Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations
Hetherington, M.M. ; Cunningham, K. ; Dye, L. ; Gibson, E.L. ; Gregersen, N.T. ; Halford, J.C.G. ; Lawton, C.L. ; Lluch, A. ; Mela, D.J. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2013
Nutrition Research Reviews 26 (2013). - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 22 - 38.
low-calorie diet - high-protein-diet - body-weight loss - disentangling food reward - sensory-specific satiety - glucagon-like peptide-1 - cognitive performance - energy-intake - appetite sensations - eating behavior
Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake should be rejected. Instead, it is proposed that there is a variety of routes through which enhanced satiety could (indirectly) benefit dietary control or weight-management goals. The review highlights specific potential benefits of satiety, including: providing appetite control strategies for consumers generally and for those who are highly responsive to food cues; offering pleasure and satisfaction associated with low-energy/healthier versions of foods without feeling ‘deprived’; reducing dysphoric mood associated with hunger especially during energy restriction; and improved compliance with healthy eating or weight-management efforts. There is convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits, but only probable evidence for longer-term benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss, and no evidence on which consumers would benefit most from satiety enhancement. The appetite-reducing effects of specific foods or diets will be much more subtle than those of pharmaceutical compounds in managing hunger; nevertheless, the experience of pharmacology in producing weight loss via effects on appetite suggests that there is potential benefit of satiety enhancement from foods incorporated into the diet to the consumer.
Associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, dementia and depression in European elderly: the SENECA study
Brouwer, E.M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Steegenga, W.T. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2013
European Journal of Nutrition 52 (2013)3. - ISSN 1436-6207 - p. 917 - 925.
nutrition examination survey - 3rd national-health - vitamin-d supplementation - serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-d - cognitive performance - metabolic syndrome - plasma-glucose - older-adults - risk-factors - women
Purpose The classical consequence of vitamin D deficiency is osteomalacia, but recent insights into the function of vitamin D suggest that it may play a role in other body systems as well. The objective of this study was to examine the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers of glucose metabolism (n = 593), global cognitive functioning (n = 116) and depression (n = 118) in European elderly participating in the SENECA study. Moreover, we wanted to explore whether the observed associations of 25(OH)D with depression and global cognitive performance were mediated by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels. Methods Cross-sectional associations between 25(OH)D and FPG, fasting plasma insulin (FPI) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), a marker of insulin resistance, were estimated from multiple regression analyses. Associations of 25(OH)D with global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Examination) and depression (Geriatric Depression Scale) were examined using Poisson regression. Results An inverse association was observed between 25(OH)D and FPG (ß-0.001), indicating a 1 % decrease in FPG per 10 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D, but after full adjustment for demographic factors, lifestyle factors and calcium intake, this association was not statistically significant (P = 0.07). Although participants with intermediate and high serum 25(OH)D levels showed a tendency towards a lower depression score after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, RR and 95 % CI: 0.73 (0.51–1.04) and 0.76 (0.52–1.11), respectively, these findings were not statistically significant. Conclusion An inverse association of 25(OH)D with depression and FPG was observed, but this association was not statistically significant. There was no association between 25(OH)D with FPI and HOMA-IR or with global cognitive functioning. More studies are needed to further explore the possible role of vitamin D in the various body systems
The effect of a nutrient dense drink on mental and physical function in institutionalized elderly people
Manders, M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de; Hoefnagels, W.H.L. ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. ; Wouters-Wesseling, W. ; Mulders, A.J.M.J. ; Staveren, W.A. van - \ 2009
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 13 (2009)9. - ISSN 1279-7707 - p. 760 - 767.
liquid nutrition supplement - nursing-home residents - alzheimers-disease - cognitive performance - methylmalonic acid - controlled-trial - scale - risk - homocysteine - exercise
Objectives To determine whether in the current study the supply of a nutrient dense drink has a positive effect on mental and physical function of institutionalized elderly people. Design A 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, intervention trial. Setting Homes for the elderly and nursing homes in the Netherlands. Participants Institutionalized elderly people older than 60 years, with a BMI = 30 kg/m2, and a Mini-Mental State Examination score of at least 10 points. Intervention In addition to their usual diet the participants (n=176) received either a nutrient dense drink or a placebo drink twice a day during 24 weeks. Measurements The functionality measures included cognitive function, mood, physical performance and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Results In the supplement group a favorable effect of the intervention drink on body weight (1.6 kg difference in change; P =.035), calf circumference (0.9 cm difference in change; P =.048), and blood values (e.g. Hcy decreased from 16.8 to 11.2 µmol/L in the supplement group) was found. In the total group no significant effect was found on functionality outcomes. However, a subgroup of participants with BMI at baseline below 24.4 kg/m2 performed better on the cognitive subscale of Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (P =.09), and its language sub score (P =.01) after 24 weeks of intervention. Conclusion The results in the total group of this trial suggest that the nutritional supplement used in this study improves nutritional status. Furthermore, the results of this trial suggest that it is effective as treatment for decreasing function in a subgroup of institutionalized elderly people with low BMI.
Pathological anxiety in animals
Ohl, F. ; Arndt, S.S. ; Staay, F.J. van der - \ 2008
The Veterinary Journal 175 (2008)1. - ISSN 1090-0233 - p. 18 - 26.
elevated plus-maze - free-exploratory paradigm - rats rattus-norvegicus - home base behavior - cognitive performance - separation anxiety - genetic selection - trait anxiety - fear - mice
selective breeding programmes in domestic and laboratory animals generally focus on physiological and/or anatomical characteristics. However, selection may have an (unintended) impact on other characteristics and may lead to dysfunctional behaviour that can affect biological functioning and, as a consequence, compromise welfare and quality of life. In this review it is proposed that various behavioural dysfunctions in animals are due to pathological anxiety. Although several approaches have been undertaken to specify the diagnostic criteria of pathological anxiety as a behavioural disorder in animals, the causal aetiology largely remains unknown. This is mainly due to the fact that integrated concepts, combining the behavioural syndrome and (neuro-) physiological processes, are widely lacking. Moreover, even the term anxiety itself represents a poorly defined concept or category. A definition is suggested and the potential causes of pathological anxiety are explored with a plea for developing adequate diagnostic tools and therapies to fight pathological anxiety in animals based on insight from scientific research.
Delayed non-matching to position performance in aged hybrid Fischer 344*Brown Norway rats: a longitudinal study
Blokland, A. ; Sik, A. ; Staay, F.J. van der - \ 2004
Brain Research Bulletin 64 (2004)1. - ISSN 0361-9230 - p. 39 - 46.
short-term-memory - medial prefrontal cortex - spatial memory - cognitive performance - working-memory - lewis rats - discrimination task - animal-models - old rats - deficits
In this study, the effects of aging on the performance in a delayed non-matching to position (DNMTP) task were investigated longitudinally in hybrid Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats. The rats were first trained to perform the task. Subsequently, their performance was assessed monthly from 28 to 34 months of age. The measures of responding on the DNMTP schedule did not decrease in the course of the study. After the last DNMTP test, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) content were measured in frontal cortex and hippocampus. We found that higher levels of GFAP in the frontal cortex, but not hippocampus, were associated with a poorer performance in the DNMTP task. Our findings support the notion that repeated testing prevents the age-related decline in cognitive functions that has been reported in cross-sectional studies. Pathology of the frontal cortex seems to predict a faster rate of forgetting in aging rats
Alpha-lactalbumin combined with a regular diet increases plasma Trp-LNAA ratio
Beulens, J.W.J. ; Bindels, J.G. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2004
Physiology and Behavior 81 (2004)4. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 585 - 593.
brain-serotonin content - neutral amino-acids - food-intake - prolactin secretion - carbohydrate breakfasts - cognitive performance - appetite regulation - meal composition - infant formulas - obese humans
Brain serotonin influences food intake and mood. It is synthesised from tryptophan (Tip) of which uptake in the brain is dependent on plasma ratio of tryptophan to the sum of other large neutral amino acids (Trp-LNAA). A carbohydrate-rich diet increases this ratio, whereas a protein-rich diet decreases it. Yet, if the protein source is a-lactalbumin the ratio increases. It is, however, unknown whether this also happens in the context of a regular diet (15% protein). We studied the effect of an alpha-lactalbumin supplement combined with regular diet on plasma Trp-LNAA ratio, serum prolactin (marker of serotonin synthesis), food intake, appetite, macronutrient preference And mood. Eighteen healthy males participated in a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour after breakfast they received a drink containing alpha-lactalbumin and carbohydrates (AS) or carbohydrates (PS) only. Plasma Trp-LNAA ratio, serum prolactin, food intake, appetite, macronutrient preference and mood were assessed before and 90 min after consumption of the supplement. Changes of plasma Trp-LNAA ratio differed (P