Reducing emissions from land use in Indonesia: motivation, policy instruments and expected funding streams
Noordwijk, M. van; Agus, F. ; Dewi, S. ; Purnomo, H. - \ 2014
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 19 (2014)6. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 677 - 692.
redd plus - forest degradation - multifunctional landscapes - southeast-asia - carbon stocks - co2 emissions - fallow model - deforestation - opportunities - incentives
Land-based emissions of carbon dioxide derive from the interface of forest and agriculture. Emission estimates require harmonization across forest and non-forest data sources. Furthermore, emission reduction requires understanding of the linked causes and policy levers between agriculture and forestry. The institutional forestry traditions dominated the emergence of the discourse on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) whilemore holistic perspectives on land-based emissions, including agriculture, found a home in international recognition for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). We tested the hypothesis that, at least for Indonesia, the NAMA framework provides opportunities to resolve issues that REDD+ alone cannot address.We reviewed progress on five major challenges identified in 2007 by the Indonesian Forest Climate Alliance: 1) scope and ‘forest’ definition; 2) ownership and tenurial rights; 3) multiplicity and interconnectedness of drivers; 4) peatland issues across forest and non-forest land categories; and 5) fairness and efficiency of benefitdistribution mechanisms across conservation, degradation and restoration phases of tree-cover transition. Results indicate that the two policy instruments developed in parallel with competition rather than synergy. Three of the REDD+ challenges can be resolved by treating REDD+ as a subset of the NAMA and national emission reduction plans for Indonesia.We conclude that two issues, rights and benefit distribution, remain a major challenge, and require progress on a motivational pyramid of policy and polycentric governance. National interest in retaining global palm oil exports gained priority over expectations of REDD forest rents. Genuine concerns over climate change motivate a small but influential part of the ongoing debate.
Factors influencing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions and control in major industrial sectors: Case evidence from Shandong Province, China
Wang, L. ; Lu, Y. ; He, G. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Wang, T. ; Gosens, J. ; Ni, K. - \ 2014
Journal of Environmental Sciences 26 (2014)7. - ISSN 1001-0742 - p. 1513 - 1522.
organic pollutants pops - decomposition analysis - energy-consumption - co2 emissions - management - sediments
Analyzing determinants that influence polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions is helpful for decision-makers to find effective and efficient ways to mitigate PCDD/F emissions. The PCDD/F emissions and the contributions of the scale effect, structure effect and technology effect to emissions fromeightmain industrial sectors in 2006, 2008 and 2010 in Shandong Province, were calculated in this article. Total PCDD/F emissions in Shandong increased by 52.8% in 2008 (614.1 g I-TEQ) and 49.7% in 2010 (601.8 g I-TEQ) based on 2006 (401.9 g I-TEQ). According to the decomposition method, the largest influencing factor on PCDD/F emission changes was the composition effect (contributed 43.4% in 2008 and 120.6% in 2010 based on 2006), which was also an emission-increasing factor. In this case, the present industrial restructuring policy should be adjusted to control the proportion of production capacities with high emission factors, such as iron ore sintering and steelmaking and the secondary non-ferrous metal sector. The scale effect increased the emissions in 2008 (contributed 21.9%) and decreased the emissions in 2010 (contributed -28.0%). However, as a source control measure, the excess capacity control policy indeed had a significant role in emission reduction. The main reason for the technology effect (contributed 34.7% in 2008 and 7.4% in 2010 based on 2006) having an emission-increasing role was the weakness in implementing policies for restricting industries with outdated facilities. Some specific suggestions were proposed on PCDD/F reduction for local administrators at the end.
Future GHG emissions more efficiently controlled by land-use policies than by bioenergy sustainability criteria
Bottcher, H. ; Frank, S. ; Havlik, P. ; Elbersen, B.S. - \ 2013
Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 7 (2013)2. - ISSN 1932-104X - p. 115 - 125.
co2 emissions - carbon sink - forests - crisis
The EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) targets, implemented to achieve climate change mitigation, affect the level of agricultural production in the EU and in the rest of the world. This article presents an impact assessment of increased biomass supply under different sustainability constraints on land use and resulting total GHG emissions at global and EU level. We apply GLOBIOM, a global partial equilibrium model integrating the agricultural, livestock, bioenergy and forestry sectors based on geographically explicit modeling of supply under prescribed demand. According to the model, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and land-use change (LUC) are anticipated to rise significantly up to 2030 due to various drivers (among others: GDP and population, diet shifts, and also bioenergy demand) despite basic sustainability criteria implemented by the RED (Reference scenario). Applying additional criteria, mainly protecting biodiversity outside the EU, overall GHG emissions can be reduced by 5% in 2030 compared to the Reference. Deforestation area decreases in this scenario slightly due to exclusion of high biodiversity forests but also due to increasing demand for energy wood that makes forests more valuable. If, however, in addition, deforestation is prevented through effective land-use policies, global GHG emissions can be reduced by 20% (compared to the Reference scenario). We conclude that sustainability criteria applied to biofuel production and imports only, do not mitigate potential negative impacts on total GHG emissions effectively. Unsustainable biomass production in sectors not covered by the bioenergy criteria can be best avoided by targeting deforestation and biodiversity loss directly. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons,Ltd
Energy consumption practices of rural households in north China: Basic characteristics and potential for low carbon development
Liu Wenling, Wenling ; Spaargaren, G. ; Heerink, N. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Wang, C. - \ 2013
Energy Policy 55 (2013). - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 128 - 138.
co2 emissions - cooking - province - model - electrification - alternatives - bangladesh - strategies - patterns - villages
Reducing the climate impact of rural household energy consumption in China is complicated since it is bound up with deeply routinized daily practices and dependent from existing infrastructural systems of energy supply. To assess the potential for low carbon development we first estimate the overall CO2 emissions of rural households, followed by a more in depth description and characterization of the different energy use practices within the households. Space heating turns out to be the largest emission source among domestic energy practices in north China. We present lifestyle and context related factors that help to explain existing differences in domestic energy use practices of households. The potential for low carbon development is discussed both at the demand side and the supply side. At the demand side, the use of more efficient technologies and cleaner energy sources for space heating seems to be a high potential measure for achieving low carbon households. At the supply side the reduction of rural domestic CO2 emissions could be effectively supported by making available to householders renewable and cleaner energy sources and technologies. In order to be effective, such low carbon energy options should take into account the (income) characteristics and lifestyles of rural householders
Responding to complex societal challenges: A decade of Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) interdisciplinary research
Ignaciuk, A. ; Rice, M. ; Bogardi, J. ; Canadell, J.G. ; Dhakal, S. ; Ingram, J. ; Leemans, R. ; Rosenberg, M. - \ 2012
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4 (2012)1. - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 147 - 158.
co2 emissions - climate-change - carbon sink - sustainability - forests - policy - asia
The Earth system is an integrated, self-regulating system under increasing pressure from anthropogenic transformation. The Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP), which was established by the international global environmental change research programs (i.e., DIVERSITAS, IGBP, IHDP and WCRP) facilitates the study of this system in order to understand how and why it is changing, and to explore the implications of these changes for global and regional sustainability. Crucial to this scientific enterprise are interdisciplinary Joint Projects on carbon, food, water and health. This paper analyses the scientific and institutional evolution of ESSP as a framework for interdisciplinary and integrative research of societal relevance. Case studies on food systems, carbon budgets, water security and biodiversity conservation illustrate how these projects have advanced integrated Earth system knowledge. At the institutional level, we explain the transformation of the ESSP governance and how this has further enabled interdisciplinary research. The lessons learnt from ESSP research can contribute to the development of the next generation of Earth system science for sustainability.
Transition to a low-carbon city: lessons learned from Suzhou in China
Liu Wenling, Wenling ; Wang Can, ; Xie Xi, ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Chen Jining, - \ 2012
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering 6 (2012)3. - ISSN 2095-2201 - p. 373 - 386.
developing-countries - road transport - co2 emissions - mitigation
Climate change has become one of the most serious challenges facing humanity; developing a low-carbon economy provides new opportunities for addressing this issue. Building a low-carbon city has been pursued by people with a high degree of enthusiasm in China. Different from actions at the national level and distinct from practices of developed countries, low-carbon development in Chinese cities should be placed on diverse concerns. Taking Suzhou of Jiangsu Province of China as a case city, this paper adopts a scenario analysis approach to explore strategic focal points in the transition to a low-carbon city. Within this transition, we mainly focus on the different contributions from two factors-economic restructuring and technological upgrading. Scenario analysis results show that 1) in the case of no breakthrough technologies, it is difficult to achieve absolute emission reductions; 2) technologies involved in optimizing energy structure and improving energy efficiency of basic service sectors should be highly emphasized in local planning; 3) in comparison with technological upgrading, economic structural adjustment could be a stronger contributor to mitigation, which is one of the main differences from developed countries. However, the key issue of economic restructuring is to promote the growth of emerging low-carbon industries, which requires not only a strategic choice of new industries but also an introduction of advanced low-carbon technologies. It is also found that establishing a local carbon emissions accounting system is a prerequisite and the first priority for realizing a low-carbon transition and government capacity buildings should be strengthened accordingly.
A Carbon Cycle Science Update Since IPCC AR-4
Dolman, A.J. ; Werf, G.R. van der; Molen, M.K. van der; Ganssen, G. ; Erisman, J.W. ; Strengers, B. - \ 2010
Ambio 39 (2010)5-6. - ISSN 0044-7447 - p. 402 - 412.
climate-change - co2 emissions - terrestrial plants - atmospheric co2 - forests - sinks - feedbacks - trends - ocean - exchange
We review important advances in our understanding of the global carbon cycle since the publication of the IPCC AR4. We conclude that: the anthropogenic emissions of CO2 due to fossil fuel burning have increased up through 2008 at a rate near to the high end of the IPCC emission scenarios; there are contradictory analyses whether an increase in atmospheric fraction, that might indicate a declining sink strength of ocean and/or land, exists; methane emissions are increasing, possibly through enhanced natural emission from northern wetland, methane emissions from dry plants are negligible; old-growth forest take up more carbon than expected from ecological equilibrium reasoning; tropical forest also take up more carbon than previously thought, however, for the global budget to balance, this would imply a smaller uptake in the northern forest; the exchange fluxes between the atmosphere and ocean are increasingly better understood and bottom up and observation-based top down estimates are getting closer to each other; the North Atlantic and Southern ocean take up less CO2, but it is unclear whether this is part of the ‘natural’ decadal scale variability; large-scale fires and droughts, for instance in Amazonia, but also at Northern latitudes, have lead to significant decreases in carbon uptake on annual timescales; the extra uptake of CO2 stimulated by increased N-deposition is, from a greenhouse gas forcing perspective, counterbalanced by the related additional N2O emissions; the amount of carbon stored in permafrost areas appears much (two times) larger than previously thought; preservation of existing marine ecosystems could require a CO2 stabilization as low as 450 ppm; Dynamic Vegetation Models show a wide divergence for future carbon trajectories, uncertainty in the process description, lack of understanding of the CO2 fertilization effect and nitrogen–carbon interaction are major uncertainties.
Sharing the burden of financing adaptation to climate change
Dellink, R. ; Elzen, M. ; Aiking, H. ; Bergsma, E. ; Berkhout, F. ; Dekker, T. ; Gupta, J. - \ 2009
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 19 (2009)4. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 411 - 421.
brazilian proposal - temperature increase - co2 emissions - responsibility - policy - countries - liability - uncertainties - compensation - targets
Climate change may cause most harm to countries that have historically contributed the least to greenhouse gas emissions and land-use change. This paper identifies consequentialist and non-consequentialist ethical principles to guide a fair international burden-sharing scheme of climate change adaptation costs. We use these ethical principles to derive political principles - historical responsibility and capacity to pay - that can be applied in assigning a share of the financial burden to individual countries. We then propose a hybrid 'common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities' approach as a promising starting point for international negotiations on the design of burden-sharing schemes. A numerical assessment of seven scenarios shows that the countries of Annex I of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would bear the bulk of the costs of adaptation, but contributions differ substantially subject to the choice of a capacity to pay indicator. The contributions are less sensitive to choices related to responsibility calculations, apart from those associated with land-use-related emissions. Assuming costs of climate adaptation of USD 100 billion per year, the total financial contribution by the Annex I countries would be in the range of USD 65-70 billion per year. Expressed as a per capita basis, this gives a range of USD 43-82 per capita per year.
Biological Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Trading Re-Visited
Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2009
Climatic Change 95 (2009)3-4. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 449 - 463.
co2 emissions - tillage - storage - agriculture - credits - offsets - forests
Biological activities that sequester carbon create CO2 offset credits that could obviate the need for reductions in fossil fuel use. Credits are earned by storing carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and wood products, although CO2 emissions are also mitigated by delaying deforestation, which accounts for one-quarter of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, non-permanent carbon offsets from biological activities are difficult to compare with each other and with emissions reduction because they differ in how long they prevent CO2 from entering the atmosphere. This is the duration problem. It results in uncertainty and makes it hard to determine the legitimacy of biological activities in mitigating climate change. Measuring, verifying and monitoring the carbon sequestered in sinks greatly increases transaction costs and leads to rent seeking by sellers of dubious sink credits. While biological sink activities undoubtedly help mitigate climate change and should not be neglected, it is shown that there are limits to the substitutability between temporary offset credits from these activities and emissions reduction, and that this has implications for carbon trading. A possible solution to inherent incommensurability between temporary and permanent credits is also suggested.
Projected changes in mineral soil carbon of European croplands and grasslands, 1990-2080
Smith, J. ; Smith, P. ; Wattenbach, M. ; Zaehle, S. ; Hiederer, R. ; Jones, R.J.A. ; Montanarella, L. ; Rounsevell, M.D.A. ; Reginster, I. ; Ewert, F. - \ 2005
Global Change Biology 11 (2005)12. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 2141 - 2152.
long-term experiments - agricultural land-use - organic-carbon - climate-change - terrestrial carbon - future scenarios - regional-scale - co2 emissions - model - sequestration
We present the most comprehensive pan-European assessment of future changes in cropland and grassland soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to date, using a dedicated process-based SOC model and state-of-the-art databases of soil, climate change, land-use change and technology change. Soil carbon change was calculated using the Rothamsted carbon model on a European 10 × 10' grid using climate data from four global climate models implementing four Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions scenarios (SRES). Changes in net primary production (NPP) were calculated by the Lund¿Potsdam¿Jena model. Land-use change scenarios, interpreted from the narratives of the IPCC SRES story lines, were used to project changes in cropland and grassland areas. Projections for 1990¿2080 are presented for mineral soil only. Climate effects (soil temperature and moisture) will tend to speed decomposition and cause soil carbon stocks to decrease, whereas increases in carbon input because of increasing NPP will slow the loss. Technological improvement may further increase carbon inputs to the soil. Changes in cropland and grassland areas will further affect the total soil carbon stock of European croplands and grasslands. While climate change will be a key driver of change in soil carbon over the 21st Century, changes in technology and land-use change are estimated to have very significant effects. When incorporating all factors, cropland and grassland soils show a small increase in soil carbon on a per area basis under future climate (1¿7 t C ha1 for cropland and 3¿6 t C ha1 for grassland), but when the greatly decreasing area of cropland and grassland are accounted for, total European cropland stocks decline in all scenarios, and grassland stocks decline in all but one scenario. Different trends are seen in different regions. For Europe (the EU25 plus Norway and Switzerland), the cropland SOC stock decreases from 11 Pg in 1990 by 4¿6 Pg (39¿54%) by 2080, and the grassland SOC stock increases from 6 Pg in 1990 to 1.5 Pg (25%) under the B1 scenario, but decreases to 1¿3 Pg (20¿44%) under the other scenarios. Uncertainty associated with the land-use and technology scenarios remains unquantified, but worst-case quantified uncertainties are 22.5% for croplands and 16% for grasslands, equivalent to potential errors of 2.5 and 1 Pg SOC, respectively. This is equivalent to 42¿63% of the predicted SOC stock change for croplands and 33¿100% of the predicted SOC stock change for grasslands. Implications for accounting for SOC changes under the Kyoto Protocol are discussed.