Biotic interactions and trait-based ecosystem functioning in soil
Sechi, Valentina - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L. Brussaard, co-promotor(en): R.G.M. de Goede; C. Mulder; M. Rutgers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431316 - 176
soil - ecosystems - plant-animal interactions - interactions - soil biology - soil quality - grasslands - collembola - diversity - bodem - ecosystemen - plant-dier interacties - interacties - bodembiologie - bodemkwaliteit - graslanden - collembola - diversiteit
Recent emphasis on ecosystem services as a framework to evaluate ecosystems and to promote their sustainable use has drawn attention to how organisms contribute to the delivery of services. Soil attributes and biotic interactions play important roles in ecological processes (e.g. soil formation, nutrient turnover, carbon sequestration and transformation) and, consequently, in the related delivery of ecosystem services.
Therefore, understanding how soil organisms interact and how they respond to environmental conditions is fundamental to preserve soil functioning and provide a meaningful assessment of ecosystem services. Functional traits determine individual responses to pressures and their effects on ecosystem functioning hence, investigating soil ecosystems from a trait-based perspective offers an interesting opportunity to link the functional responses of the organisms to environmental pressures and to give insight into how the entire community influences ecological processes.
The main objective of this thesis is to develop and to test concepts for a trait-driven quantification of ecosystem services through the assessment of the effects of land management on soil processes. In particular, it focuses on exploring the potential of a trait-based approach in identifying and better understanding the response of the soil biota to environmental pressures and analyses the responses of soil organisms in terms of changes in functional trait distribution and trophic interactions.
This work shows that approaches taking the whole soil community into consideration are more suitable to give insight into the effect of anthropogenic pressure on ecosystem functioning than approaches based on single taxonomic groups. Moreover, performing combined analysis (e.g. analysing body-mass distribution and trophic grouping) helps to better identify community response to environmental pressure.
A clear methodology for the next step, i.e. quantification of ecosystem services, is still lacking due to the current difficulties to link and quantify the effect of anthropogenic pressure to ecosystem functioning in soil. For this reason, it is essential that methods analysed in this thesis will be further explored under different environmental pressures to enable the development of tools to be used at the interface of science and society for sustainable development.
Biofumigation using a wild Brassica oleracea accession with high glucosinolate content affects beneficial soil
Zuluaga, D.L. ; Ommen Kloeke van, A.E.E. ; Verkerk, R. ; Röling, W.F.M. ; Ellers, J. ; Roelofs, D. ; Aarts, M.G.M. - \ 2015
Plant and Soil 394 (2015). - ISSN 0032-079X - p. 155 - 163.
chemical diversity - gene-expression - indian mustard - natural toxin - life-history - isothiocyanates - collembola - release - defense - tissues
Aims This study explores the biofumigation effects of glucosinolate (GSL) containing Brassica oleracea plant material on beneficial, non-target soil organisms, and aims to relate those effects to differences in GSL profiles. Methods Leaf material of purple sprouting broccoli ‘Santee’, Savoy cabbage ‘Wintessa’, and the wild B. oleracea accession Winspit was analysed for GSL production and used for biofumigation experiments on the beneficial soil invertebrates, Folsomia candida (springtail) and Eisenia andrei (earthworm) and the soil bacterial community. Results When mixed into soil, the Winspit plant material exerted the highest toxic effects on beneficial soil invertebrates by reducing survival and reproduction. Total GSL levels varied substantially between genotypes, in particular the aliphatic GSL (AGSL) sinigrin and gluconapin being highly abundant or exclusively present in Winspit. Differences between the genotypes regarding biofumigation effects on the soil microbial community were only observed on a temporal basis with the largest difference in bacterial community structure after 1 week. Conclusions The high total GSL content in biofumigated soil could explain the toxicity of Winspit for soil invertebrates. These effects are likely to be the results of high AGSL levels in Winspit. The use of wild B. oleracea crops, such asWinspit, for biofumigation practices would need a proper assessment of the overall impact on soil biota before being applied on a wide scale
Defoliation and soil compaction jointly drive large-herbivore grazing effects on plants and soil arthropods on clay soil
Klink, R. van; Schrama, M. ; Nolte, S. ; Bakker, J.P. ; Wallis de Vries, M.F. ; Berg, M.P. - \ 2015
Ecosystems 18 (2015)4. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 671 - 685.
salt-marsh - nitrogen mineralization - wadden sea - mountain pastures - grassland - collembola - management - diversity - growth - cow
In addition to the well-studied impacts of defecation and defoliation, large herbivores also affect plant and arthropod communities through trampling, and the associated soil compaction. Soil compaction can be expected to be particularly important on wet, fine-textured soils. Therefore, we established a full factorial experiment of defoliation (monthly mowing) and soil compaction (using a rammer, annually) on a clay-rich salt marsh at the Dutch coast, aiming to disentangle the importance of these two factors. Additionally, we compared the effects on soil physical properties, plants, and arthropods to those at a nearby cattle-grazed marsh under dry and under waterlogged conditions. Soil physical conditions of the compacted plots were similar to the conditions at cattle-grazed plots, showing decreased soil aeration and increased waterlogging. Soil salinity was doubled by defoliation and quadrupled by combined defoliation and compaction. Cover of the dominant tall grass Elytrigia atherica was decreased by 80% in the defoliated plots, but cover of halophytes only increased under combined defoliation and compaction. Effects on soil micro-arthropods were most severe under waterlogging, showing a fourfold decrease in abundance and a smaller mean body size under compaction. Although the combined treatment of defoliation and trampling indeed proved most similar to the grazed marsh, large discrepancies remained for both plant and soil fauna communities, presumably because of colonization time lags. We conclude that soil compaction and defoliation differently affect plant and arthropod communities in grazed ecosystems, and that the magnitude of their effects depends on herbivore density, productivity, and soil physical properties.
Disturbance–diversity relationships for soil fauna are explained by faunal community biomass in a salt marsh
Thakur, M.P. ; Berg, M.P. ; Eisenhauer, N. ; Langevelde, F. van - \ 2014
Soil Biology and Biochemistry 78 (2014). - ISSN 0038-0717 - p. 30 - 37.
species-diversity - intermediate disturbance - richness - productivity - coexistence - succession - patterns - competition - collembola - dynamics
Disturbance–diversity relationships have long been studied in ecology with a unimodal relationship as the key prediction. Although this relationship has been widely contested, it is rarely tested for soil invertebrate fauna, an important component of terrestrial biodiversity. We tested disturbance–diversity relationships for soil meso- and macrofauna in a salt marsh where periodic sea water inundation and cattle grazing occur as stressors. We hypothesized a unimodal inundation frequency–diversity relationship, whereas we expected grazing to overrule the effects of inundation frequency due to its large effects on the habitat of soil fauna. We found a negative relationship between inundation frequency and diversity at the ungrazed sites and no relationship at the grazed sites. Moreover, we found a negative relationship between community biomass and diversity for soil fauna that may have caused this negative disturbance–diversity relationship. Community biomass at the intermediate inundation frequency increased due to the dominance of Orchestia gammarellus (a macro-detritivore species), which could exploit low quality litters at the ungrazed sites. We highlight that the negative relationship between faunal community biomass and faunal diversity may influence disturbance–diversity relationships and illustrate that total biomass distribution of feeding guilds of soil fauna can improve our understanding of the soil fauna response to stressors in salt marshes.
Nieuwe uitzetstrategie van bodemroofmijten voor effectievere bestrijding van bodemplagen
Grosman, A.H. - \ 2011
bodem - roofmijten - bodembiologie - bevordering van natuurlijke vijanden - thrips - sciaridae - collembola - soil - predatory mites - soil biology - encouragement - thrips - sciaridae - collembola
Informatieposter over een nieuwe uitzetstrategie van bodemroofmijten voor effectievere bestrijding bestrijding van bodemplagen
Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature
Dooremalen, C. van; Pel, R. ; Ellers, J. - \ 2009
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 72 (2009)2. - ISSN 0739-4462 - p. 88 - 104.
direct thermal-desorption - lipid-composition - biological significance - drought acclimation - orchesella-cincta - reaction norms - rapid method - collembola - cold - populations
A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different temperature exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low temperature (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation temperature. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation temperature, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition
Microarthropoden als indicatoren van de kwaliteit van landbouwgronden : invloed van mest en biologische bedrijfsvoering op de bodem
Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M. ; Dimmers, W.J. ; Maslak, M. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van; Schouten, A.J. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1985) - 34
landbouwgronden - drijfmest - stalmest - biologische landbouw - geleedpotigen - mijten - collembola - bodembiologie - nederland - bodemkwaliteit - agricultural soils - slurries - farmyard manure - organic farming - arthropods - mites - collembola - soil biology - netherlands - soil quality
Effects of pesticides on soil invertebrates in model ecosystem and field studies: a review and comparison with laboratory toxicity data
Jänsch, S. ; Frampton, G.K. ; Römbke, J. ; Brink, P.J. van den; Scott-Fordsmand, J.J. - \ 2006
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25 (2006)9. - ISSN 0730-7268 - p. 2490 - 2501.
species sensitivity distributions - earthworms - chemicals - tests - collembola - lumbricidae - oligochaeta - sublethal
A systematic review was carried out to investigate the extent to which higher-tier (terrestrial model ecosystem [TME] and field) data regarding pesticide effects can be compared with laboratory toxicity data for soil invertebrates. Data in the public domain yielded 970 toxicity endpoint data sets, representing 71 pesticides and 42 soil invertebrate species or groups. For most pesticides, the most frequent effect class was for no observed effects, although relatively high numbers of pronounced and persistent effects occurred when Lumbricidae and Enchytraeidae were exposed to fungicides and when Lumbricidae, Collembola, and Arachnida were exposed to insecticides. No effects of fungicides on Arachnida, Formicidae, or Nematoda or of herbicides on Lumbricidae, Formicidae, or Nematoda were observed in any studies. For most pesticides, higher-tier no-observed-effect concentration or lowest-observed-effect concentration values cannot be determined because of a lack of information at low pesticide concentrations. Ten pesticides had sufficient laboratory data to enable the observed higher-tier effects to be compared with 5% hazardous concentrations (HC5) estimated from acute toxicity laboratory data (atrazine, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, ¿-hexachlorocyclohexane, lambda-cyhalothrin, parathion, pentachlorophenol, and propoxur). In eight cases, higher-tier effects concentrations were within or below the 90% confidence interval of the HC5. Good agreement exists between the results of TME and field tests for carbendazim, but insufficient information is available for a comparison between TME and field studies for other pesticides. Availability and characteristics (e.g., taxonomic composition and heterogeneity) of the higher-tier effects data are discussed in terms of possible developments in risk assessment procedures.
Food preference of wireworms analyzed with multinomial logit models
Hemerik, L. ; Gort, G. ; Brussaard, L. - \ 2003
Journal of Insect Behavior 16 (2003). - ISSN 0892-7553 - p. 647 - 665.
feeding-preference - host-plant - beetles coleoptera - elateridae - curculionidae - chrysomelidae - grasslands - oviposition - specificity - collembola
Many species of wireworms (larvae of click beetles, Elateridae) are polyphagous root herbivores. In grasslands under restoration succession with various grass species, we aim to determine the role of wireworms in aboveground vegetation succession. Therefore, it is crucial to know whether wireworms prefer some food plants to others. We have investigated the root preference to different grass species for Agriotes obscurus and Athous haemorrhoidalis and whether these preferences can be explained by covariates. In Experiment 1, individual wireworms could choose between four different plants, one of each species (Anthoxanthum odoratum, Festuca rubra, Holcus lanatus, and Lolium perenne). In Experiment 2, groups of wireworms were released into the soil in the center of 16 plants (4 from each species). We used multinomial logit models (MLMs) to analze the data. In the appendix the use of multinomial response models is clarified with a fictitious example, using the SAS statistic software package. No preference was found in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2 we found differences in attractiveness of plant species depending on wireworm species: A. obscurus preferred grass species from nutrient-rich grasslands (L. perenne and H. lanatus). Both wireworm species disliked F. rubra. The distance from the release point influenced the probability of being found at a certain place at the end of the experiment: wireworms tended to stay in the proximity of the release point. A. haemorrhoidalis was more often found farther from the point of release than A. obscurus. Dispersal was farther from the release point in experiments with young plants (6 weeks) compared to older ones (9 weeks). Results are discussed in a broad ecological context.
De springstaart Lepidocyrtus paradoxus nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna (Hexapoda: Collembola)
Berg, M.P. ; Heijerman, T. - \ 2002
Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen 16 (2002). - ISSN 0169-2453 - p. 69 - 75.
collembola - fenologie - zuid-limburg - collembola - phenology - zuid-limburg
The springtail Lepidocyrtus paradoxus new to the Dutch fauna (Hexapoda: Collembola) Lepidocyrtus paradoxus Uzel, 1890 is a central European springtail, which is recorded here as new to the Dutch fauna. The species was collected in high numbers on a site called the Sint Pietersberg (near Maastricht), a hill at the southern point of the province of Limburg. The location can be described as a meadow on calcareous soil with a short vegetation. Morphological characters that discriminate this species from other Lepidocyrtus-species in the Netherlands are illustrated. A description of the site, supported by photographs, is made and information on its occurrence in Europe is summarised. A list with accompanying species of Collembola caught on the same site is given.