Technical note: Evaluation of an ear-attached movement sensor to record cow feeding behavior and activity
Bikker, J.P. ; Laar, H. van; Rump, P. ; Doorenbos, J. ; Meurs, K. van; Griffioen, G.M. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2014
Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)5. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 2974 - 2979.
dairy-cattle - monitoring rumination - automatic system - coefficient - agreement - ovulation - time
The ability to monitor dairy cow feeding behavior and activity could improve dairy herd management. A 3-dimensional accelerometer (SensOor; Agis Automatisering BV, Harmelen, the Netherlands) has been developed that can be attached to ear identification tags. Based on the principle that behavior can be identified by ear movements, a proprietary model classifies sensor data as “ruminating,” “eating,” “resting,” or “active.” The objective of the study was to evaluate this sensor on accuracy and precision. First, a pilot evaluation of agreement between 2 independent observers, recording behavior from 3 cows for a period of approximately 9 h each, was performed. Second, to evaluate the sensor, the behavior of 15 cows was monitored both visually (VIS) and with the sensor (SENS), with approximately 20 h of registration per cow, evenly distributed over a 24-h period, excluding milking. Cows were chosen from groups of animals in different lactation stages and parities. Each minute of SENS and VIS data was classified into 1 of 9 categories (8 behaviors and 1 transition behavior) and summarized into 4 behavioral groups, namely ruminating, eating, resting, or active, which were analyzed by calculating kappa (¿) values. For the pilot evaluation, a high level of agreement between observers was obtained, with ¿ values of =0.96 for all behavioral categories, indicating that visual observation provides a good standard. For the second trial, relationships between SENS and VIS were studied by ¿ values on a minute basis and Pearson correlation and concordance correlation coefficient analysis on behavior expressed as percentage of total registration time. Times spent ruminating, eating, resting, and active were 42.6, 15.9, 31.6, and 9.9% (SENS) respectively, and 42.1, 13.0, 30.0, and 14.9% (VIS), respectively. Overall ¿ for the comparison of SENS and VIS was substantial (0.78), with ¿ values of 0.85, 0.77, 0.86, and 0.47 for “ruminating,” “eating,” “resting,” and “active,” respectively. Pearson correlation and concordance correlation coefficients between SENS and VIS for “ruminating,” “eating,” “resting,” and “active” were 0.93, 0.88, 0.98, and 0.73, and 0.93, 0.75, 0.97, and 0.35, respectively. In conclusion, the results provide strong evidence that the present ear sensor technology can be used to monitor ruminating and resting behavior of freestall-housed dairy cattle. Our results also suggest that this technology shows promise for monitoring eating behavior, whereas more work is needed to determine its suitability to monitor activity of dairy cattle.
Influence of ecohydrologic feedbacks from simulated crop growth on integrated regional hydrologic simulations under climate scenarios
Walsum, P.E.V. van; Supit, I. - \ 2012
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 16 (2012)6. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 1577 - 1593.
model - soil - evaporation - coefficient
Hydrologic climate change modelling is hampered by climate-dependent model parameterizations. To reduce this dependency, we extended the regional hydrologic modelling framework SIMGRO to host a two-way coupling between the soil moisture model MetaSWAP and the crop growth simulation model WOFOST, accounting for ecohydrologic feedbacks in terms of radiation fraction that reaches the soil, crop coefficient, interception fraction of rainfall, interception storage capacity, and root zone depth. Except for the last, these feedbacks are dependent on the leaf area index (LAI). The influence of regional groundwater on crop growth is included via a coupling to MODFLOW. Two versions of the MetaSWAP-WOFOST coupling were set up: one with exogenous vegetation parameters, the "static" model, and one with endogenous crop growth simulation, the "dynamic" model. Parameterization of the static and dynamic models ensured that for the current climate the simulated long-term averages of actual evapotranspiration are the same for both models. Simulations were made for two climate scenarios and two crops: grass and potato. In the dynamic model, higher temperatures in a warm year under the current climate resulted in accelerated crop development, and in the case of potato a shorter growing season, thus partly avoiding the late summer heat. The static model has a higher potential transpiration; depending on the available soil moisture, this translates to a higher actual transpiration. This difference between static and dynamic models is enlarged by climate change in combination with higher CO2 concentrations. Including the dynamic crop simulation gives for potato (and other annual arable land crops) systematically higher effects on the predicted recharge change due to climate change. Crop yields from soils with poor water retention capacities strongly depend on capillary rise if moisture supply from other sources is limited. Thus, including a crop simulation model in an integrated hydrologic simulation provides a valuable addition for hydrologic modelling as well as for crop modelling
Estimating maize genetic erosion in modernized smallholder agriculture
Heerwaarden, J. van; Hellin, J. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Eeuwijk, F.A. van - \ 2009
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 119 (2009)5. - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 875 - 888.
seed selection practices - population-structure - central valleys - central mexico - diversity - landraces - conservation - chiapas - coefficient - management
Replacement of crop landraces by modern varieties is thought to cause diversity loss. We studied genetic erosion in maize within a model system; modernized smallholder agriculture in southern Mexico. The local seed supply was described through interviews and in situ seed collection. In spite of the dominance of commercial seed, the informal seed system was found to persist. True landraces were rare and most informal seed was derived from modern varieties (creolized). Seed lots were characterized for agronomical traits and molecular markers. We avoided the problem of non-consistent nomenclature by taking individual seed lots as the basis for diversity inference. We defined diversity as the weighted average distance between seed lots. Diversity was calculated for subsets of the seed supply to assess the impact of replacing traditional landraces with any of these subsets. Results were different for molecular markers, ear- and vegetative/flowering traits. Nonetheless, creolized varieties showed low diversity for all traits. These varieties were distinct from traditional landraces and little differentiated from their ancestral stocks. Although adoption of creolized maize into the informal seed system has lowered diversity as compared to traditional landraces, genetic erosion was moderated by the distinct features offered by modern varieties.
|Analysis of diffusion and relaxation behavior of water in apple parenchyma cells
Sibgatullin, T. ; Anisimov, A.V. ; Jager, P.A. de - \ 2007
Biofizika 52 (2007)2. - ISSN 0006-3029 - p. 268 - 276.
porous-media - integral-equations - coefficient - exchange - probe
It has been demonstrated by an example of apple parenchymal cells that NMR spectroscopy can be used to analyze the relaxation and diffusion of water molecules in plant cells. With small diffusion times, three relaxation components have been distinguished, which correspond to water in a vacuole, in the cytoplasm, and in intercellular liquid. The coefficient of self-diffusion corresponding to these components have been determined. With large diffusion times, it is possible to distinguish two components. For the slowly relaxing component (which corresponds to water in a vacuole), the regime of restricted diffusion was observed. For a quickly relaxing component, an anomalous increase in the coefficient of self-diffusion with the time of diffusion took place.
Satellite-Based actual evapotranspiration over drying semiarid terrain in West-Africa
Schuttemeyer, D. ; Schillings, Ch. ; Moene, A.F. ; Bruin, H.A.R. de - \ 2007
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 46 (2007)1. - ISSN 1558-8424 - p. 97 - 111.
land-surface temperature - water-vapor - structure parameter - refractive-index - large-aperture - sensible heat - fluxes - area - scintillometers - coefficient
A simple satellite-based algorithm for estimating actual evaporation based on Makkink¿s equation is applied to a seasonal cycle in 2002 at three test sites in Ghana, West Africa: at a location in the humid tropical southern region and two in the drier northern region. The required input for the algorithm is incoming solar radiation, air temperature at standard level, and the green-vegetation fraction. These data are obtained from Meteorological Satellite (Meteosat) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. The observation period includes the rapid wet-to-dry transition after the wet season. Incoming solar radiation and air temperature are validated against local measurements at the three sites. It is found that the incoming solar radiation obtained from Meteosat corresponds well with the measurements. For air temperature from Meteosat data, the diurnal cycle is realistically reproduced but is in need of a bias correction. The algorithm output is compared with the evapotranspiration data obtained from hourly large-aperture scintillometer observations and simultaneous ¿in situ¿ measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux. It is found that the actual evapotranspiration can be monitored using the modified Makkink method, with daily mean errors of between 5% and 35% of measured evapotranspiration and a seasonal error smaller than 5%. Furthermore, it appears that the algorithm realistically describes the daily cycle of evapotranspiration
A modified box model including charge regulation for protein adsorption in a spherical polyelectrolyte brush
Biesheuvel, P.M. ; Wittemann, A. - \ 2005
The Journal of Physical Chemistry Part B: Condensed Matter, Materials, Surfaces, Interfaces & Biophysical 109 (2005)9. - ISSN 1520-6106 - p. 4209 - 4214.
electrostatic interactions - ionic-strength - spectroscopy - coefficient - scattering
Recent experiments showed significant adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in spherical polyelectrolyte brushes (SPB) consisting of polyacrylic acid, even for pH values above the isoelectric point of the protein, when both protein and polyion are negatively charged. To describe these experimental findings theoretically, we have constructed a spherical box model for an annealed brush consisting of a weak polyelectrolyte that includes the adsorption of BSA. At equilibrium the chemical potential of BSA in solution equals that at each location in the brush, while the net force on the polyions (including osmotic, stretching, and excluded volume terms) is zero at each location. Protein adsorption is predicted above the isoelectric point and -in agreement with experimental data- is a strong function of ionic strength and pH. Adsorption of protein in the brush is possible because the pH in the brush is below the isoelectric point and protein reverses its charge from negative to positive when it adsorbs.
Reversible self-association of ovalbumin at air-water interfaces and the consequences for the exerted pressure
Kudryashova, E.V. ; Visser, A.J.W.G. ; Jongh, H.H.J. de - \ 2005
Protein Science 14 (2005)2. - ISSN 0961-8368 - p. 483 - 493.
fluorescence correlation spectroscopy - air/water interface - adsorption - stability - proteins - tool - coefficient - diffusion - dynamics - irras
In this study the relation between the ability of protein self-association and the surface properties at air-water interfaces is investigated using a combination of spectroscopic techniques. Three forms of chicken egg ovalbumin were obtained with different self-associating behavior: native ovalbumin, heat-treated ovalbumin-being a cluster of 12-16 predominantly noncovalently bound proteins, and succinylated ovalbumin, as a form with diminished aggregation properties due to increased electrostatic repulsion. While the bulk diffusion of aggregated protein is clearly slower compared to monomeric protein, the efficiency of transport to the interface is increased, just like the efficiency of sticking to rather than bouncing from the interface. On a timescale of hours, the aggregated protein dissociates and adopts a conformation comparable to that of native protein adsorbed to the interface. The exerted surface pressure is higher for aggregated material, most probably because the deformability of the particle is smaller. Aggregated protein has a lower ability to desorb from the interface upon compression of the surface layer, resulting in a steadily increasing surface pressure upon reducing the available area for the surface layer. This observation is opposite to what is observed for succinylated protein that may desorb more easily and thereby suppresses the buildup of a surface pressure. Generally, this work demonstrates that modulating the ability of proteins to self-associate offers a tool to control the rheological properties of interfaces.
Fluxes and Gradients in the Convective Surface Layer and the Possible Role of Boundary-Layer Depth and Entrainment Flux
Steeneveld, G.J. ; Holtslag, A.A.M. ; Debruin, H.A.R. - \ 2005
Boundary-Layer Meteorology 116 (2005)2. - ISSN 0006-8314 - p. 237 - 252.
temperature profiles - wind - heat - coefficient - turbulence - transport
We study the relation between fluxes and gradients in the very unstable surface layer by comparing recent proposals in the literature with the well-known Businger¿Dyer functions. The recent proposals include results from large-eddy simulation (LES), which account for entrainment effects and effects of the boundary-layer depth. A comparison of the relationships is made with experimental data. The LES-based gradient functions show the impact of entrainment in the surface layer, but the scatter in the field data is too large to confirm this. Therefore this result is preliminary and future tests against new observations are recommended. It appears that the Businger¿Dyer relationship behaves differently to the alternatives, and that it deviates from observations for large stability.