Fate of pharmaceuticals in full-scale source separated sanitation system
Butkovskyi, A. ; Hernandez Leal, L. ; Rijnaarts, H.H.M. ; Zeeman, G. - \ 2015
Water Research 85 (2015). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 384 - 392.
Anaerobic degradation - Black water - Grey water - Micropollutant removal - Pharmaceuticals - UASB reactor
Removal of 14 pharmaceuticals and 3 of their transformation products was studied in a full-scale source separated sanitation system with separate collection and treatment of black water and grey water. Black water is treated in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification in a rotating biological contactor and struvite precipitation. Grey water is treated in an aerobic activated sludge process. Concentration of 10 pharmaceuticals and 2 transformation products in black water ranged between low μg/l to low mg/l. Additionally, 5 pharmaceuticals were also present in grey water in low μg/l range. Pharmaceutical influent loads were distributed over two streams, i.e. diclofenac was present for 70% in grey water, while the other compounds were predominantly associated to black water. Removal in the UASB reactor fed with black water exceeded 70% for 9 pharmaceuticals out of the 12 detected, with only two pharmaceuticals removed by sorption to sludge. Ibuprofen and the transformation product of naproxen, desmethylnaproxen, were removed in the rotating biological contactor. In contrast, only paracetamol removal exceeded 90% in the grey water treatment system while removal of other 7 pharmaceuticals was below 40% or even negative. The efficiency of pharmaceutical removal in the source separated sanitation system was compared with removal in the conventional sewage treatment plants. Furthermore, effluent concentrations of black water and grey water treatment systems were compared with predicted no-effect concentrations to assess toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of diclofenac, ibuprofen and oxazepam in both effluents were higher than predicted no-effect concentrations, indicating the necessity of post-treatment. Ciprofloxacin, metoprolol and propranolol were found in UASB sludge in μg/g range, while pharmaceutical concentrations in struvite did not exceed the detection limits.
Mogelijkheden voor de implementatie van het biomassawerf concept in de Greenport Gelderland : deel 3: Logistieke cases
Annevelink, E. ; Oever, M.J.A. van den; Gogh, J.B. van; Dam, J.E.G. van - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1546) - 75
biobased economy - biomassa - reststromen - beschikbaarheid - logistiek - biomassa productie - biomassaconversie - verzamelen - analyse - betuwe - biomass - residual streams - availability - logistics - biomass production - biomass conversion - collection - analysis
Het project ‘Biomassawerf – verwerken van reststromen’ (BO-21.03-001-002) vormt een onderdeel van het Biobased gedeelte van het BO-programma Keteninnovaties Plantaardig (KIP) van het Ministerie van Economische Zaken. Deze nota is het derde deel van de rapportage uit dit project, en is een vervolg op de nota’s: ‘Deel 1. Stakeholder analyse & biomassabeschikbaarheid’ (Annevelink et al., 2013) en ‘Deel 2. Het biomassawerf concept: voorbeelden, theorie & checklist’ (Annevelink et al., 2014a). Het specifieke doel van dit derde deelrapport is om de logistiek rond mogelijke biomassawerven in beeld te brengen d.m.v. specifieke cases. Dit rapport start in Hoofdstuk 2 met feedback vanuit de logistieke praktijk op het biomassawerf concept zoals dat is beschreven in Rapport Deel 2. Vervolgens wordt in Hoofdstuk 3 beschreven hoe de logistieke case studies zijn uitgevoerd. Daarna volgen de resultaten van drie verschillende case studies in de Greenport Gelderland, n.l. rond houtige reststromen in de fruitteelt (Hoofdstuk 4), houtige reststromen uit de laanbomenteelt (Hoofdstuk 5) en het afscheiden van fosfaat en andere componenten uit champost (Hoofdstuk 6). Tenslotte worden algemene conclusies en aanbevelingen uit de cases studies gegeven in Hoofdstuk 7.
Managing plastic waste in East Africa: Niche innovations in plastic production and solid waste
Ombis, L.O. ; Vliet, B.J.M. van; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2015
Habitat International 48 (2015). - ISSN 0197-3975 - p. 188 - 197.
multi-regime dynamics - management - expectations - perspective - sanitation - reconfiguration - metropolises - collection - sociology - prospects
This paper assesses the uptake of environmental innovation practices to cope with plastic waste in Kenyan urban centres at the interface of solid waste management and plastic production systems. The Multi Level Perspective on Technological Transitions is used to evaluate 7 innovation pathways of plastic waste prevention, reuse or recycling. An assessment is made as to whether the innovations lead to changes in the regimes of waste management and plastic production and eventually an integrated regime for plastic production and reuse. The study comprises of a review of policy documents and statistics, site visits and in-depth interviews with main actors involved in plastic waste related innovation. The comparative analysis of social network building, actor expectations and learning processes in the 7 innovation routes reveals that Kenya is still far from having a well-aligned plastic production-cum-waste regime that enables plastic waste prevention, recycling and handling practices. Innovations by yard shop owners and home grown industries contribute to an aligned plastic waste recycling regime, where PET exporters, bio-degradable plastic sellers and CBO collectors fail to do so. All innovation actors face a lack of governmental recognition and guidelines to close the loop of plastic production and waste handling.
Genetic and morphological diversity of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench.) genotypes and their possible relationships, with particular reference to Greek landraces
Kyriakopoulou, O.G. ; Arens, P.F.P. ; Pelgrom, K.T.B. ; Karapanos, I. ; Bebeli, P. ; Passam, H.C. - \ 2014
Scientia Horticulturae 171 (2014). - ISSN 0304-4238 - p. 58 - 70.
numerical-analysis - germplasm - aflp - collection - cultivars - stability - patterns - distance - markers - plants
Despite its high economic value in many countries (especially in developing regions of the tropics and sub-tropics), okra has received little attention with respect to its source of origin and genetic diversity, particularly at the molecular level. Phenotypic description (morphology, pod characteristics and seed germination) and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) analysis were performed on Greek and international genotypes. Whereas morphological descriptors did not separate the accessions according to their geographical origin, AFLP analysis revealed a low level (12%) of polymorphism and distinct geographical groupings. Greek germplasm separated into three distinct groups with no overlap between them on the basis of molecular markers. A higher degree of genetic heterogeneity was found (UPGMA analysis) among the accessions of the Boyiatiou group than in the Pylaias group, whereas the occurrence of some common phylogenetic characteristics made separation on the basis of morphology alone difficult. The results from AFLP markers indicate that Greek germplasm constitutes a significant pool of variation with respect to morphological parameters, pod characteristics and seed germinability. Moreover, differences in seed germination among phenotypes may relate to their geographical origin (mainland or islands).
Floor egg collection device
Vroegindeweij, B.A. ; Kortlever, J.W. ; Wais, E. ; Henten, E. van - \ 2014
Farm Technology Group Wageningen UR
grondeieren - verzamelen - pluimveehouderij - eierproductie - landbouwtechniek - floor eggs - collection - poultry farming - egg production - agricultural engineering
This video presents the results of the development and testing of an egg collection device for autonomous floor egg collection, which is part of the development of Poultrybot. The device is dedicated to the collection of floor eggs, and consists of a bended helical spring. Test have been performed with various settings under lab and field conditions, and revealed that collection rates of more than 95% can be achieved.
BioHackathon series in 2011 and 2012: penetration of ontology and linked data in life science domains
Katayama, T. ; Wilkinson, M.D. ; Aoki-Kinoshita, K.F. ; Prins, J.C.P. - \ 2014
Journal of Biomedical Semantics 5 (2014). - ISSN 2041-1480
genome analysis environment - metabolic pathways - web services - gene - sequences - software - biology - normalization - collection - glycomics
The application of semantic technologies to the integration of biological data and the interoperability of bioinformatics analysis and visualization tools has been the common theme of a series of annual BioHackathons hosted in Japan for the past five years. Here we provide a review of the activities and outcomes from the BioHackathons held in 2011 in Kyoto and 2012 in Toyama. In order to efficiently implement semantic technologies in the life sciences, participants formed various sub-groups and worked on the following topics: Resource Description Framework (RDF) models for specific domains, text mining of the literature, ontology development, essential metadata for biological databases, platforms to enable efficient Semantic Web technology development and interoperability, and the development of applications for Semantic Web data. In this review, we briefly introduce the themes covered by these sub-groups. The observations made, conclusions drawn, and software development projects that emerged from these activities are discussed.
Next-generation genebanking: plant genetic resources management and utilization in the sequencing era
Treuren, R. van; Hintum, T.J.L. van - \ 2014
Plant genetic resources: characterization and utilization 12 (2014)3. - ISSN 1479-2621 - p. 298 - 307.
marker-assisted selection - ex-situ conservation - crop improvement - genomic selection - wild relatives - technologies - association - diversity - collection - lettuce
Advances in sequencing technologies have made it possible to analyse large amounts of germplasm against low production costs, which has opened the door to screen genebank collections more efficiently for DNA sequence variation. The present study explores how these developments may affect the operations of genebanks and, consequently, how genebank agendas may change. It is argued that the new developments are more likely to have an impact on the user-oriented activities than the housekeeping operations of genebanks. To better facilitate the user community, genebanks may have to strengthen their core business, in particular, by improving quality management procedures and by providing access to a wider diversity of a crop's gene pool. In addition, genebanks may have to provide novel services, such as the introduction of specific user-oriented collection types, including research populations and genetically purified lines, and the development of novel information services, including plant genetic resources portals that should guide users to the information and materials of specific interest. To improve their user-oriented services, genebanks need to increase their communication and collaboration with the user community and to develop strategic alliances with this sector.
Pilot beverage cartons : extended technical report
Thoden van Velzen, E.U. ; Brouwer, M.T. ; Keijsers, E.R.P. ; Pretz, Th. ; Feil, A. ; Jansen, M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1440) - ISBN 9789461739803 - 229
dranken - verpakkingsmaterialen - verpakking - recycling - verzamelen - nederland - beverages - packaging materials - packaging - collection - netherlands
This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with various separate collection systems and 2 recovery facilities.
Pilot beverage carton collection and recycling 2013: Concise technical report
Thoden Van Velzen, E.U. ; Brouwer, M.T. ; Keijsers, E.R.P. ; Pretz, Th. ; Feil, A. ; Jansen, M. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1439) - ISBN 9789461739797 - 32
verpakkingsmaterialen - dranken - recycling - verzamelen - packaging materials - beverages - collection
This report gives a technological description of the four common collection and recycling schemes that have been tested in the Netherlands as part of the pilot beverage cartons in 2013. During this pilot the collection and recycling of beverage cartons was tested in 37 different municipalities, with various separate collection systems and 2 recovery facilities. The pilot demonstrated that it is technically possible to collect and recycle Dutch beverage cartons. The recycled pulp from all tested collection methods is relatively similar in properties. Also, the fibres are relatively strong and the microbiological load is relative high, this limits the applicability. Hence, corrugated boxes are a well-suited application for these pulps. Four different collection and recycling schemes were tested; separate collection, co-collection with plastics, co-collection with paper & board and recovery. The efficiency of most schemes is limited by the net collection yields and for some schemes also the sorting yield. The net collection yields are determined by different factors, such as the percentage of high rise buildings, the execution of the collection system (service level, communication, etc.) and the space inside the houses to store and keep beverage cartons separate until collection. The recovery recycling chains were most efficient, although one of the two chains suffered from a relative low sorting yield. Nevertheless, this sorting step can be improved. Two different co-collection chains with plastic packages were studied; the Milieuzakken and the Kunststof Hergebruik chains. The Milieuzakken-chain is already established for several years and the collection retrieves almost all the beverage cartons that are expected to be present in its collection area. However, the collected material contains also relative large amounts of residual waste, which hampers the sorting and recycling and reduces the overall efficiency. The Kunststof Hergebruik co-collection chain was set-up specially for this pilot and suffered from low collection yields and low sorting yields. Although the rural area around Deventer already reached a near complete collection of all beverage cartons, for most other collection areas more time is necessary to mature the collection system and obtain higher collection yields. For improved sorting ideally an investment is required which would make the sorting process much more efficient, since the current facility was not designed and equipped for the efficient sorting of beverage cartons. The separate collection scheme suffered from relative low net collection yields, varying from 3% to 57% with a weight-averaged mean of 20%. This collection system needs time to mature and obtain higher net collection yields. For a few municipalities (with relatively low collection yields) some adjustments to the system are necessary. Also, the co-collection scheme with paper & board in general suffered from low net collection yields. Although in the high-rise area of Etten-Leur the largest net collection yield for a high-rise area was recorded of 50%. The subsequent sorting was inefficient, due to the similarity of the materials. In the future, an ideal co-collection chain would be constructed without a sorting facility. The mixture would be integrally pulped and recycled as is now the current operation in a new facility in Nortrup (Germany).
MetaBase-the wiki-database of biological databases
Bolser, D.M. ; Chibon, P.Y.F.R.P. ; Palopoli, N. ; Gong, S. ; Jacob, D. ; Angel, V.D. Del; Swan, D. ; Bassi, S. ; Gonzalez, V. ; Suravajhala, P. ; Hwang, S. ; Romano, P. ; Edwards, R. ; Bishop, B. ; Eargle, J. ; Shtatland, T. ; Provart, N.J. ; Clements, D. ; Renfro, D.P. ; Bhak, D. ; Bhak, J. - \ 2012
Nucleic acids research 40 (2012)D1. - ISSN 0305-1048 - p. D1250 - D1254.
web services - life sciences - information - collection - persistence - catalog
Biology is generating more data than ever. As a result, there is an ever increasing number of publicly available databases that analyse, integrate and summarize the available data, providing an invaluable resource for the biological community. As this trend continues, there is a pressing need to organize, catalogue and rate these resources, so that the information they contain can be most effectively exploited. MetaBase (MB) (http://MetaDatabase.Org) is a community-curated database containing more than 2000 commonly used biological databases. Each entry is structured using templates and can carry various user comments and annotations. Entries can be searched, listed, browsed or queried. The database was created using the same MediaWiki technology that powers Wikipedia, allowing users to contribute on many different levels. The initial release of MB was derived from the content of the 2007 Nucleic Acids Research (NAR) Database Issue. Since then, approximately 100 databases have been manually collected from the literature, and users have added information for over 240 databases. MB is synchronized annually with the static Molecular Biology Database Collection provided by NAR. To date, there have been 19 significant contributors to the project; each one is listed as an author here to highlight the community aspect of the project.
Duurzaam ontwerp van de aan- en afvoer van drinkwater
Pieterse-Quirijns, E.J. ; Scheffer, W. ; Agudelo Vera, C.M. ; Blokker, E.J.M. - \ 2012
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 44 (2012)21. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 37 - 39.
drinkwater - afvalwater - verzamelen - hergebruik van water - simulatiemodellen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - drinking water - waste water - collection - water reuse - simulation models - sustainability
Het simulatiemodel SIMDEUM geeft een betrouwbare voorspelling van koud- en warmwaterverbruik in woningen, gebouwen en utiliteitsbouw en kan daardoor een cruciale rol spelen bij het bevorderen van duurzaamheid in de waterketen. Zo leiden op het model gebaseerde rekenregels tot energie-efficiënte ontwerpen van leidingwaterinstallaties. Ook maakt het model het mogelijk grijs- en hemelwatersystemen goed te dimensioneren en geeft het inzicht in de kwantiteit en kwaliteit van het afvalwater, zoals temperatuur en concentratie aan nutriënten. Deze informatie is nodig in processen waarin energie of nutriënten uit afvalwater teruggewonnen worden.
Een nieuwe roofmijt tegen trips in chrysant: Verzamelen en kweken van Neoseiulus reductus
Linden, A. van der - \ 2011
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten GTB 1148) - 15
biologische bestrijding - roofmijten - thrips - chrysanthemum - verzamelen - massakweek - neoseiulus - nieuwe soorten - nederland - biological control - predatory mites - collection - mass rearing - new species - netherlands
Referaat De biologische bestrijding van trips in chrysant is begonnen als een afgeleide van de tripsbestrijding met roofmijten in vruchtgroentegewassen. Oorspronkelijk werd hiervoor Neoseiulus cucumeris ingezet. Maar met een roofmijt die van nature voorkomt op chrysant, trips nimfen eet en bij voorkeur ook spint, kan de biologische bestrijding mogelijk worden verbeterd. Bij inventarisatie in Hongarije van chrysant buiten werd de roofmijt Neoseiulus reductus Wainstein gevonden. Deze roofmijt is ook in Nederland inheems en is gevonden op Alchemilla, Delphinium, Lunaria en aardbei. Er is een kweek opgezet van deze roofmijt om hiermee proeven te kunnen doen. Het bleek dat de roofmijten niet alleen stuifmeel aten, maar ook meelmijten (Acarus farris). Dit biedt goede vooruitzichten voor het ontwikkelen van een massakweek. Het kweeksucces van Neoseiulus reductus op meelmijten is na een jaar vergelijkbaar met kweken van andere roofmijten zoals Neoseiulus cucumeris en Amblyseius andersoni. Er is voor het eerst vastgesteld dat N. reductus de nimfen van californische trips op chrysant eet. Uit de literatuur is bekend dat deze roofmijt spint en weekhuidmijten eet. Neoseiulus reductus bleek zich na eenmalig uitstrooien te handhaven op chrysant. Ook na maanden waren zowel volwassen roofmijten als eieren nog aanwezig. Abstract Biological control of thrips in chrysanthemum has started years ago with predatory mites, such as Neoseiulus cucumeris, which were successful in greenhouse vegetables. However a predatory mite which occurs naturally in chrysanthemum and is predatory on thrips and spider mites might result in an improvement of the biological control. Neoseiulus reductus Wainstein was found in a survey of predatory mites in chrysanthemum in Hungary. Neoseiulus reductus is also indigenous in The Netherlands and was found on Alchemilla, Delphinium, Lunaria and strawberry. A rearing of this predatory mite was started for future experiments. It turned out that the predatory mites eat pollen, but also storage mites (Acarus farris). This makes it possible to develop a mass-rearing. After one year the rearing success was comparable with the rearing of other species such as Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius andersoni. On chrysanthemum N. reductus appeared to predate nymphs of western flower thrips, while the species was already known as a predator of spider mites and broad mites. After releasing Neoseiulus reductus in chrysanthemum, adults and eggs could still be found after months.
Voorbij de Ark? Consequenties voor de kernactiviteiten en het collectiebeleid van dierentuinen
Keulartz, J. - \ 2010
Filosofie en Praktijk 31 (2010)4. - ISSN 0167-2444 - p. 77 - 86.
dierentuinen - milieu - milieubeheer - verzamelen - dierentuindieren - zoological gardens - environment - environmental management - collection - zoo animals
De auteur stelt dat de milieucrisis de wereld van de dierentuin niet onberoerd heeft gelaten. Dienden dierentuinen aanvankelijk vooral 'ter lering en vermaak', later verschoof het accent meer en meer naar soortbehoud. Daarbij werd 'Captivity for Conservation' hét motto van de moderne dierentuin. In deze bijdrage wordt aandacht geschonken aan de verschuiving in de missie van dierentuinen, waarna nagegaan wordt wat de betekenis daarvan is voor de kernactiviteiten van dierentuinen en het collectiebeleid.
Resource recovery from black water
Graaff, M.S. de - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman, co-promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman; Hardy Temmink. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855484 - 192
rioolafvalwater - nieuwe sanitatie - anaërobe afbraak - bio-energie - nitrificatie - verzamelen - riolering - urine - sewage effluent - new sanitation - anaerobic digestion - bioenergy - nitrification - collection - sewerage - urine
New sanitation systems based on separation at source offer a large potential for resource recovery from wastewater, e.g. energy and nutrients from black water and irrigation water from grey water. This review focuses on the components in source separated black water. The treatment options for the key components are reviewed, focusing on recovery of organic compounds, nitrogen and phosphorus and removal of hormones, pharmaceutical residues and pathogens. A feasible treatment system for black water (faeces and urine), collected with vacuum toilets, would consist of anaerobic treatment followed by struvite precipitation for phosphorus recovery and autotrophic nitrogen removal. By applying these techniques, it is possible to produce 56 MJ/p/y of electricity, representing 40% of the energy that now is required for conventional WWTPs. Furthermore, the production of global artificial phosphorus fertilizer can be reduced by maximum 21%. As an alternative a higher degree of separation could be applied by separating the urine from the faeces, but this only would be feasible if the urine can be directly reused as a fertilizer. The issue of hormones, pharmaceuticals and pathogens in wastewater and their entry into the environment requires more research to determine to which extent additional treatment is necessary. Finally, the scope of this thesis is explained and the research questions which were addressed are presented.
Comparison of anonymous and targeted molecular markers for the estimation of genetic diversity in ex situ conserved Lactuca
Treuren, R. van; Hintum, T.J.L. van - \ 2009
Theoretical and Applied Genetics 119 (2009)7. - ISSN 0040-5752 - p. 1265 - 1279.
sativa l. - lettuce - aflp - polymorphism - genome - populations - collection - resistance - ssap - srap
The anonymous marker systems microsatellites (simple sequence repeats), amplified fragment length polymorphisms and sequence-specific amplified polymorphisms were compared with the targeted marker systems sequence-related amplified polymorphisms, target region amplification polymorphisms and nucleotide binding site profiling for their ability to describe the genetic diversity in a selected set of 80 Lactuca accessions. The accessions were also described morphologically, and all characterisation methods were evaluated against the genetic diversity assessed by a panel of three crop experts. The morphological data showed a low level of association with the molecular data, and did not display a consistently better relationship with the experts’ assessments in comparison with the molecular data. In general, the diversity described by the targeted molecular markers did not differ markedly from that of the anonymous markers, resulting in only slight differences in performance when related to the expert-based assessments. It was argued that markers targeted to specific gene sequences may still behave as anonymous markers and that the type of marker system used is irrelevant when at low taxonomic levels a clear genetic structure is absent due to intensive breeding activities
Effectiveness of unit-based pricing of waste in the Netherlands: applying a general equilibrium model
Beukering, P.J.H. van; Bartelings, H. ; Linderhof, V.G.M. ; Oosterhuis, F.H. - \ 2009
Waste Management 29 (2009)11. - ISSN 0956-053X - p. 2892 - 2901.
household waste - collection
Differential and variable rates (DVR) in waste collection charging give a price incentive to households to reduce their waste and increase recycling. International empirical evidence confirms the effectiveness of DVR schemes, with limited unwanted side effects. In the Netherlands, currently some 20% of the population is charged at DVR. This is less than in several other countries. Taking into account differences between types of households and dwellings, this study analyses various scenarios for extended use of DVR in the Netherlands. The analysis shows that further penetration of DVR is a cost-effective instrument for waste reduction and more recycling. Moreover, DVR can itself be seen as a necessary condition for the successful implementation of other economic instruments, such as waste taxes. It is therefore recommended to stimulate municipalities to adopt DVR schemes in the Netherlands, accompanied by the provision of adequate facilities for waste separation by households. Before introducing DVR in 'very strongly urbanized' municipalities (i.e. the 12 largest cities in the Netherlands) a pilot experiment in one of them might be useful to test the behavioral response in this category. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Praktijkervaringen met vacuümtechnologie voor toiletten [thema afvalwater]
Telkamp, P. ; Mels, A.R. ; Bulk, J. van den - \ 2008
H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 41 (2008)10. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 50 - 52.
nieuwe sanitatie - aangepaste technologie - bouwconstructie - hygiëne - woningen - vacuümpompen - scheiding - verzamelen - afvalwater - milieutechnologie - new sanitation - appropriate technology - building construction - hygiene - dwellings - vacuum pumps - separation - collection - waste water - environmental technology
Nieuwe sanitatiesystemen gebaseerd op scheiding van geconcentreerde en minder geconcentreerde huishoudelijke afvalstromen aan de bron komen zowel internationaal als nationaal steeds meer in de belangstelling. Verschillende uitvoeringsvormen zijn mogelijk. Dit artikel beschrijft het resultaat van onderzoek dat is uitgevoerd door Tauw en WUR/LeAF bij een appartementencomplex in Deventer dat voorzien is van vacuümtoiletten voor de inzameling van zwart water. Daarnaast is aanvullend onderzoek verricht bij het EET-project 'Lemmerweg-Oost' in Sneek. Dit project is een initiatief van Landustrie en Wageningen Universiteit en Researchcentrum
Report of a Spinacia collecting expedition to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan: Itinerary, collected material and data
Kik, C. - \ 2008
Wageningen, The Netherlands : CGN (Report / CGN, Centre for Genetic Resources 2008/12 ) - 20
spinacia - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - verzamelen - verzamelmissies - genenbanken - wilde verwanten - oezbekistan - tadzjikistan - plant genetic resources - collection - collecting missions - gene banks - wild relatives - uzbekistan - tajikistan
The CGN spinach collection is of global importance given its size and the small number of existing spinach collections. Wild relatives of spinach are poorly represented in any of those collections. Therefore, a collection mission has been performed aiming at the broadening of the genetic base of spinach (Spinacia oleracea). This report provides details on this collecting mission, i.e. the collecting of a wild relative of spinach, S. turkestanica, in its natural habitat in Central Asia, in particular in the countries Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. In addition, landraces of S. oleracea have been sampled. A number of Dutch breeding companies sponsored the mission, which is duely recognized and appreciated.
Biological black water treatment combined with membrane separation
Voorthuizen, E.M. van; Zwijnenburg, A. ; Meer, W. van der; Temmink, H. - \ 2008
Water Research 42 (2008)16. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 4334 - 4340.
afvalwaterbehandeling - biologische behandeling - filtratie - membranen - voedingsstoffen - terugwinning - scheiding - verzamelen - rioolwater - prestatieniveau - waste water treatment - biological treatment - filtration - membranes - nutrients - recovery - separation - collection - sewage - performance - bioreactors - phosphorus
Separate treatment of black (toilet) water offers the possibility to recover energy and nutrients. In this study three combinations of biological treatment and membrane filtration were compared for their biological and membrane performance and nutrient conservation: a UASB followed by effluent membrane filtration, an anaerobic MBR and an aerobic MBR. Methane production in the anaerobic systems was lower than expected. Sludge production was highest in the aerobic MBR, followed by the anaerobic MBR and the UASB-membrane system. The level of nutrient conservation in the effluent was high in all three treatment systems, which is beneficial for their recovery from the effluent. Membrane treatment guaranteed an effluent which is free of suspended and colloidal matter. However, the concentration of soluble COD in the effluent still was relatively high and this may seriously hamper subsequent nutrient recovery by physical¿chemical processes. The membrane filtration behaviour of the three systems was very different, and seemed to be dominated by the concentration of colloidals in the membrane feed. In general, membrane fouling was the lowest in the aerobic MBR, followed by the membranes used for UASB effluent filtration and the anaerobic MBR.
Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)
Zeeman, G. ; Kujawa, K. ; Mes, T.Z.D. de; Graaff, M.S. de; Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H. ; Mels, A.R. ; Meulman, B. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. ; Lier, J.B. van; Lettinga, G. - \ 2008
Water Science and Technology 57 (2008)8. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 1207 - 1212.
afvalwaterbehandeling - anaërobe afbraak - energiebehoud - fosfor - stikstof - verwijdering - scheiding - verzamelen - afvalwater - urine - nieuwe sanitatie - waste water treatment - anaerobic digestion - energy conservation - phosphorus - nitrogen - removal - separation - collection - waste water - urine - new sanitation - greywater - reactor
Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas production. Post-treatment of the effluent is providing recovery of phosphorus and removal of remaining COD and nitrogen. The total energy saving of the new sanitation concept amounts to 200 MJ/year in comparison with conventional sanitation, moreover 0.14 kg P/p/year and 90 litres of potential reusable water are produced