Conflicts in the coastal zone : Human impacts on commercially important fish species utilizing coastal habitat
Brown, Elliot J. ; Vasconcelos, Rita P. ; Wennhage, Håkan ; Bergström, Ulf ; Stottrup, Josianne G. ; Wolfshaar, Karen van de; Millisenda, Giacomo ; Colloca, Francesco ; Pape, Olivier Le - \ 2018
ICES Journal of Marine Science 75 (2018)4. - ISSN 1054-3139 - p. 1203 - 1213.
Anthropogenic pressure - coastal - ecosystem-based management - fisheries - habitat degradation - habitat loss - human activity
Coastal ecosystems are ecologically, culturally, and economically important, and hence are under pressure from diverse human activities. We reviewed the literature for existing evidence of effects of human-induced habitat changes on exploited fish utilizing coastal habitats. We focused on fish species of the Northeast Atlantic for which fisheries advice is provided by International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and which utilize coastal habitats for at least one life-history stage (LHS). We found that 92% of these species are impacted by human activity in at least one LHS while utilizing coastal habitat and 38% in multiple stages. Anthropogenic pressures most commonly shown to impact these fish species were toxicants and pollutants (75% of species). Eutrophication and anoxia, invasive species, and physical coastal development affected about half of the species (58, 54, and 42% of species, respectively), while indirect fishing impacts affected a minority (17% of species). Moreover, 71% of the ICES advice species that utilize coastal habitats face impacts from more than one pressure, implying cumulative effects. Given that three-fourths of the commercial landings come from fish species utilizing coastal habitats, there is an obvious need for a better understanding of the impacts that human activities cause in these habitats for the development of ecosystem-based fisheries management.
Sustainable hydraulic engineering through building with nature
Vriend, H.J. de; Koningsveld, M. van; Aarninkhof, S.G.J. ; Vries, M.B. de; Baptist, M.J. - \ 2015
Journal of Hydro-environment Research 9 (2015)2. - ISSN 1570-6443 - p. 159 - 171.
sea-level rise - intertidal habitats - river - protection - wetlands - coastal
Hydraulic engineering infrastructures are of concern to many people and are likely to interfere with the environment. Moreover, they are supposed to keep on functioning for many years. In times of rapid societal and environmental change this implies that sustainability and adaptability are important attributes. These are central to Building with Nature (BwN), an innovative approach to hydraulic engineering infrastructure development and operation. Starting from the natural system and making use of nature's ecosystem services, BwN attempts to meet society's needs for infrastructural functionality, and to create room for nature development at the same time. By including natural components in infrastructure designs, flexibility, adaptability to changing environmental conditions and extra functionalities and ecosystem services can be achieved, often at lower costs on a life-cycle basis than ‘traditional’ engineering solutions. The paper shows by a number of examples that this requires a different way of thinking, acting and interacting.
Building with Nature in Marine Infrastructure: Toward an Innovative Project Arrangement in the Melbourne Channel Deepening Project
Korbee, D. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Tatenhove, J. van - \ 2014
Coastal Management 42 (2014)1. - ISSN 0892-0753 - p. 1 - 16.
protection strategies - coastal - policy - environment - management - governance
Globally, there is an increasing pressure on coastal and marine ecosystems. The development of marine infrastructure is causing additional ecological impacts on these systems. To reduce ecological impacts innovative approaches of marine infrastructure development are being developed. These approaches, such as Building with Nature, aim to integrate ecological and social dynamics in the creation of coastal and marine infrastructure. This integration has implications for the development and management of these projects. To understand opportunities for Building with Nature approaches, this article analyzes the development of the Melbourne Channel Deepening project in Australia that developed from a conventional, state-led project toward a Building with Nature arrangement. This article shows that a Building with Nature project arrangement differs not just substantially in its ecological focus and primacy from a conventional project arrangement, but also in its leading discourse, its actor coalition, its power and resources applied, and the rules of the game through which the project is designed and implemented. We conclude that developing a Building with Nature project requires a specific arrangement that allows for an early involvement of both ecological and social dynamics.
Termination of a toxic Alexandrium bloom with hydrogen peroxide
Burson, A. ; Matthijs, H.C.P. ; Bruijne, W. de; Talens, R. ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Gerssen, A. ; Visser, P.M. ; Stomp, M. ; Steur, K. ; Scheppingen, Y. van; Huisman, J. - \ 2014
Harmful Algae 31 (2014). - ISSN 1568-9883 - p. 125 - 135.
harmful algal blooms - northern baltic sea - ostenfeldii dinophyceae - water temperature - oxidative stress - shellfish toxins - eutrophication - cyanobacteria - phytoplankton - coastal
The dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii is a well-known harmful algal species that can potentially cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Usually A. ostenfeldii occurs in low background concentrations only, but in August of 2012 an exceptionally dense bloom of more than 1 million cells L-1 occurred in the brackish Ouwerkerkse Kreek in The Netherlands. The A. ostenfeldii bloom produced both saxitoxins and spirolides, and is held responsible for the death of a dog with a high saxitoxin stomach content. The Ouwerkerkse Kreek routinely discharges its water into the adjacent Oosterschelde estuary, and an immediate reduction of the bloom was required to avoid contamination of extensive shellfish grounds. Previously, treatment of infected waters with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) successfully suppressed cyanobacterial blooms in lakes. Therefore, we adapted this treatment to eradicate the Alexandrium bloom using a three-step approach. First, we investigated the required H2O2 dosage in laboratory experiments with A. ostenfeldii. Second, we tested the method in a small, isolated canal adjacent to the Ouwerkerkse Kreek. Finally, we brought 50 mg L-1 of H2O2 into the entire creek system with a special device, called a water harrow, for optimal dispersal of the added H2O2. Concentrations of both vegetative cells and pellicle cysts declined by 99.8% within 48 h, and PSP toxin concentrations in the water were reduced below local regulatory levels of 15 µg L-1. Zooplankton were strongly affected by the H2O2 treatment, but impacts on macroinvertebrates and fish were minimal. A key advantage of this method is that the added H2O2 decays to water and oxygen within a few days, which enables rapid recovery of the system after the treatment. This is the first successful field application of H2O2 to suppress a marine harmful algal bloom, although Alexandrium spp. reoccurred at lower concentrations in the following year. The results show that H2O2 treatment provides an effective emergency management option to mitigate toxic Alexandrium blooms, especially when immediate action is required.
Combining qualitative and quantitative understanding for exploring cross-sectoral climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability in Europe.
Harrison, P.A. ; Holman, I.P. ; Cojocaru, G. ; Kok, K. ; Kontogianni, A. ; Metzger, M.J. ; Gramberger, M. - \ 2013
Regional Environmental Change 13 (2013)4. - ISSN 1436-3798 - p. 761 - 780.
global water-resources - agricultural land-use - north-west england - integrated assessment - east-anglia - model - scenarios - policy - scale - coastal
Abstract Climate change will affect all sectors of society and the environment at all scales, ranging from the continental to the national and local. Decision-makers and other interested citizens need to be able to access reliable science-based information to help them respond to the risks of climate change impacts and assess opportunities for adaptation. Participatory integrated assessment (IA) tools combine knowledge from diverse scientific disciplines, take account of the value and importance of stakeholder ‘lay insight’ and facilitate a two-way iterative process of exploration of ‘what if’s’ to enable decision-makers to test ideas and improve their understanding of the complex issues surrounding adaptation to climate change. This paper describes the conceptual design of a participatory IA tool, the CLIMSAVE IA Platform, based on a professionally facilitated stakeholder engagement process. The CLIMSAVE (climate change integrated methodology for cross-sectoral adaptation and vulnerability in Europe) Platform is a user-friendly, interactive web-based tool that allows stakeholders to assess climate change impacts and vulnerabilities for a range of sectors, including agriculture, forests, biodiversity, coasts, water resources and urban development. The linking of models for the different sectors enables stakeholders to see how their interactions could affect European landscape change. The relationship between choice, uncertainty and constraints is a key cross-cutting theme in the conduct of past participatory IA. Integrating scenario development processes with an interactive modelling platform is shown to allow the exploration of future uncertainty as a structural feature of such complex problems, encouraging stakeholders to explore adaptation choices within real-world constraints of future resource availability and environmental and institutional capacities, rather than seeking the ‘right’ answers.
Typology and indicators of ecosystem services for marine spatial planning and management
Bohnke-Henrichs, A. ; Baulcomb, C. ; Koss, R. ; Hussain, S. ; Groot, R.S. de - \ 2013
Journal of Environmental Management 130 (2013)11. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 135 - 145.
economic valuation - biodiversity - coastal - goods - area - classification - conservation - benefits
The ecosystem services concept provides both an analytical and communicative tool to identify and quantify the link between human welfare and the environment, and thus to evaluate the ramifications of management interventions. Marine spatial planning (MSP) and Ecosystem-based Management (EBM) are a form of management intervention that has become increasingly popular and important globally. The ecosystem service concept is rarely applied in marine planning and management to date which we argue is due to the lack of a well-structured, systematic classification and assessment of marine ecosystem services. In this paper we not only develop such a typology but also provide guidance to select appropriate indicators for all relevant ecosystem services. We apply this marine-specific ecosystem service typology to MSP and EBM. We thus provide not only a novel theoretical construct but also show how the ecosystem services concept can be used in marine planning and management.
Conditional responses of benthic communities to interference from an intertidal bivalve
Colen, C. van; Thrush, S. ; Vincx, M. ; Ysebaert, T. - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)6. - ISSN 1932-6203
cerastoderma-edule - terrigenous sediment - ecosystem services - macoma-balthica - coastal - habitats - hydrodynamics - disturbance - resilience - sandflats
Habitat-modifying organisms that impact other organisms and local functioning are important in determining ecosystem resilience. However, it is often unclear how the outcome of interactions performed by key species varies depending on the spatial and temporal disturbance context which makes the prediction of disturbance-driven regime shifts difficult. We investigated the strength and generality of effects of the filter feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule on its ambient intertidal benthic physical and biological environment. By comparing the magnitude of the effect of experimental cockle removal between a non-cohesive and a sheltered cohesive sediment in two different periods of the year, we show that the outcome of cockle interference effects relates to differences in physical disturbance, and to temporal changes in suspended sediment load and ontogenetic changes in organism traits. Interference effects were only present in the cohesive sediments, though the effects varied seasonally. Cockle presence decreased only the density of surface-dwelling species suggesting that interference effects were particularly mediated by bioturbation of the surface sediments. Furthermore, density reductions in the presence of cockles were most pronounced during the season when larvae and juveniles were present, suggesting that these life history stages are most vulnerable to interference competition. We further illustrate that cockles may enhance benthic microalgal biomass, most likely through the reduction of surface-dwelling grazing species, especially in periods with high sediment load and supposedly also high bioturbation rates. Our results emphasize that the physical disturbance of the sediment may obliterate biotic interactions, and that temporal changes in environmental stressors, such as suspended sediments, may affect the outcome of key species interference effects at the local scale. Consequently, natural processes and anthropogenic activities that change bed shear stress and sediment dynamics in coastal soft-sediment systems will affect cockle-mediated influences on ecosystem properties and therefore the resilience of these systems to environmental change.
How to turn the tide: Developing legitimate marine governance arrangements at the level of the regional seas
Tatenhove, J. van - \ 2013
Ocean & Coastal Management 71 (2013). - ISSN 0964-5691 - p. 296 - 304.
fisheries management - ocean governance - european-union - institutionalism - framework - governability - perspectives - ecosystems - coastal - systems
Competing spatial claims and conflicts between maritime economic activities and biodiversity in Europe's seas continue to challenge governments and non-governmental actors. Responses to these problems have resulted in a fragmented patchwork of EU policies, private initiatives, and regulations on different levels. It is clear that the different sets of problems in each sea and the existing institutional arrangements (often created in an ad hoc fashion) require different responses and that a regional approach to marine governance is more flexible than a pan-European one. This paper explores whether and how it is possible to develop integrated maritime governance arrangements for Europe's regional seas. It explores the sui generis institutional setting of the EU – a fragmented system in constant flux – and the roles of the Regional Sea Commissions, Member States and other stakeholders. This, together with Wallace's concept of the swinging pendulum of governance, provides us with the basis to identify the conditions for more effective and legitimate EU marine governance arrangements and examine whether it is possible to turn the tide of marine governance to the level of the regional sea? Using concepts from institutional theory, such as institutional ambiguity, institutional layering and conversion and institutional capacity building, this paper develops six building blocks that could help to turn the tide, help to develop legitimate regional-level marine governance arrangements and strengthen the capacity of marine institutions and governance.
Atmosphere-ocean ozone fluxes during the TexAQS 2006, STRATUS 2006, GOMECC 2007, GasEx 2008, and AMMA 2008 cruises
Helmig, D. ; Lang, E.K. ; Bariteau, L. ; Boylan, P. ; Fairall, C.W. ; Ganzeveld, L.N. ; Hare, J.E. ; Hueber, J. ; Pallandt, M. - \ 2012
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 117 (2012). - ISSN 2169-897X - 15 p.
marine boundary-layer - dry deposition - surface - atlantic - iodine - water - coastal - parameterization - enhancement - chemistry
A ship-based eddy covariance ozone flux system was deployed to investigate the magnitude and variability of ozone surface fluxes over the open ocean. The flux experiments were conducted on five cruises on board the NOAA research vessel Ronald Brown during 2006-2008. The cruises covered the Gulf of Mexico, the southern as well as northern Atlantic, the Southern Ocean, and the persistent stratus cloud region off Chile in the eastern Pacific Ocean. These experiments resulted in the first ship-borne open-ocean ozone flux measurement records. The median of 10 min oceanic ozone deposition velocity (v(d)) results from a combined similar to 1700 h of observations ranged from 0.009 to 0.034 cm s(-1). For the Gulf of Mexico cruise (Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS)) the median v(d) (interquartile range) was 0.034 (0.009-0.065) cm s(-1) (total number of 10 min measurement intervals, N-f = 1953). For the STRATUS cruise off the Chilean coast, the median v(d) was 0.009 (0.004-0.037) cm s(-1) (N-f = 1336). For the cruise from the Gulf of Mexico and up the eastern U. S. coast (Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon cruise (GOMECC)) a combined value of 0.018 (0.006-0.045) cm s(-1) (N-f = 1784) was obtained (from 0.019 (-0.014-0.043) cm s(-1), N-f = 663 in the Gulf of Mexico, and 0.018 (-0.004-0.045) cm s(-1), N-f = 1121 in the North Atlantic region). The Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment (GasEx) and African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA), the Southern Ocean and northeastern Atlantic cruises, respectively, resulted in median ozone v(d) of 0.009 (-0.005-0.026) cm s(-1) (N-f = 2745) and 0.020 (-0.003-0.044) cms(-1) (N-f = 1147). These directly measured ozone deposition values are at the lower end of previously reported data in the literature (0.01-0.12 cm s(-1)) for ocean water. Data illustrate a positive correlation (increase) of the oceanic ozone uptake rate with wind speed, albeit the behavior of the relationship appears to differ during these cruises. The encountered wide range of meteorological and ocean biogeochemical conditions is used to investigate fundamental drivers of oceanic O-3 deposition and for the evaluation of a recently developed global oceanic O-3 deposition modeling system.
Water pollution by Pangasius production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: causes and options for control
Pham Thi Ahn, ; Kroeze, C. ; Bush, S.R. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2010
Aquaculture Research 42 (2010)1. - ISSN 1355-557X - p. 108 - 128.
waste-water - anaerobic treatment - cleaner production - fish - plant - effluents - industry - coastal - catfish - carbon
In this paper, we analyse water pollution caused by farming and processing Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The results show that 1 tonne of frozen fillets releases 740 kg BOD, 1020 kg COD, 2050 kg TSS, 106 kg nitrogen and 27 kg phosphorus, of which wastewater from fish ponds contributes 60–90% and sludge from fish ponds and wastewater from processing facilities contributes 3–27% of the total emissions. Overall, the combined waste emissions from Pangasius production and processing account for