Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Lupinus mutabilis in Ecuador with special emphasis on anthracnose resistance
    Falconi, C. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Richard Visser, co-promotor(en): Sjaak van Heusden. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732231 - 150
    lupinus mutabilis - peulvruchten - voedingswaarde - schimmelziekten - colletotrichum acutatum - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - ziekteresistentie - ecuador - voedselsoevereiniteit - lupinus mutabilis - grain legumes - nutritive value - fungal diseases - colletotrichum acutatum - plant pathogenic fungi - disease resistance - ecuador - food sovereignty

    The Tailoring Food Sciences to Endogenous Patterns of Local Food Supply for Future Nutrition (TELFUN) project aimed to support people to choose their own way of producing, processing, and consuming local foods that fit best in their local conditions. The central research question was: how do technological practices, developed from within food networks, enhance food-sovereignty and the nutritional status of people? TELFUN was an interdisciplinary and comparative research program based on twelve research projects, divided in four disciplines and carried out in three geographical locations. Its scientific development was divided in four disciplines - plant breeding, food technology, human nutrition, and sociology of science and technology - for a more complete understanding of the production, processing, utilization and consumption of lupin in Ecuador. Similar studies took place in West Africa and cowpea and India with mungbean (www.telfun.info). The lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) is a native legume of the Andean zone. Like other species of lupin it has easily adapted to marginal regions with limited water supply and poor nourished soils. As compared to other legumes used in human nutrition, lupin seeds have high protein, and variable iron and zinc content. These are just a few attributes that make the Andean lupin be considered a food of the future (www.telfun.info). Disadvantages of lupine are its high susceptibility to anthracnose and its high content of alkaloids (which have to be removed by processing). A specific research question to tackle lupin production in Ecuador was studied in the breeding discipline: How do exploratory studies, both on the pathogen and on the lupin genetic diversity, contribute to the development of better lupin varieties in the Cotopaxi province - Ecuador?

    Chapter 1 presents the importance, nutritional value, agronomical characteristics and breeding for anthracnose resistance of lupin in Ecuador. In Chapter 2, the actual lupin production, a number of agronomic characteristics, the nutritional value and anthracnose susceptibility of a set of lupin cultivars were determined. The importance of characterizing genetic resources of L. mutabilis for crop improvement is outlined. In Chapter3, morphological, molecular and pathological methods were developed to identify the causal agent of anthracnose in lupin and tamarillo (another Andean native crop). Anthracnose diversity and the phylogenetic relationships between isolates of both hosts were studied. The techniques developed can be used to identify and monitor the dominant Colletotrichum species in the multi cropping Andean system to establish an appropriate disease management and breeding strategies. In Chapter 4, anthracnose susceptibility and the disease development of lupin cultivars was assessed under natural infection of C. acutatum. Seed samples of naturally infected plants were used to determine the level of anthracnose infection in seeds. Recommendations are made to reduce the impact of the disease in the field and for the appropriate local management of lupin seed until new anthracnose resistant lupin varieties are developed. In Chapter 5, the development of methods for screening anthracnose resistance in individual lupin plants are described. Inoculation methods, phenological stages and the relation of resistance and alkaloid content are discussed. In Chapter 6, we put in perspective our findings and the appropriate methodologies we developed for starting an Andean lupin breeding program with emphases on anthracnose resistance.

    In conclusion, lupin can play an important role in increasing living conditions of the poor farmers in Ecuador. It is needed that the agro-ecological production systems are maintained by using sustainable farming methods. The use of disease free lupin seed is of utmost importance and a good understanding of the plant– pathogen interactions can increase yield. Lupin breeding should aim at anthracnose resistance, high yielding varieties, and cultivars with high levels of protein and micronutrients. Having high-quality lupin cultivars will, together with the results in the other three disciplines - food technology, human nutrition, and sociology of science and technology –contribute to the food sovereignty concept, that is to connect local networks chains for a better production, processing and consumption of lupin (www.telfun.info).

    Schimmel gedijt goed bij hoge temperatuur en vocht: Colletotrichum: secundaire ziekte met grote gevolgen
    Ludeking, D.J.W. ; Arkesteijn, M. - \ 2011
    Onder Glas 8 (2011)10. - p. 59 - 59.
    colletotrichum acutatum - fungiciden - aardbeien - ziektepreventie - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - glastuinbouw - teelt onder bescherming - potplanten - colletotrichum acutatum - fungicides - strawberries - disease prevention - cultural control - farm management - greenhouse horticulture - protected cultivation - pot plants
    Ziek en Zeer : Voortgezet diagnostisch onderzoek naar een curieuze schimmelziekte in tulp
    Vink, P. - \ 2011
    BloembollenVisie 2011 (2011)221. - ISSN 1571-5558 - p. 21 - 21.
    tulpen - schimmelziekten - colletotrichum acutatum - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - diagnostische technieken - tulips - fungal diseases - colletotrichum acutatum - plant pathogenic fungi - diagnostic techniques
    In dit artikel over het voortgezet diagnostisch onderzoek bij PPO een verslag van het onderzoek aan een bijzondere schimmelziekte in tulpen die wordt veroorzaakt door de schimmel Colletotrichum accutatum. Deze schimmel was al bekend als veroorzaker van krulblad bij anemoon. Onder bepaalde omstandigheden kan deze schimmel echter ook bij tulpen schade veroorzaken. Daarbij lijken de symptomen op die van een aantasting door Fusarium avenaceum.
    Voortgezet diagnostisch onderzoek naar een betere beheersing van een aantasting door de schimmel Colletotrichum acutatum bij de bollenteelt van tulpen cv. Giuseppe Verdi
    Vink, P. - \ 2008
    Lisse : PPO Bloembollen en Bomen - 13
    colletotrichum acutatum - tulipa - tulpen - plantenziektebestrijding - desinfecteren - fungiciden - bloembollen - landbouwkundig onderzoek - bollenstreek - nederland - colletotrichum acutatum - tulipa - tulips - plant disease control - disinfestation - fungicides - ornamental bulbs - agricultural research - bollenstreek - netherlands
    Sinds 1992 kennen we een ziekte bij de teelt van tulpen in metname de cultivar Giuseppe Verdi (en de laatste tijd ook wel eens in andere tulpencultivars) waarbij de bollen worden aangetast door de schimmel Colletotrichum acutatum. Daardoor gaan de bollen na de oogst verloren of groeien er in een volgend groeiseizoen misvormde planten uit. De laatste jaren komt de ziekte in metname de Zuidelijke Bollenstreek regelmatig voor ondanks dat tulpenbollen vóór het planten volgens de geldende adviezen op een normale manier worden ontsmet. Bij Diagnostiekservice wordt dan ook regelmatig gevraagd om advies om de ziekte te bestrijden. Dat was tot nu toe niet mogelijk omdat nooit onderzoek naar deze schimmelaantasting in relatie tot een bolontsmetting was gedaan. In 2007 deed zich de situatie voor dat PPO een partij tulpen van cultivar Giuseppe Verdi had aangekocht waarin een vrij ernstige besmetting met Colletotrichum werd vastgesteld. Dit maakte de partij tulpenbollen uitermate geschikt voor nader onderzoek met betrekking tot de ziekte. Daarom is in het kader van het Voortgezet Diagnostisch Onderzoek met bewuste partij tulpenbollen onderzoek gedaan om na te gaan of een goede bolontsmetting met chemische fungiciden de schimmel Colletotrichum acutatum voldoende kan onderdrukken dan wel bestrijden. Het bleek dat een ontsmetting van de tulpenbollen in een fungicide-combinatie van prochloraz en folpet/pyraclostrobin de ziekte het beste kon onderdrukken. Met de geoogste tulpenbollen in 2008 is ook nog nagegaan wat het effect is van goed drogen van de tulpenbollen direct na de oogst op het ontstaan van een aantasting door de schimmel Colletotrichum acutatum. Na de oogst in 2008 zijn de tulpenbollen daartoe over een trilzeef gehaald om ze zandvrij te maken en daarna behandeld en bewaard op de volgende manieren: • gedurende 1 week voor een droogwand en aansluitend in een bewaarcel bij 23°C • bollen gespoeld, daarna enkele dagen voor een droogwand en aansluitend in een bewaarcel bij 23°C • bollen 24 uur licht aangedroogd en daarna in een met plastic afgedekte bak bewaard bij 23°C • bollen 4 dagen onder schuurcondities bewaard en daarna in een met plastic afgedekte bak bewaard bij 23°C
    Splash : the dispersal of fungal plant pathogens in rain events
    Pielaat, A. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.J. Jeger; F. van den Bosch. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058082121 - 116
    plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - sporen - pyrenopeziza brassicae - colletotrichum acutatum - verspreiding - regen - plant pathogenic fungi - spores - pyrenopeziza brassicae - colletotrichum acutatum - dispersal - rain

    Models were developed to study splash dispersal of fungal plant pathogens in space and time. The models incorporate the main mechanisms involved in splash dispersal, that is 1. A raindrop hits the thin water film on the crop surface containing spores and spores are dispersed in the splashing rain droplets, and 2. Splashed spores are redistributed in the crop and on the soil surface. A mechanistic random 'jump' model describes the stochastic processes of splash dispersal over a homogeneous surface from a point source. Numerical analysis showed the importance of ground cover and rain intensity as factors determining model output. More spores were splashed in high intensity rains and, simultaneously, more spores were removed from the system. A diffusion approximation was developed for this mechanistic model which could only be considered a reasonable approximation under certain limiting conditions.

    Based on the two-dimensional version of the mechanistic model an equation was developed for the total number of spores in the area surrounding an inoculum source over time, N(t). In addition, equations for the expected mean, E(r), and mean squared distance, E(r 2), spores travel during a rain event at a given time were developed. Observed data and model predictions showed that both N(t) and E(r 2) increased to a maximum over time and then declined due to spore removal from the system and depletion of spores at the source. Factors influencing the process could be assessed by changing parameter values.

    Upward displacement of lesions by stem extension and dispersal of fungal conidia by rain-splash are mechanisms contributing to within-crop disease spread. These mechanisms were incorporated into a model based on the interaction between winter oilseed rape and the light leaf spot pathogen ( Pyrenopeziza brassicae ) as an example. Experimental results showed that most conidia were dispersed during a 15 min duration of rainfall. The trajectory of a droplet depended on the impacted plant part, with a mean horizontal travel distance decreasing with increasing incident drop diameter and a maximum splash height which ranged from 0.3 cm when splashed from a flower up to 57 cm for a pod.

    These results were incorporated into the model. Stem extension was shown to be an important factor influencing vertical disease spread. Rain events contributed to the splash dispersal of conidia to the plant apex and resulting lesions were directed vertically by internode growth. Periods with frequent rain events in a dense crop canopy were most favorable for disease progress. The upward spread of light leaf spot on winter oilseed rape in experiments at the Institute of Arable Crops Research, Harpenden, UK, was similar to that predicted by the model. Finally, an analytical model was proposed to study the influence of crop characteristics and rain properties on the vertical spread of splashed spores. Splash dispersal was concentrated in the upper layers in a crop having a constant or increasing leaf surface area with height. The greatest splash probabilities occurred and most spores were intercepted in the layers just below the apex of a crop having a decreasing leaf surface area with height.

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