Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Biologische bestrijding van wol- en schildluis in de sierteelt onder glas
    Kruidhof, H.M. ; Messelink, G.J. ; Leman, A. ; Vijverberg, Roland - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw - 1
    tuinbouw - glastuinbouw - biologische bestrijding - sierteelt - cymbidium - rosaceae - planococcus citri - coccoidea - sluipwespen - predatoren - roofinsecten - thrips - coleoptera - horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - biological control - ornamental horticulture - cymbidium - rosaceae - planococcus citri - coccoidea - parasitoid wasps - predators - predatory insects - thrips - coleoptera
    Het doel van dit project is om de biologische bestrijding van wol-en schildluis te verbeteren met nieuwe inzetstrategieën van bestaande bestrijders en door opsporing van complementaire nieuwe bestrijders. Poster van het PlantgezondheidEvent 2016.
    Tonderzwammen en insecten
    Moraal, L.G. - \ 2015
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 12 (2015)120. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 20 - 21.
    fomes fomentarius - insecten - bedreigde soorten - soorten - parasieten - coleoptera - gastheer parasiet relaties - fomes fomentarius - insects - endangered species - species - parasites - coleoptera - host parasite relationships
    Parasieten op bomen, zijn op hun beurt ook weer een plek waar allerlei soorten voorkomen. Op de zeldzame tonderzwam kunnen zich unieke insectencombinaties ontwikkelen. Nu de tonderzwam aan een opmars bezig is, komen ook deze bijzondere insecten weer terug.
    Adaptability of two weevils (Neochetina bruchi and Neochetina eichhorniae) with potential to control water hyacinth in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia
    Firehun, Y. ; Struik, P.C. ; Lantinga, E.A. ; Taye, T. - \ 2015
    Crop Protection 76 (2015). - ISSN 0261-2194 - p. 75 - 82.
    successful biological-control - control agent - life-cycle - curculionidae - coleoptera - crassipes - pontederiaceae - waterhyacinth - dynamics - hustache
    Neochetina weevils have potential as biocontrol agents for water hyacinth, an aquatic weed which seriously affects irrigation water supply in sugarcane, vegetables and other horticultural crop production in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. A study was conducted on (i) the adaptability and duration of developmental stages of Neochetina weevils and (ii) the damage they cause to water hyacinth in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. The Rift Valley weather conditions appeared to be suitable for the two weevil species studied, enabling them to produce four generations per year. The egg hatching period of Neochetina bruchi ranged from 4 to 10 days, while Neochetinaeichhorniae took 8–12 days. Larvae of N. bruchi took a comparatively shorter period (32–38 days) than N. eichhorniae (52–60 days) to complete their development. N. bruchi laid a maximum of 10.4 eggs female-1 day-1, whereas N. eichhorniae laid 8.2 eggs female-1 day-1. The intrinsic rate of increase of N. bruchi was found to be 0.06 with a generation time of 74.8 days and a population doubling period of 14.3 days. The intrinsic rate of increase of N. eichhorniae was 0.046 accompanied by a generation time of 94.8 days and a doubling period of 18.7 days. Feeding by adult weevils and tunnelling by larvae significantly impacted the vigour and reproduction of water hyacinth plants. N. bruchi and N. eichhorniae affected plants had about 72% (76%) and 66% (58%) reduction in fresh (and dry) weight, respectively. Thus, based on their damage potential and difference in rate of population growth, it is concluded that N. bruchi could be considered as a promising candidate for biological control of water hyacinth under Ethiopian conditions.
    Entomofauna van Flevoland : Verslag van de 164e zomerbijeenkomst te Kraggenburg
    Cuppen, J.G.M. - \ 2015
    Entomologische Berichten 70 (2015)6. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 190 - 212.
    heteroptera - coleoptera - isopoda - diploptera - insecten - inventarisaties - ecologische entomologie - natuurgebieden - flevoland - heteroptera - coleoptera - isopoda - diploptera - insects - inventories - ecological entomology - natural areas - flevoland
    Op terreinen van Staatsbosbeheer, Natuurmonumenten en Flovolandschap is een inventarisatie uitgevoerd door 36 leden van de NEV. De gebieden die onderzocht zijn: Kuinderbos, Urkerbos, Voorsterbos, Harderbos, Knarbos, Winkelse Zand en Harderbroek. In dit artikel worden gedetailleerd de vindplaatsen geïnventariseerd, met daarnaast uitvoerige beschrijvingen van de gevonden soorten
    Quantification of motility of carabid beetles in farmland
    Allema, A.B. ; Werf, W. van der; Groot, J.C.J. ; Hemerik, L. ; Gort, G. ; Rossing, W.A.H. ; Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2015
    Bulletin of Entomological Research 105 (2015)2. - ISSN 0007-4853 - p. 234 - 244.
    inhabiting cereal fields - pterostichus-melanarius - agricultural landscapes - movement patterns - surface-activity - activity-density - ground beetles - coleoptera - dispersal - models
    Quantification of the movement of insects at field and landscape levels helps us to understand their ecology and ecological functions. We conducted a meta-analysis on movement of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), to identify key factors affecting movement and population redistribution. We characterize the rate of redistribution using motility µ (L2 T-1), which is a measure for diffusion of a population in space and time that is consistent with ecological diffusion theory and which can be used for upscaling short-term data to longer time frames. Formulas are provided to calculate motility from literature data on movement distances. A field experiment was conducted to measure the redistribution of mass-released carabid, Pterostichus melanarius in a crop field, and derive motility by fitting a Fokker–Planck diffusion model using inverse modelling. Bias in estimates of motility from literature data is elucidated using the data from the field experiment as a case study. The meta-analysis showed that motility is 5.6 times as high in farmland as in woody habitat. Species associated with forested habitats had greater motility than species associated with open field habitats, both in arable land and woody habitat. The meta-analysis did not identify consistent differences in motility at the species level, or between clusters of larger and smaller beetles. The results presented here provide a basis for calculating time-varying distribution patterns of carabids in farmland and woody habitat. The formulas for calculating motility can be used for other taxa.
    Environmental risk assessment for plant pests: A procedure to evaluate their impacts on ecosystem services
    Gilioli, G. ; Schrader, G. ; Baker, R.H.A. ; Ceglarska, E. ; Kertesz, V.K. ; Lovei, G. ; Navajas, M. ; Rossi, V. ; Tramontini, S. ; Lenteren, J.C. van - \ 2014
    Science of the Total Environment 468-469 (2014). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 475 - 486.
    anoplophora-malasiaca - functional redundancy - biological invasions - grassland experiment - biodiversity - cerambycidae - coleoptera - diversity - conservation - ecology
    The current methods to assess the environmental impacts of plant pests differ in their approaches and there is a lack of the standardized procedures necessary to provide accurate and consistent results, demonstrating the complexity of developing a commonly accepted scheme for this purpose. By including both the structural and functional components of the environment threatened by invasive alien species (IAS), in particular plant pests, we propose an environmental risk assessment scheme that addresses this complexity. Structural components are investigated by evaluating the impacts of the plant pest on genetic, species and landscape diversity. Functional components are evaluated by estimating how plant pests modify ecosystem services in order to determine the extent to which an IAS changes the functional traits that influence ecosystem services. A scenario study at a defined spatial and temporal resolution is then used to explore how an IAS, as an exogenous driving force, may trigger modifications in the target environment. The method presented here provides a standardized approach to generate comparable and reproducible results for environmental risk assessment as a component of Pest Risk Analysis. The method enables the assessment of overall environmental risk which integrates the impacts on different components of the environment and their probabilities of occurrence. The application of the proposed scheme is illustrated by evaluating the environmental impacts of the invasive citrus long-horn beetle, Anoplophora chinensis. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Field evaluation of the synergistic effects of neem oil with Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)
    Togbe, C.E. ; Zannou, E. ; Gbehounou, G. ; Kossou, D. ; Huis, A. van - \ 2014
    International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 34 (2014)4. - ISSN 1742-7584 - p. 248 - 259.
    metarhizium-anisopliae - azadirachta-indica - natural enemies - cotton bollworm - compatibility - insecticides - coleoptera - curculionidae - coccinellidae - lepidoptera
    In the present study, the synergistic effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill.) (isolate Bb11) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner) with neem oil were evaluated in three agroecological zones in Be´nin. Four bioinsecticide treatments (neem oil, neem oil and B. bassiana used separately for different target pests, neem oil mixed with B. bassiana and neem oil mixed with B. thuringiensis) were compared with a calendar-based treatment using synthetic insecticides and a control without insecticides. The bioinsecticide treatments were less effective than the calendar-based treatment at controlling cotton pests. There was no difference in yields and the number of damaged bolls in plots under treatments with the four bioinsecticide formulations, suggesting an absence of synergy between neem oil and B. bassiana and neem oil and B. thuringiensis. The numbers of natural enemies in all the bioinsecticide treatment plots and the control plots were similar and higher than those in the calendar-based treatment plots. The highest yield and profitability were obtained with the calendar-based treatment. Screening the compatibility of plant-based products and biopesticides through bioassays is essential for a successful application of their combinations in any integrated pest management strategy.
    Hout- en bastkevers bij jonge eiken
    Sluis, B.J. van der - \ 2014
    quercus - plantenplagen - houtboorders - coleoptera - maatregelen - plantgezondheid - preventie - openbaar groen - quercus - plant pests - wood borers - coleoptera - measures - plant health - prevention - public green areas
    Zowel de boomkwekerijsector, als groenbeheerders, ondervinden problemen met stamschade in eik door hout- en bastboorders. Bomen met duidelijke symptomen (gaatjes) zijn grotendeels onverkoopbaar en dit leidt tot aanzienlijke financiële schade in de laanboomsector. Mogelijke oplossingen zijn niet of beperkt ontwikkeld. Doel van dit onderzoek was om de ernst van het hout- en bastboorders probleem bij Quercus in kaart te brengen, zowel op de kwekerijen als bij de eindgebruiker. Bestaande informatie uit de literatuur is verzameld en er is een aanzet voor een beheers strategie gegeven.
    Effects of land use and insecticides on natural enemies of aphids in cotton: First evidence from smallholder agriculture in the North China Plain
    Zhou, K. ; Huang, J. ; Deng, X. ; Werf, W. van der; Zhang, W. ; Lu, Y. ; Wu, K. ; Wu, F. - \ 2014
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 183 (2014). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 176 - 184.
    coccinella-septempunctata - biocontrol services - landscape diversity - bt cotton - coleoptera - management - pest - biodiversity - parasitism - varieties
    Studies conducted in the USA and Europe have shown that diverse landscapes in general support greaternatural enemy abundance. No quantitative evidence on the relationship between land use diversity andnatural enemies has been reported from developing countries, where fields and farms are much smallerthan in modernized agriculture in the west, and where insecticide use is often high and indiscriminate.This paper examines the effects of land use and farmers’ insecticide application on natural enemies ofaphids in cotton production, based on a unique dataset that links household and cotton field surveys toa detailed assessment of land uses in the landscapes surrounding the cotton fields in the North ChinaPlain (NCP), a major grain and cotton production region in China. Our results show that, in the NCP wherefarms are small and landscape is dominated by a few crops, Shannon or Simpson land use diversity indexis not a good indicator for explaining the relationship between land use and densities of aphid naturalenemies. Instead, the types and proportions of cropland habitat mattered. Landscapes with more maizeand grassland have higher ladybeetle populations in cotton fields. Farmers’ pest management practicessuch as the amount and timing of insecticide use significantly affect ladybeetle densities. These resultsimply that there is a need to recognize the potential positive role of cropland use in pest managementand call for more judicious insecticide use strategies by smallholder farmers in the North China Plain.
    Seasonal phenology of interactions involving short-lived annual plants, a multivoltine herbivore and its endoparasitoid wasp
    Fei, M. ; Gols, R. ; Harvey, J.A. - \ 2014
    Journal of Animal Ecology 83 (2014)1. - ISSN 0021-8790 - p. 234 - 244.
    specialist herbivore - brassica-oleracea - trophic levels - quality - evolution - sequestration - consequences - constraints - parasitoids - coleoptera
    Spatial-temporal realism is often missing in many studies of multitrophic interactions, which are conducted at a single time frame and/or involving interactions between insects with a single species of plant. In this scenario, an underlying assumption is that the host-plant species is ubiquitous throughout the season and that the insects always interact with it. We studied interactions involving three naturally occurring wild species of cruciferous plants, Brassica rapa, Sinapis arvensis and Brassica nigra, that exhibit different seasonal phenologies, and a multivoltine herbivore, the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and its gregarious endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. The three plants have very short life cycles. In central Europe, B. rapa grows in early spring, S. arvensis in late spring and early summer, and B. nigra in mid to late summer. P. brassicae generally has three generations per year, and C. glomerata at least two. This means that different generations of the insects must find and exploit different plant species that may differ in quality and which may be found some distance from one another. Insects were either reared on each of the three plant species for three successive generations or shifted between generations from B. rapa to S. arvensis to B. nigra. Development time from neonate to pupation and pupal fresh mass were determined in P. brassicae and egg-to-adult development time and body mass in C. glomerata. Overall, herbivores performed marginally better on S. arvensis and B. nigra plants than on B. rapa plants. Parasitoids performance was closely tailored with that of the host. Irrespective as to whether the insects were shifted to a new plant in successive generations or not, development time of P. brassicae and C. glomerata decreased dramatically over time. Our results show that there were some differences in insect development on different plant species and when transferred from one species to another. However, all three plants were of generally high quality in terms of insect performance. We discuss ecological and evolutionary constraints on insects that must search in new habitats for different plant species over successive generations.
    Habitat functionality for the ecosystem service of pest control: reproduction and feeding sites of pests and natural enemies
    Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Schellhorn, N.A. ; Cunningham, S.A. - \ 2013
    Agricultural and Forest Entomology 15 (2013)1. - ISSN 1461-9555 - p. 12 - 23.
    agricultural landscapes - coccinellidae - agroecosystems - biodiversity - assemblages - coleoptera - density - aphids - sinks
    1 Landscape management for enhanced natural pest control requires knowledge of the ecological function of the habitats present in the landscape mosaic. However, little is known about which habitat types in agricultural landscapes function as reproduction habitats for arthropod pests and predators during different times of the year. 2 We studied the arthropod assemblage on six crops and on the seven most abundant native plant species in two landscapes over 1 year in Australia. Densities of immature and adult stages of pests and their predators were assessed using beat sheet sampling. 3 The native plants supported a significantly different arthropod assemblage than crops. Native plants had higher predator densities than crops over the course of the year, whereas crops supported higher pest densities than the native plants in two out of four seasonal sampling periods. Crops had higher densities of immature stages of pests than native plants in three of four seasonal sampling periods, implying that crops are more strongly associated with pest reproduction than native plants. Densities of immature predators, excluding spiders, were not different between native plants and crops. Spiders were, however, generally abundant and densities were higher on native plants than on crops but, because some species disperse when immature, there is less certainty in identifying their reproduction habitat. 4 Because the predator to pest ratio on native plant species showed little variation, and spatial variation in arthropod assemblages was limited, the predator support function of native vegetation may be a general phenomenon. Incentives that maintain and restore native remnant vegetation can increase the predator to pest ratio at the landscape scale, which could enhance pest suppression in crops.
    Repeated parallel evolution reveals limiting similarity in subterranean diving beetles
    Vergnon, R.O.H. ; Leijs, P. ; Nes, E.H. van; Scheffer, M. - \ 2013
    American Naturalist 182 (2013)1. - ISSN 0003-0147 - p. 67 - 75.
    species-diversity - competition - dytiscidae - patterns - convergence - coexistence - coleoptera - divergence - morphology - community
    The theory of limiting similarity predicts that co-occurring species must be sufficiently different to coexist. Although this idea is a staple of community ecology, convincing empirical evidence has been scarce. Here we examine 34 subterranean beetle communities in arid inland Australia that share the same habitat type but have evolved in complete isolation over the past 5 million years. Although these communities come from a range of phylogenetic origins, we find that they have almost invariably evolved to share a similar size structure. The relative positions of coexisting species on the body size axis were significantly more regular across communities than would be expected by chance, with a size ratio, on average, of 1.6 between coexisting species. By contrast, species' absolute body sizes varied substantially from one community to the next. This suggests that self-organized spacing according to limiting-similarity theory, as opposed to evolution toward preexisting fixed niches, shaped the communities. Using a model starting from random sets of founder species, we demonstrate that the patterns are indeed consistent with evolutionary self-organization. For less isolated habitats, the same model predicts the coexistence of multiple species in each regularly spaced functional group. Limiting similarity, therefore, may also be compatible with the coexistence of many redundant species. © 2013 by The University of Chicago.
    Comment on "Invasive Harlequin Ladybird Carries Biological Weapons Against Native Competitors"
    Jong, P.W. de; Lenteren, J.C. van; Raak-van den Berg, C.L. - \ 2013
    Science 341 (2013)6152. - ISSN 0036-8075
    intraguild predation - harmonia-axyridis - coccinellidae - coleoptera
    We comment on the implications that Vilcinskas et al. (Reports, 17 May 2013, p. 862) attach to the finding that the exotic, invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis carries microsporidia to which this species is insensitive but that is lethal to species that are native to the invaded areas. The authors suggest that these microsporidia might serve as “biological weapons” against the native competitors, but we cast doubt on the importance of this suggestion in the field.
    Taxuskevers lokken en bestrijden
    Elberse, I.A.M. - \ 2013
    ornamental woody plants - plant pests - coleoptera - attractants - trapping - biological control - field tests
    Taxuskevers lokken en bestrijden, een nieuwe richting in het onderzoek - Onderzoekers van PRI en PPO werken samen aan een oplossing voor de langere termijn
    Elberse, I.A.M. ; Tol, R.W.H.M. van - \ 2013
    Boom in business 4 (2013)7. - ISSN 2211-9884 - p. 40 - 43.
    houtachtige planten als sierplanten - plantenplagen - coleoptera - lokstoffen - vangmethoden - biologische bestrijding - laboratoriumproeven - landbouwkundig onderzoek - ornamental woody plants - plant pests - coleoptera - attractants - trapping - biological control - laboratory tests - agricultural research
    Wegens het beperktee middelenpakket blijft de taxuskever een gevreesde plaag voor veel boomkwekers.Onderzoek naar nieuwe insecticiden heeft weinig nieuwe middelen opgeleverd. PRI en PPO gooien het nu over een andere boeg en werken aan beheersing van de plaag met een val, een lokstof, schimmels en een oud natuurlijk middel uit Amerika.
    Extraction and characterisation of protein fractions from five insect species
    Yi, L. ; Lakemond, C.M.M. ; Sagis, L.M.C. ; Eisner-Schadler, V.R. ; Huis, A. van; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2013
    Food Chemistry 141 (2013)4. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 3341 - 3348.
    tenebrio-molitor larvae - nutrient composition - gel formation - midgut - food - invertebrates - phenoloxidase - coleoptera - component - melanin
    Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio, Alphitobius diaperinus, Acheta domesticus and Blaptica dubia were evaluated for their potential as a future protein source. Crude protein content ranged from 19% to 22% (Dumas analysis). Essential amino acid levels in all insect species were comparable with soybean proteins, but lower than for casein. After aqueous extraction, next to a fat fraction, a supernatant, pellet, and residue were obtained, containing 17–23%, 33–39%, 31–47% of total protein, respectively. At 3% (w/v), supernatant fractions did not form stable foams and gels at pH 3, 5, 7, and 10, except for gelation for A. domesticus at pH 7. At 30% w/v, gels at pH 7 and pH 10 were formed, but not at pH 3 and pH 5. In conclusion, the insect species studied have potential to be used in foods due to: (1) absolute protein levels; (2) protein quality; (3) ability to form gels.
    Carabid Beetle research in Dutch Road Verges
    Euwe, R. ; Merien, D. ; Pruijn, N. ; Teheux, C. ; Boer, W.F. de - \ 2013
    coleoptera - steden - wegen - vegetatie - veldwerk - vergelijkend onderzoek - laboratoria - carabidae - ecologische entomologie - coleoptera - towns - roads - vegetation - field work - comparative research - laboratories - carabidae - ecological entomology
    YouTube filmpje over veldonderzoek en laboratoriumonderzoek naar verschillende soorten carabidae die in het Nederlandse straatbeeld voorkomen.
    Bestrijding van de volwassen taxuskever (Otiorhynchus sulcatus): Middelenonderzoek
    Elberse, I.A.M. ; Meij, J. van der; Tol, R.W.H.M. van - \ 2013
    Lisse : Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving BBF - 57
    houtachtige planten als sierplanten - plantenplagen - coleoptera - otiorhynchus sulcatus - bestrijdingsmethoden - gewasbescherming - insectenbestrijding - laboratoriumproeven - landbouwkundig onderzoek - ornamental woody plants - plant pests - coleoptera - otiorhynchus sulcatus - control methods - plant protection - insect control - laboratory tests - agricultural research
    Taxuskevers vormen al jaren een belangrijke plaag in veel boomkwekerijgewassen. Met name de vraat van de larven aan de wortels zorgt voor problemen. Om de plaag goed te kunnen beheersen wordt aangeraden om zowel de kevers als de larven te bestrijden. Voor de bestrijding van de larven zijn meerdere mogelijkheden (aaltjes, BIO1020, Exemptor), maar voor de bestrijding van de volwassen kevers is alleen Steward beschikbaar (in vaste planten alleen in bedekte teelt, in boomkwekerij zowel in bedekte als onbedekte teelt). Om de kans op resistentieontwikkeling te beperken is het van belang om meerdere middelen beschikbaar te hebben. Het doel van de bestrijding van volwassen taxuskevers is om zo min mogelijk larven te krijgen in de herfst. In dit onderzoek werden hiervoor de volgende subdoelen geformuleerd: 1. Het vinden van een nieuw gewasbeschermingsmiddel tegen de volwassen taxuskever . 2. Het ontwikkelen van een snellere bestrijding (voor dat eileg begint) van de volwassen taxuskever.
    Bestrijding van citruswolluis Planococcus citri
    Messelink, G.J. ; Leman, A. ; Pijnakker, J. - \ 2013
    glastuinbouw - organismen ingezet bij biologische bestrijding - plagenbestrijding - planococcus citri - sluipwespen - chrysopidae - coleoptera - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - greenhouse horticulture - biological control agents - pest control - planococcus citri - parasitoid wasps - chrysopidae - coleoptera - integrated pest management
    Het aantal bedrijven dat de afgelopen jaren besmet is geraakt met de citruswolluis, Planococcus citri, is sterk toegenomen. De chemische bestrijding is in veel gevallen niet effectief. Het doel van dit onderzoek is om nieuwe methoden te vinden voor wolluisbestrijding die integreerbaar zijn met biologische bestrijding van andere plagen.
    Breaking Haller's rule: brain-body size isometry in a minute parasitic wasp.
    Woude, E. van der; Smid, H.M. ; Chittka, L. ; Huigens, M.E. - \ 2013
    Brain, behavior and evolution 81 (2013)2. - ISSN 0006-8977 - p. 86 - 92.
    trichogramma-brassicae - cotesia-glomerata - miniaturization - allometry - insects - evolution - parthenogenesis - coleoptera - ptiliidae - rubecula
    Throughout the animal kingdom, Haller's rule holds that smaller individuals have larger brains relative to their body than larger-bodied individuals. Such brain-body size allometry is documented for all animals studied to date, ranging from small ants to the largest mammals. However, through experimental induction of natural variation in body size, and 3-D reconstruction of brain and body volume, we here show an isometric brain-body size relationship in adults of one of the smallest insect species on Earth, the parasitic wasp Trichogramma evanescens. The relative brain volume constitutes on average 8.2% of the total body volume. Brain-body size isometry may be typical for the smallest species with a rich behavioural and cognitive repertoire: a further increase in expensive brain tissue relative to body size would be too costly in terms of energy expenditure. This novel brain scaling strategy suggests a hitherto unknown flexibility in neuronal architecture and brain modularity.
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