of climate adaptation guiding models, spatial planners should be able to better cope with complexities of climate change impacts and be able to translate these to implications for spatial planning. The climate adaptation guiding model approach was first applied in the Zuidplaspolder case study, one of the first major attempts in the Netherlands to develop and implement an integrated adaptation strategy. This paper demonstrates how the construction of climate adaptation guiding models requires a participatory approach and how the use of climate adaptation guiding models can contribute to the information needs of spatial planners at the local scale, leading to an increasing sense of urgency and integrated adaptation planning process
Feeling at home in public: diasporic Moroccan women negotiating leisure in Morocco and the Netherlands
Wagner, L.B. ; Peters, K.B.M. - \ 2014
Gender, Place & Culture : a Journal of Feminist Geography 21 (2014)4. - ISSN 0966-369X - p. 415 - 430.
gender - space - constraints - experience - power - city - fear
Muslim women are often cited as subject to restriction in their mobility through public space, especially in European contexts, in comparison with non-Muslim community members. Yet any woman might face restriction in her access to leisure outside the home through geographies of risk and fear, as well as geographies of care and responsibility. In this article, we describe the ways in which Moroccan Muslim women resident in Europe negotiate access to leisure outside the home, in both Europe and Morocco, demonstrating that they practice mobilities framed by safety, risk and responsibility combined with individual volition to be participants in public spaces. Using examples from interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we discuss a notion of ‘viscosity’ as safe public space that acts as an extension of the home, where women feel comfortable enacting their daily lives and engaging in leisure practices. By comparing data from the Netherlands and Morocco, we highlight the role of Muslim-dominant and Christian-dominant public spheres in these negotiations of leisure. The ways women inhabit such spaces reflect individual concerns about personal safety, as well as maintaining respectful relations with family and being protected from unknown dangers, in ways that reflect not only religious beliefs but also geographies of risk related to other factors. Inhabiting such spaces implicates how they become part of the community at large, as visibly present participants, by negotiating many factors beyond religious beliefs as part of their access to public leisure spaces
Scale politics, vernacular memory and the preservation of the Green Ridge battlefield in Kampar, Malaysia.
Muzaini, H.B. - \ 2013
Social & Cultural Geography 14 (2013)4. - ISSN 1464-9365 - p. 389 - 409.
social construction - geographies - place - city - remembrance - singapore - nation - museum - work
In the now burgeoning scholarship on memory, there is a discernible shift from considering the politics of dominant public memory towards sites of counter-memories where vernacular forms of memory activism take place. This paper contributes to this by focusing its attention on plans to preserve Green Ridge in Kampar, Malaysia, a tract of forested hill that was the location of a fierce battle fought between the Japanese and Allied forces in the Asia-Pacific theatre of the Second World War. Specifically, it details the rescaling strategies of one particular individual to enhance the reach and relevance of the site for Malaysians writ large, primarily aimed at lobbying for Green Ridge to be officially marked as local and national heritage. This paper then interrogates issues that have hindered this process with the potential to ultimately thwart the preservation of the site for posterity. In doing so, the paper exemplifies memory activism as ‘work’, where local actors–through the mobilisation of scale politics–represent proactive agents in effecting change in public memory from below. Second, it highlights the fragmented nature of vernacular remembering and how this can impede memory work as much as champion memory formally obscured. La politique de la redimensionnement, la mémoire vernaculaire, et la sauvegarde du champ de bataille de Green Ridge à Kampar, Malaisie.Dans la littérature traitant la mémoire qui est en ce moment en plein essor, il y a un déplacement perceptible depuis une considération de la politique de la mémoire dominante publique vers des sites de la contre-mémoire où ont lieu des formes vernaculaires du militantisme de la mémoire. Cet article contribue à ce déplacement en prêtant attention à un projet de sauvegarde de Green Ridge à Kampar, Malaisie, une étendue de colline boisée qui fut l'endroit d'une bataille acharnée entre les forces japonaises et Alliées dans le théâtre de l'Asie-Pacifique de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale. En particulière, l'article expose en détail les stratégies de redimensionnement d'un individu spécifique pour améliorer l'amplitude et la relevance du site pour le peuple malaisien, ces stratégies ayant eu comme but primaire de faire pression pour que Green Ridge soit désigné officiellement comme site de patrimoine local et national. L'article interroge ensuite les polémiques qui ont empêché ce processus jusqu'au point de bloquer en fin de compte la sauvegarde de ce site pour la postérité. En faisant ainsi, l'article est une illustration du militantisme de la mémoire comme du « travail », dans lequel des acteurs locaux – à travers la mobilisation de la politique de la redimensionnement – représentent des acteurs proactifs qui déclenchent changement qui vient d'en-bas dans la mémoire publique. Deuxièmement, il souligne la nature fragmentée du souvenir vernaculaire ainsi que la potentielle pour ce dernier d'empêcher le travail de mémoire aussi bien que devenir les champions de la mémoire formellement dissimulée. Políticas de Escala, Memoria Vernácula y Preservación del Campo de Batalla Green Ridge en Kampar, Malasia.En la creciente literatura académica sobre la memoria se observa un claro desplazamiento. De trabajar las políticas de la memoria pública dominante se ha pasado a estudiar los sitios de contra-memoria en donde tienen lugar formas vernáculas de activismo de la memoria. Este artículo contribuye a este desplazamiento a partir de centrar su atención en los planes para la preservación del Green Ridge en Kampar, Malasia. El Green Ridge está conformado por una porción de una colina boscosa que fue el escenario de una feroz batalla entre los japoneses y las fuerzas aliadas durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial en lo que se conoce como el teatro de operaciones de Asia y el Pacífico. En particular el artículo detalla las estrategias de reescalamiento de un individuo en particular, poniendo de relieve el alcance y la importancia evidente que este sitio tiene para los malayos. Dichas estrategias apuntan a generar presión para que el Green Ridge sea declarado oficialmente patrimonio local y nacional. A continuación, este trabajo se pregunta por los conflictos que han entorpecido este proceso y que podrían, en última instancia, frustrar la preservación del sitio para la posteridad. Para ello, en primer lugar se presenta un ejemplo de activismo de la memoria como ‘trabajo’. A través de la movilización de las políticas de escala – actores locales se presentan como agentes proactivos en la puesta en práctica del cambio de la memoria pública desde abajo. En segundo lugar, se destaca la naturaleza fragmentada del recuerdo vernáculo, y cómo estos actores pueden, tanto dificultar el trabajo sobre la memoria, como convertirse en los adalides de la memoria formalmente oscurecida.
Harvesting urban resources towards more resilient cities
Agudelo Vera, C.M. ; Leduc, W.R.W.A. ; Mels, A.R. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2012
Resources, Conservation and Recycling 64 (2012). - ISSN 0921-3449 - p. 3 - 12.
built environment - water - metabolism - sustainability - management - infrastructure - ecology - design - energy - city
With accelerating global changes, cities have to cope with growing pressures, especially for resource supply. Cities may be considered as resources reservoirs and producers of secondary resources. This paper introduces the concept of urban harvesting as a management tool to change inefficient linear urban resource usage and waste production into sustainable urban metabolism. The Urban Harvest concept includes urban metabolism and closing urban cycles by harvesting urban resources. The purpose of this study was to quantify the potentials to harvest water and energy at different scales. We investigated potentials for the Netherlands. Results show that at national scale, potentials can cover up to 100% of electricity demand, 55% of heat demand and 52% of tap water demand. At neighborhood level, similar percentages were found for energy. Only 43% of water demand was achieved, due to fact that treatment measures were not considered. These results indicate the large potential of cities as providers of their own resources. Therefore urban resources management is a key element of future city design towards more resilient cities.
New maps, new questions: Global cities beyond the advanced producer and financial services sector
Toly, N.J. ; Bouteligier, S. ; Gibson, B. ; Smith, G. - \ 2012
Globalizations 9 (2012)2. - ISSN 1474-7731 - p. 289 - 306.
transnational-municipal-networks - world cities - urban network - governance - globalization - society - ngos - city - geography - politics
This article broadens the discussion of cities as strategic sites in which global activities are organized. It deploys methodology commonly used to study the distribution and disproportionate concentration of advanced producer and financial services firms in order to study the office distribution of global nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and global energy corporations. It then compares the distribution of those offices to that of advanced producer and financial services firms, using data from the global and World Cities Research Network, further discovering what cities are strategic sites in all three networks, in any combination of two networks, and in only one network. Attending to the convergence and divergence of such networks opens a door to the study of network logic—the underlying dynamics of network functioning—instead of limiting the study to network structure or composition while also permitting a multi-sectoral measurement of globality.
Projecting Post-colonial Conditions at Shanghai Expo 2010, China: Floppy Ears, Lofty Dreams and Macao’s Immutable Mobiles
Ong, C.E. ; Cros, H. du - \ 2012
Urban Studies 49 (2012)13. - ISSN 0042-0980 - p. 2937 - 2953.
mega-events - mobilities - geographies - spectacle - nation - impact - city
Recent years have seen increased academic attention in urban studies on the flows of city artefacts and images. Conceptualised as ‘immutable mobiles’, the Macao Pavilion and its associated objects on show at Shanghai Expo 2010 are examined for the ways they encouraged and regulated uniformed flows of people and city images. Specifically, these immutable mobiles projected Macao’s lofty dreams of paradoxical affinity to and difference from mainland China—the city is a steadfast Special Administrative Region of China, but the immigration flow of Chinese citizens has been tightly regulated. This paper unpacks the ways in which urban actants articulate and perform such contradictory imaginings of the (im)mobilities of this post-colonial territory. Accordingly, it provides a basis for further study of post-colonial conditions in Macao, and adds to post-colonial research on mobilities in and of Chinese urban spaces.
The operations and effectiveness of public and private provision of solid waste collection services in Kampala
Katusiimeh, M.W. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Burger, C.P.J. - \ 2012
Habitat International 36 (2012)2. - ISSN 0197-3975 - p. 247 - 252.
uganda - city - management
This paper compares the operations and discusses the effectiveness of public and private sector provision of solid waste collection in Kampala, Uganda. Household data suggest that the private sector is more effective than the public sector. Private sector companies provide services like container provision and providing timely and fixed collection time tables. Contrary to popular perception, fees charged by private companies are moderate. Public sector clients are charged fees even when the service is supposed to be free. Clients of private sector providers are more satisfied than those of public sector providers. It is however, revealed that while public sector serve mainly the low incomes, the private sector serves mainly the rich. In spite of these notable differences, clients of both public and private sector perceive the problem of solid waste management (SWM) in Kampala to be very serious. The effectiveness of public and private sector operations in solid waste collection in Kampala is hampered by corruption and lack of transparency. Given the situation of open competition for clients involving both public and private sector in Kampala, it is possible the public sector can operate effectively if they start commercial services officially like their private sector counterparts. This calls for a formal public-private partnership where the public and private sector can work together with the public sector dominating poor and marginalized areas while the private sector concentrates on rich neighborhoods.
From preamble to post-project frustrations: the shaping of a slum upgrading project in Recife, Brazil
Koster, M. ; Nuijten, M.C.M. - \ 2012
Antipode 44 (2012)1. - ISSN 0066-4812 - p. 175 - 196.
neoliberalism - land - settlements - city - plan
This article presents an ethnography of the evolution of Prometr´opole, a slum upgrading project in the Brazilian city of Recife. The project aims to improve the urban infrastructure, eradicate slums and resettle the population.We focus on the project’s first area of intervention, Jacarezinho. We analyze how, from lead-up through implementation, the project gained shape and gradually became real. Participatory procedures were very important in shaping the project that for a long time did not materialize. We argue that the project manifested itself as a vehicle of modernity that evoked a dream of progress. The population, which never asked for the project, was attracted to this dream, but remained critical.We contend that, although the project partly delivered on its promises, for many slum dwellers it failed to entail a better life. We portray the project’s genealogy, the compromise between different aims, and an echelon of post-project frustrations
'Multicultural Planning' as a Contested Device in Urban Renewal and Housing : Reflections from the Netherlands
Horst, H.M. van der; Ouwehand, A. - \ 2012
Urban Studies 49 (2012)4. - ISSN 0042-0980 - p. 861 - 875.
ethnicity - diversity - city
The academic literature on multicultural planning is rife with normative views which complicates any conceptualisation grounded in empirical realities. This paper offers a critical review of the dynamic and heterogeneous goals and challenges in multicultural urban planning in the Netherlands during a decade of waning support for multiculturalism. Multicultural planning has been used to justify various goals such as emancipating ethnic groups, matching supply and demand in the housing stock, enriching the urban landscape and ‘branding’ urban areas. The importance of each of these is strongly dependent on the socio-political context. From the review it is concluded that multicultural planning cannot be simply analysed according to normative positions as currently presented in the literature. It is argued that it is necessary to set aside normative definitions in order to analyse effectively the different and dynamic objectives and challenges associated with multicultural planning
Resource management as a key factor for sustainable urban planning
Agudelo Vera, C.M. ; Mels, A.R. ; Keesman, K.J. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. - \ 2011
Journal of Environmental Management 92 (2011)10. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 2295 - 2303.
cities - city - ecosystems - metabolism - ecology - history - 21st-century - complexity - challenges - systems
Due to fast urbanization and increasing living standards, the environmental sustainability of our global society becomes more and more questionable. In this historical review we investigate the role of resources management (RM) and urban planning (UP) and propose ways for integration in sustainable development (SD). RM follows the principle of circular causation, and we reflect on to what extent RM has been an element for urban planning. Since the existence of the first settlements, a close relationship between RM, urbanization and technological development has been present. RM followed the demand for urban resources like water, energy, and food. In history, RM has been fostered by innovation and technology developments and has driven population growth and urbanization. Recent massive resource demand, especially in relation to energy and material flows, has altered natural ecosystems and has resulted in environmental degradation. UP has developed separately in response to different questions. UP followed the demand for improved living conditions, often associated to safety, good manufacturing and trading conditions and appropriate sanitation and waste management. In history UP has been a developing research area, especially since the industrial era and the related strong urbanization at the end of the 18th century. UP responded to new emerging problems in urban areas and became increasingly complex. Nowadays, UP has to address many objectives that are often conflicting, including, the urban sustainability. Our current urban un-sustainability is rooted in massive resource consumption and waste production beyond natural limits, and the absence of flows from waste to resources. Therefore, sustainable urban development requires integration of RM into UP. We propose new ways to this integration
Future Projections of Urban Waste Flows aand their Impacts in African Metropolises Cities
Oyoo, R. ; Leemans, R. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2011
International Journal Environmental Research 5 (2011)3. - ISSN 1735-6865 - p. 705 - 724.
solid-waste - management - issues - city - iran
This paper presents future trends of urban wastes and their impacts on the environment of African cities using plausible mitigation scenarios. To accomplish this, an integrated dynamic model for urban waste flows was developed, tested, calibrated and validated. Its parameter sensitivity was analyzed. Using population projection up to 2052 with different levels of technological implementation, policy enforcement and awareness raising, four runs were executed. The “business as usual” run showed that with no additional mitigation measures, the environmental quality in Kampala and Dar es salaam Cities deteriorates. The “more enforcement” and “more collection” scenarios showed good reduction in environmental loads but they perform less well in resource recovery. The “proper management” scenario that combines enhanced technological implementation, awareness raising and policy enforcement, produced the smallest environmental loads, and recovered the largest amount of resources. Thus, the city authorities, general public, community based organisations and Non-governmental organizations would have to increase their efforts in finances and commitment to improve the urban environmental quality and increase resource recovery.
Cities, Europeanization and Multi-level Governance: Governing Climate Change through Transnational Municipal Networks
Kern, K. ; Bulkeley, H. - \ 2009
JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies 47 (2009)2. - ISSN 0021-9886 - p. 309 - 332.
sustainability - government - union - city
This article focuses on a variant of multi-level governance and Europeanization, i.e. the transnational networking of local authorities. Focusing on local climate change policy, the article examines how transnational municipal networks (TMNs) govern in the context of multi-level European governance. We find that TMNs are networks of pioneers for pioneers