Identification of quantitative trait loci and a candidate locus for freezing tolerance in controlled and outdoor environments in the overwintering crucifer Boechera stricta.
Heo, J. ; Feng, D. ; Niu, X. ; Mitchell-Olds, T. ; Tienderen, P.H. van; Tomes, D. ; Schranz, M.E. - \ 2014
Plant, Cell & Environment 37 (2014)11. - ISSN 0140-7791 - p. 2459 - 2469.
cold-acclimation - arabidopsis-thaliana - chlorophyll fluorescence - transcription factor - natural variation - frost tolerance - genes - temperature - wheat - expression
Development of chilling and freezing tolerance is complex and can be affected by photoperiod, temperature and photosynthetic performance; however, there has been limited research on the interaction of these three factors. We evaluated 108 recombinant inbred lines of Boechera stricta, derived from a cross between lines originating from Montana and Colorado, under controlled long day (LD), short-day (SD) and in an outdoor environment (OE). We measured maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, lethal temperature for 50% survival and electrolyte leakage of leaves. Our results revealed significant variation for chilling and freezing tolerance and photosynthetic performance in different environments. Using both single- and multi-trait analyses, three main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified. QTL on linkage group (LG)3 were SD specific, whereas QTL on LG4 were found under both LD and SD. Under all conditions, QTL on LG7 were identified, but were particularly predictive for the outdoor experiment. The co-localization of photosynthetic performance and freezing tolerance effects supports these traits being co-regulated. Finally, the major QTL on LG7 is syntenic to the Arabidopsis C-repeat binding factor locus, known regulators of chilling and freezing responses in Arabidopsis thaliana and other species.
Temperature-induced plasticity in membrane and storage lipid composition: Thermal reaction norms across five different temperatures
Dooremalen, C. van; Koekkoek, J. ; Ellers, J. - \ 2011
Journal of Insect Physiology 57 (2011)2. - ISSN 0022-1910 - p. 285 - 291.
fatty-acid-composition - orchesella-cincta collembola - homeoviscous adaptation - stress resistance - cold-acclimation - life-history - populations - physiology - evolution - responses
Temperature is a key environmental factor inducing phenotypic plasticity in a wide range of behavioral, morphological, and life history traits in ectotherms. The strength of temperature-induced responses in fitness-related traits may be determined by plasticity of the underlying physiological or biochemical traits. Lipid composition may be an important trait underlying fitness response to temperature, because it affects membrane fluidity as well as availability of stored energy reserves. Here, we investigate the effect of temperature on lipid composition of the springtail Orchesella cincta by measuring thermal reaction norms across five different temperatures after four weeks of cold or warm acclimation. Fatty acid composition in storage and membrane lipids showed a highly plastic response to temperature, but the responses of single fatty acids revealed deviations from the expectations based on HVA theory. We found an accumulation of C18:2n6 and C18:3n3 at higher temperatures and the preservation of C20:4n6 across temperatures, which is contrary to the expectation of decreased unsaturation at higher temperatures. The thermal response of these fatty acids in O. cincta differed from the findings in other species, and therefore shows there is interspecific variation in how single fatty acids contribute to HVA. Future research should determine the consequences of such variation in terms of costs and benefits for the thermal performance of species.
Osmotic shrinkage and reswelling of giant vesicles composed of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol and cholesterol
Claessens, M.M.A.E. ; Leermakers, F.A.M. ; Hoekstra, F.A. ; Cohen Stuart, M.A. - \ 2008
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Biomembranes 1778 (2008)4. - ISSN 0005-2736 - p. 890 - 895.
isolated plant-protoplasts - plasma-membrane - lipid-bilayers - phospholipid-vesicles - mechanical-properties - cold-acclimation - freezing-injury - model membranes - curvature - stability
The osmotic shrinkage of giant unilamellar dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) vesicles in a hypertonic osmotic solution is investigated. The volume reduction for given membrane area leads to a vesiculation of the bilayer into the interior of the giant. The size of the daughter vesicles that appear inside the giant is uniform and an increasing function of the cholesterol content, but independent of the osmotic gradient applied. The radius of the daughter vesicles increases from 0.2 mum to 3.0 mum when the cholesterol content is changed from 0 to 40%. It is argued that the size of the daughter vesicles is regulated by the membrane persistence length, which is an exponential function of the mean bending modulus. From the kinetics of shrinkage it follows that approximately 14% of the daughter vesicles remain attached to the mother giant. This is in reasonable agreement with osmotic swelling experiments which show that approximately 11% of the daughter vesicles is available for area expansion.
Contrasting effect of dark-chilling on chloroplast structure and arrangement of chlorophyll-protein complexes in pea and tomato: plants with a different susceptibility to non-freezing temperature
Garstka, M. ; Venema, J.H. ; Rumak, I. ; Gieczewska, K. ; Rosiak, M. ; Koziol-Lipinska, J. ; Vredenberg, W.J. ; Mostowska, A. - \ 2007
Planta 226 (2007)5. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 1165 - 1181.
photosynthetic electron-transport - hill reaction activity - fatty-acid levels - thylakoid membranes - photosystem-i - cucumber leaves - arabidopsis-thaliana - subsequent recovery - soybean genotypes - cold-acclimation
The effect of dark-chilling and subsequent photoactivation on chloroplast structure and arrangements of chlorophyll-protein complexes in thylakoid membranes was studied in chilling-tolerant (CT) pea and in chilling-sensitive (CS) tomato. Dark-chilling did not influence chlorophyll content and Chl a/b ratio in thylakoids of both species. A decline of Chl a fluorescence intensity and an increase of the ratio of fluorescence intensities of PSI and PSII at 120 K was observed after dark-chilling in thylakoids isolated from tomato, but not from pea leaves. Chilling of pea leaves induced an increase of the relative contribution of LHCII and PSII fluorescence. A substantial decrease of the LHCII/PSII fluorescence accompanied by an increase of that from LHCI/PSI was observed in thylakoids from chilled tomato leaves; both were attenuated by photoactivation. Chlorophyll fluorescence of bright grana discs in chloroplasts from dark-chilled leaves, detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy, was more condensed in pea but significantly dispersed in tomato, compared with control samples. The chloroplast images from transmission-electron microscopy revealed that dark-chilling induced an increase of the degree of grana stacking only in pea chloroplasts. Analyses of O-J-D-I-P fluorescence induction curves in leaves of CS tomato before and after recovery from chilling indicate changes in electron transport rates at acceptor- and donor side of PS II and an increase in antenna size. In CT pea leaves these effects were absent, except for a small but irreversible effect on PSII activity and antenna size. Thus, the differences in chloroplast structure between CS and CT plants, induced by dark-chilling are a consequence of different thylakoid supercomplexes rearrangements.
A Caenorhabditis elegans Wild Type Defies the Temperature-Size Rule Owing to a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in tra-3
Kammenga, J.E. ; Doroszuk, A. ; Riksen, J.A.G. ; Hazendonk, E. ; Spiridon, L.N. ; Petrescu, A.J. ; Tijsterman, M. ; Plasterk, R.H.A. ; Bakker, J. - \ 2007
Plos Genetics 3 (2007)3. - ISSN 1553-7404
quantitative trait loci - secondary structure prediction - life-history puzzle - drosophila-melanogaster - body-size - cell-size - c-elegans - transcription factor - sex-determination - cold-acclimation
Ectotherms rely for their body heat on surrounding temperatures. A key question in biology is why most ectotherms mature at a larger size at lower temperatures, a phenomenon known as the temperature¿size rule. Since temperature affects virtually all processes in a living organism, current theories to explain this phenomenon are diverse and complex and assert often from opposing assumptions. Although widely studied, the molecular genetic control of the temperature¿size rule is unknown. We found that the Caenorhabditis elegans wild-type N2 complied with the temperature¿size rule, whereas wild-type CB4856 defied it. Using a candidate gene approach based on an N2 × CB4856 recombinant inbred panel in combination with mutant analysis, complementation, and transgenic studies, we show that a single nucleotide polymorphism in tra-3 leads to mutation F96L in the encoded calpain-like protease. This mutation attenuates the ability of CB4856 to grow larger at low temperature. Homology modelling predicts that F96L reduces TRA-3 activity by destabilizing the DII-A domain. The data show that size adaptation of ectotherms to temperature changes may be less complex than previously thought because a subtle wild-type polymorphism modulates the temperature responsiveness of body size. These findings provide a novel step toward the molecular understanding of the temperature¿size rule, which has puzzled biologists for decades.
Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 (AA) leaves submitted to temperature stresses
Santos, C.R. ; Martins, N.F. ; Horberg, H.M. ; Almeida, E.R.P. ; Coelho, M.C.F. ; Togawa, R. ; Silva, F.R. ; Caetano, A.R. ; Miller, R.N.G. ; Souza, M.T. - \ 2005
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 110 (2005)8. - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 1517 - 1522.
heat-shock-protein - cold-acclimation - oxidative stress - parenchyma cells - arabidopsis - tolerance - plants - genes - accumulation - tobacco
In order to discover genes expressed in leaves of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 (AA), from plants submitted to temperature stress, we produced and characterized two full-length enriched cDNA libraries. Total RNA from plants subjected to temperatures ranging from 5°C to 25°C and from 25°C to 45°C was used to produce a COLD and a HOT cDNA library, respectively. We sequenced 1,440 clones from each library. Following quality analysis and vector trimming, we assembled 2,286 sequences from both libraries into 1,019 putative transcripts, consisting of 217 clusters and 802 singletons, which we denoted Musa acuminata assembled expressed sequence tagged (EST) sequences (MaAES). Of these MaAES, 22.87% showed no matches with existing sequences in public databases. A global analysis of the MaAES data set indicated that 10% of the sequenced cDNAs are present in both cDNA libraries, while 42% and 48% are present only in the COLD or in the HOT libraries, respectively. Annotation of the MaAES data set categorized them into 22 functional classes. Of the 2,286 high-quality sequences, 715 (31.28%) originated from full-length cDNA clones and resulted in a set of 149 genes