Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    An analysis of community perceptions of mosquito-borne disease control and prevention in Sint Eustatius, Caribbean Netherlands
    Leslie, Teresa E. ; Carson, Marianne ; Coeverden, Els van; Klein, Kirsten De; Braks, Marieta ; Krumeich, Anja - \ 2017
    Global Health Action 10 (2017)1. - ISSN 1654-9880
    Chikungunya - community participation - Dengue - prevention - Zika

    BACKGROUND: In the Caribbean, mosquito-borne diseases are a public health threat. In Sint Eustatius, dengue, Chikungunya and Zika are now endemic. To control and prevent mosquito-borne diseases, the Sint Eustatius Public Health Department relies on the community to assist with the control of Aedes aegypti mosquito. Unfortunately, community based interventions are not always simple, as community perceptions and responses shape actions and influence behavioural responses Objective: The aim of this study was to determine how the Sint Eustatius population perceives the Aedes aegypti mosquito, mosquito-borne diseases and prevention and control measures and hypothesized that increased knowledge of the virus, vector, control and prevention should result in a lower AQ1 prevalence and incidence of mosquito-borne diseases.

    METHODS: This study was conducted in Sint Eustatius island in the Eastern Caribbean. We combined qualitative and quantitative designs. We conducted interviews and focus groups discussions among community member and health professional in 2013 and 2015. We also conducted cross-sectional survey to assess local knowledge on the vector, virus, and control and prevention.

    RESULTS: The population is knowledgeable;

    DISCUSSION: In the context of Sint Eustatius, when controlling the Aedes population it may be a strategic option to focus on the household level rather than the community and build collaborations with households by supporting them when they actively practice mosquito 25 control. To further increase the level of knowledge on the significance of mosquito-borne diseases, it may also be an option to contextualize the issue of the virus, vector, prevention and control into a broader context.

    CONCLUSION: As evidenced by the increasing number of mosquito-borne diseases on the island, it appears that knowledge amongst the lay community may not be transferred into 30 action. This may be attributed to the perception of the Sint Eustatius populations that mosquitoes and the viruses they carry are not a high priority in comparison to other health concerns.

    'Actief Burgerschap' : een verkenning naar burgerinitiatieven in de Limburgse samenleving
    Kruit, J. ; Breman, B.C. - \ 2016
    Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 328) - 23
    bewonersparticipatie - buurtactie - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - gemeenschappen - platteland - limburg - nederland - community participation - community action - community involvement - communities - rural areas - limburg - netherlands
    De Vereniging Kleine Kernen Limburg (VKKL) is als actieve speler in Limburg betrokken bij het borgen van de leefbaarheid in kleine kernen. Ze brengt als kennismakelaar partijen bij elkaar, ze behartigt belangen richting provincie, ze zorgt voor expertiseontwikkeling bij haar leden en ze voedt haar leden met nieuwe kennis en inzichten, onder andere via de organisatie van het plattelandsparlement in Limburg en de Limburglabs. De Limburgse samenleving verandert. De VKKL ziet een ontwikkeling dat Limburgers meer en meer zelf een actieve rol (moeten) spelen in het borgen van de leefbaarheid. Steeds meer nieuwe initiatieven, netwerken en samenwerkingsverbanden zonder vastomlijnde organisatievorm komen op. De VKKL probeert grip te krijgen op de aard- en de dynamiek van deze (verschillende typen) ‘burgerkracht’ in Limburg én aan te sluiten op de ondersteuningsbehoefte die bestaat vanuit deze initiatieven. Het onderzoek, uitgevoerd door twee masterstudenten en een ACT1 groep vanuit Wageningen UR heeft duidelijk gemaakt dat: er enorm veel verschillende soorten burgerinitiatieven in Limburg zijn te vinden, dat deze initiatieven veelal in grotere netwerken functioneren, dat het daarbij ook gaat over de verbinding tussen overheid én burgerinitiatief en dat initiatieven op verschillende manieren kunnen ontstaan, waarbij ook andere netwerkpartijen een prominente rol kunnen hebben. Ook werd duidelijk dat de VKKL nog niet altijd vanzelfsprekend in beeld is bij de verschillende bottom-up initiatieven en de samenwerkende overheden. In een creatieve sessie met de VKKL zijn ideeën opgehaald en uitgewerkt die worden meegenomen in het beleidsplan 2017-2021. Deze ideeën gaan over het werken aan een organisatie die onderscheidend en herkenbaar is. Van belang daarbij is dat de organisatie lokaal zichtbaar is en tegelijkertijd grensoverschrijdend leren en samenwerken stimuleert. Ook essentieel is dat de groep ondersteuners wordt verbreed en dat die ook nog meer gebruikt maakt van (sociale) media om kennis en informatie beter te ontsluiten.
    Stedelingen en regionaal voedsel
    Vijn, M.P. ; Jansma, J.E. ; Schans, J.W. van der - \ 2015
    stadslandbouw - regionale voedselketens - voedselproductie - stedelijke samenleving - bewonersparticipatie - stedelijke gebieden - urban agriculture - regional food chains - food production - urban society - community participation - urban areas
    Stadslandbouw trekt steeds meer stedelingen. Wageningen UR onderzocht de rollen en interacties die stedelingen hebben bij stadslandbouwinitiatieven en identificeerde er drie: de interactie tussen stedeling en stedeling, stedeling en voedselproducent, en stedeling en gemeentelijke overheid.
    Hoe maken gemeenten stadslandbouw mogelijk?
    Rijn, E. van; Hassink, J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR (PRI rapport 625) - 17
    gemeenten - beleid - stadslandbouw - stedelijke gebieden - voedselproductie - bewonersparticipatie - sociale factoren - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - motivatie - onderzoek - municipalities - policy - urban agriculture - urban areas - food production - community participation - social factors - sustainability - motivation - research
    Elke pionierende gemeenteambtenaar, ondernemer, burger die zich bezighoudt met stadslandbouw moet als het ware zelf het wiel weer uitvinden: welke regels zijn voor mijn initiatief van toepassing, waar kan ik ontwikkelen, wie heeft kennis van zaken en hoe kan ik initiatieven faciliteren. Het Stedennetwerk Stadslandbouw is een landelijk netwerk van gemeentelijke ambtenaren in de stadslandbouw. Het biedt de deelnemers de ruimte om gezamenlijk blokkades aan te pakken, elkaar te inspireren, richting te geven aan beleid en kansen te grijpen. Het netwerk brengt pioniers bij elkaar en stimuleert met hen de ontwikkeling van stadslandbouw in Nederland. In 2014 was er bij deelnemers behoefte om een beter zicht te krijgen op de manieren waarop gemeenten met stadslandbouw initiatieven omgaan en stadslandbouw faciliteren en ondersteunen. Besloten werd om interviews te houden met beleidsmedewerkers van gemeenten die bij het stedennetwerk zijn aangesloten. Dit rapport beschrijft het onderzoek naar hoe gemeenten stadslandbouw mogelijk maken en waarom zij stadslandbouw belangrijk vinden. De belangrijkste motieven voor stadslandbouw zijn voedsel, gevolgd door participatie, sociale aspecten, duurzaamheid en ‘overige thema’s’. De motieven die slechts door één gemeente genoemd werden, worden hier niet nader vermeld. De volgorde wordt bepaald door het aantal keren dat het motief genoemd is.
    Naar een groene ontmoetingsplek : reflectie op het initiëren van bewonersparticipatie door de vier Buurtstichtingen in Hoensbroek
    Eppink, H.J. ; Pfeiffer, L.H. ; Cremers, C. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 306) - ISBN 9789461738776 - 42
    openbaar groen - burgers - gemeenten - publieke participatie - bewonersparticipatie - zuid-limburg - public green areas - citizens - municipalities - public participation - community participation - zuid-limburg
    Vier buurtstichtingen in Hoensbroek hebben interesse getoond om gedeeltelijk verantwoordelijkheid te nemen voor de openbare groene ruimte. De buurtstichtingen ziet de gemeente als brug tussen overheid en burgers. De inhoud van dit rapport is interessant voor andere buurtstichtingen om eigen initiatieven vorm te geven.
    Doe het zelf : burgerinitiatieven in de natuur
    Nijland, R. ; Dam, R.I. van - \ 2015
    WageningenWorld (2015)2. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 28 - 31.
    natuurbeheer - burgers - groenbeheer - landschapsbeheer - bewonersparticipatie - samenwerking - verantwoordelijkheid - maatschappelijk draagvlak - governance - nature management - citizens - management of urban green areas - landscape management - community participation - cooperation - responsibility - public support - governance
    Samen met Irini Salverda en Roel During schreef Van Dam het boek Burgers en hun Landschap. Dat biedt een overzicht van tien jaar onderzoek naar burgerparticipatie en maatschappelijk initiatief. Wat bezielt deze bevlogen burgers, welke drijfveren hebben ze en welke strategieën hanteren ze om succesvol te zijn. Om vervolgens het proces tussen burgers en overheid soepeler te laten verlopen, biedt Alterra hulp. ‘We hebben een leernetwerk opgezet en organiseren bijeenkomsten om kennis uit te wisselen tussen gemeentes, provincies, ministeries, waterschappen en natuurorganisaties"
    Community gardens in urban areas: a critical reflection on the extent to which they strenghten social cohesion and provide alternative food
    Veen, E.J. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Andries Visser; Bettina Bock. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573383 - 265
    publieke tuinen - tuinieren - stedelijke gebieden - bewonersparticipatie - buurtactie - stadslandbouw - alternatieve landbouw - volkstuinen - voedingsmiddelen - biologische voedingsmiddelen - sociologie - public gardens - gardening - urban areas - community participation - community action - urban agriculture - alternative farming - allotment gardens - foods - organic foods - sociology
    Summary

    Introduction

    The aims of this thesis are twofold; firstly, it aims to increase the understanding of the extent to which community gardens enhance social cohesion for those involved; secondly, it aims to gain insight into the importance community gardeners attach to food growing per se, and the extent to which participants perceive community gardens as an alternative to the industrial food system.

    I define community gardens as a plot of land in an urban area, cultivated either communally or individually by people from the direct neighbourhood or the wider city, or in which urbanites are involved in other ways than gardening, and to which there is a collective element. Over the last years, community gardens have sprung up in several Dutch cities. Although there are various reasons for an increasing interest in community gardens, there are two that I focus on in this thesis in particular. The first is the assumption made that community gardens stimulate social cohesion in inner-city neighbourhoods, to be seen in the light of the ‘participatory society’. The second is community gardens’ contribution to the availability of locally produced food, in the context of an increased interest in Alternative Food Networks (AFNs).

    The Dutch government aims to transform the Dutch welfare state into a participatory society in which citizens take more responsibility for their social and physical environment. This way the government not only hopes to limit public spending, but also wishes to increase social bonding and the self-organisational capacity of society. Community gardens fit the rhetoric around the participatory society, as they are examples of organised residents taking responsibility for their living environment. Moreover, the literature suggests that gardens are physical interventions that may decrease isolation by acting as meeting places. However, both the extent to which community gardens enhance social cohesion and under what conditions they may do so are unclear, especially as gardens come in various designs, shapes and sizes.

    The popularity of community gardens also seems to be related to an overall increasing societal interest in food, and can be discussed in relation to Alternative Food Networks. AFNs are food systems that are different in some way from the mainstream, and are seen as a reaction to consumer concerns about the conventional food system. They are often considered to be dictated by political motivations and injected with a ‘deeper morality’. The category ‘AFN’ is however a heterogeneous category, as is the conventional food system; neither can be easily defined. The degree to which community gardens can be seen as AFNs is therefore unclear. While they do improve the availability of local food and operate outside of the market economy, we do not know how much and how often people eat from their gardens, nor do we know to what extent they are involved in the gardens in order to provide an alternative to the industrial food system. Hence, there is a lack of knowledge about the sense in which community gardens are alternative alternatives.

    Research questions

    The overall research question of this thesis is:

    What is the significance of community gardening in terms of its intention to promote social cohesion as well as its representation as an alternative food system?

    This broad question is instructed by the following sub-questions:

    Why do people get involved in community gardens? What are their motivations?How, to what extent, and under which conditions does community gardening promote the development of social relations between participants? How do participants value these social effects? To what extent do the diets of community garden participants originate from the gardens in which they are involved? What is the importance of food in community gardens?What is the importance of growing or getting access to alternative food for participants of community gardens? Methodology

    An important theoretical lens in this research is the theory of practice. Practices are defined as concrete human activity and include things, bodily doings and sayings. By performing practices people not only draw upon but also feed into structure. Routinisation – of practices, but also of daily life – therefore plays a central role in practice theory. Practice theory allows for an emphasis on practical reality as well as a study of motivations. This focus on how people manage everyday life, and how gardening fits within that, makes it particularly useful for this thesis.

    I define social cohesion as the way in which people in a society feel and are connected to each other (De Kam and Needham 2003) and operationalised it by focusing on ‘social contacts, social networks, and social capital’, one of the elements into which social cohesion is often broken up. This element was operationalised as 1) contacts (the width of social cohesion) and 2) mutual help (the depth of social cohesion).

    This research has a case study design; I studied four Dutch community gardens over a two-year period of time, and later supplemented these with an additional three cases. As practices consist of both doings and sayings, analysis must be concerned with both practical activity and its representation. I used participant observations to study practical activities, and interviews, questionnaires and document study to examine the representation of these activities.

    Findings

    Chapters 3 to 7 form the main part of this thesis. They are papers/book chapters that have been submitted to or are published by scientific journals or books. All of them are based on the field work.

    In chapter 3 we compare two of the case studies and determine to what extent they can be seen as ‘alternative’. We argue that although reflexive motivations are present, most participants are unwilling to frame their involvement as political, and mundane motivations play an important role in people’s involvement as well. By using the concept of ‘food provisioning practices’ we show that participants of community gardens are often required to be actively involved in the production of their food. This means that participants are both producers and consumers: the gardens show a ‘sliding scale of producership’. This chapter also shows that political statements are not a perfect predictor of actual involvement in community gardening. This finding was one of the main reasons for starting to use the theory of practice, which is the main topic of the next chapter.

    In chapter 4 we compare one of my case studies with an urban food growing initiative in New York City. By comparing the internal dynamics of these two cases and their relations with other social practices, we investigate whether different urban food growing initiatives can be seen as variations of one single practice. We also study the question of whether the practice can be seen as emerging. In particular, we take the elements of meaning, competences and material (Shove et al. 2012) into account. We found both similarities and differences between the two cases, with the main difference relating to the meanings practitioners attach to the practice. We conclude, therefore, that it is not fully convincing to see these cases as examples of the same social practice. We also argue that urban food growing may be considered an emerging practice, because it combines various practices, both new and established, under one single heading.

    In chapter 5 we use the theory of practice to explore how urban food growing is interwoven with everyday life. We compare four community gardens - two allotments and two cases which we define as AFNs. We found that participants of the allotments are involved in the practice of gardening, while members of the AFNs are involved in the practice of shopping. The gardening practice requires structural engagement, turning it into a routine. The produce is a result of that routine and is easily integrated into daily meals. As AFNs are associated with the practice of shopping, they remain in competition with more convenient food acquisition venues. Eating from these gardens is therefore less easily integrated in daily life; every visit to the garden requires a conscious decision. Hence, whether members are primarily involved in shopping or in growing has an impact on the degree to which they eat urban-grown food. This shows that motivations are embedded in the context and routine of everyday life, and ‘only go so far’.

    Chapter 6 concerns the organisational differences between the seven case studies in this thesis and the extent to which these influence the enhancement of social cohesion. We study people’s motivations for being involved in the gardens and compare these with the three main organisational differences. This comparison reveals that the gardens can be divided into place-based and interest-based gardens. Place-based gardens are those in which people participate for social reasons – aiming to create social bonds in the neighbourhood. Interest-based gardens are those in which people participate because they enjoy growing vegetables. Nevertheless, all of these gardens contribute to the development of social cohesion. Moreover, while participants who are motivated by the social aspects of gardening show a higher level of appreciation for them, these social aspects also bring added value for those participants who are motivated primarily by growing vegetables.

    In chapter 7 we present a garden that exemplifies that gardens may encompass not only one, but indeed several communities, and that rapprochement and separation take place simultaneously. While this garden is an important meeting place, thereby contributing to social cohesion, it harbours two distinct communities. These communities assign others to categories (‘us’ and ‘them’) on the basis of place of residence, thereby strengthening their own social identities. Ownership over the garden is both an outcome and a tool in that struggle. We define the relationship between these two communities as instrumental-rational – referring to roles rather than individuals - which explains why they do not form a larger unity. Nevertheless, the two communities show the potential to develop into a larger imagined garden-community.

    Conclusions

    This thesis shows that the different organisational set-ups of community gardens reflect gardeners’ different motivations for being involved in these gardens. The gardens studied in this thesis can be defined as either place-based or interest-based; gardens in the first category are focused on the social benefits of gardening, whereas gardens in the second category are focused on gardening and vegetables. Nevertheless, social effects occur in both types of gardens; in all of the gardens studied, participants meet and get to know others and value these contacts. Based on this finding, I conclude that community gardens do indeed enhance social cohesion.

    Place-based community gardens specifically have the potential to become important meeting places; they offer the opportunity to work communally towards a common goal, and once established, can develop into neighbourhood spaces to be used for various other shared activities. Most interest-based gardens lack opportunities to develop the social contacts that originated at the garden beyond the borders of the garden. These gardens are often maintained by people who do not live close to the garden or to each other, and those who garden are generally less motivated by social motivations per se. Important to note is that community gardens do not necessarily foster a more inclusive society; they often attract people with relatively similar socio-economic backgrounds and may support not one, but several communities.

    Most participants from place-based gardens eat from their gardens only occasionally; others never do so. This type of community garden can therefore hardly be seen as a reaction to the industrialised food system, let alone an attempt to create an alternative food system. Nevertheless, certain aspects of these gardens are in line with the alternative rhetoric. By contrast, most gardeners at interest-based gardens eat a substantial amount of food from their gardens, and to some of them the choice to consume this locally-grown food relates to a lifestyle in which environmental considerations play a role. However, this reflexivity is not expressed in political terms and participants do not see themselves as part of a food movement. Participants who buy rather than grow produce showed the greatest tendency to explain their involvement in political terms, but many of them have difficulty including the produce in their diets on a regular basis. I therefore conclude that community gardens cannot be seen as conscious, ‘alternative’ alternatives to the industrial food system. Nonetheless, the role of food in these gardens is essential, as it is what brings participants together – either because they enjoy gardening or because the activities which are organised there centre around food.

    Theoretical contributions

    In this thesis I used and aimed to contribute to the theory of practice. Using participant observations to study what people do in reality was particularly useful. It turned research into an embodied activity, enabling me to truly ‘live the practice’, and therefore to understand it from the inside.

    Deconstructing the practice of food provisioning into activities such as buying, growing and cooking was helpful in gaining an understanding of how people manage everyday life, and how food acquisitioning fits into their everyday rhythms. It sheds light on how and to what extent people experience the practice of community gardening as a food acquisitioning practice, and to what degree they relate it to other elements of food provisioning such as cooking and eating. The focus on the separate elements of food provisioning practices helped me realise that acquiring food from community gardens represents a different practice to different people; some are engaged in the practice of growing food, others in the practice of shopping for food.

    This thesis showed that motivations delineate how the practice ‘works out in practice’; the way in which a practice such as community gardening is given shape attracts people with certain motivations, who, by reproducing that practice, increase the attractiveness of the practice for others with similar motivations. This implies that while community gardening appears to be one practice, it should in fact be interpreted as several distinct practices, such as the practice of food growing or the practice of social gathering. Motivations therefore influence a garden’s benefits and outcomes. This thesis thus highlights that motivations should not be overlooked when studying practices.

    Apprehending the motivations of community gardeners is also an important contribution to the literature around AFNs, since it helps us to understand the extent to which urban food production is truly alternative. By studying motivations, this thesis reveals that AFNs do not necessarily represent a deeper morality, or that not all food growing initiatives in the city can be defined as alternative. However, participants of community gardens are often both producers and consumers (there is a ‘sliding scale of producership’); the gardens are thus largely independent from the conventional food system. Moreover, for participants who buy produce, the meaning of the gardens often goes beyond an economic logic (there is a ‘sliding scale of marketness’). Hence, while the gardens studied in this thesis are no alternative alternatives, most of them can be qualified as ‘actually existing alternatives’ (after Jehlicka and Smith 2011).

    This thesis showed that even those gardens in which the commodification of food is being challenged do not necessarily represent a deeper morality, which is contrary to what is argued by Watts et al. (2005). This implies that understanding whether or not initiatives resist incorporation into the food system is insufficient to be able to determine whether or not they can be defined as alternative food networks. However, determining whether or not deeper moral reflection is present is not a satisfactory way of defining food networks as alternative either, as this neglects the fact that motivations do not always overlap with practical reality. This suggests that establishing whether a food network can be regarded as alternative requires studying both motivations and practical reality. The thesis also raises the question to what extent the label AFN is still useful. Since it is unclear what ‘alternative’ means exactly, it is also unclear whether a given initiative can be considered alternative. Moreover, the world of food seems too complex to be represented by a dichotomy between alternative and conventional food systems; the gardens presented in this thesis are diverse and carry characteristics of both systems. I therefore suggest considering replacing the term AFN with that of civic food networks, as Renting et al. (2012) advocate.

    Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal's community forests: shifting power, strenghtening livelihoods
    McDougall, C.L. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572881 - 322
    bewonersparticipatie - governance - sociale samenwerking - sociaal leren - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bosbouw - gemeenschappen - middelen van bestaan - adaptatie - sociaal kapitaal - vrouwen - armoede - nepal - community participation - governance - social cooperation - social learning - natural resources - forestry - communities - livelihoods - adaptation - social capital - women - poverty - nepal

    Short Summary

    Cynthia McDougall--PhD Dissertation

    Knowledge, Technology, &Innovation Chairgroup (WASS)

    Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal’s community forests: Shifting power, strengthening livelihoods

    Community-based natural resource governance has taken root around the globe. And, yet, as demonstrated by community forestry in Nepal, such programmes have generally not yet lived up to their goals and expectations. After decades of implementation, community forestry in Nepal faces several key challenges. Central to these challenges are: the need to increase equity in community forest user group decision making and benefit sharing; and, to increase the livelihood benefits from community forestry overall. The research project on which this study is based sought to address these challenges at the community forest user group scale. The research objective was to contribute empirically-based insights regarding if and how adaptive collaborative governance of community forests in Nepal can constructively influence engagement, livelihoods, social capital and conflict—especially in regard to women and the poor. Further, the research aimed to elucidate the underlying issue of power in community-based natural resource governance. In particular, it sought to contribute deeper, theoretically-based understanding of the persistence of power imbalances in community forestry, and of the potential of adaptive collaborative governance to shift such imbalances.

    Een peilbuis in de voortuin: monitoren doe je samen
    Breman, B.C. ; Groot, M. de; Ottow, B. ; Rip, W. - \ 2015
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 47 (2015)7/8. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 46 - 47.
    waterstand - plassen - monitoring - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - bewonersparticipatie - utrecht - water level - ponds - monitoring - community involvement - community participation - utrecht
    In 2008 wekte de invoering van flexibel peilbeheer in de Loosdrechtse Plassen veel wantrouwen. Om het draagvlak en de relaties te verbeteren gingen de waterbeheerders samen met mensen uit het gebied uitgebreid monitoren. Dat ging zo ver dat particulieren peilbuizen in de tuin kregen, en metingen verzorgden.
    Wonen, studeren en werken op het Binnengasthuisterrein: op weg naar een ontwerp op basis van gedeelde belangen
    Kruit, J. ; Jonge, F.H. de; Bijlsma, T. ; Kruizinga, C. ; Brouwer, S.M. ; Galli, G. ; Tian, L. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 315) - 63
    stadsomgeving - openbaar groen - ontwerp - gebruik van ruimte - tuinen - bewonersparticipatie - welzijn - amsterdam - universiteiten - openluchtrecreatie - landschapsarchitectuur - urban environment - public green areas - design - space utilization - gardens - community participation - well-being - amsterdam - universities - outdoor recreation - landscape architecture
    Het Binnengasthuisterrein wordt intensief gebruikt door bewoners, studenten en medewerkers van de UvA, toeleveringsbedrijven, passanten en toeristen. Het ziet er naar uit dat het aantal gebruikers de komende jaren zal toenemen. Tegengestelde belangen en visies tussen bewoners, diverse andere partijen en de UvA hebben in de loop van de tijd tot botsingen geleid. De wetenschapswinkel van Wageningen UR, is om advies gevraagd hoe zoveel verschillende wensen en belangen samen te brengen in een integraal ontwerp. De doelstelling van de VOL-BG is erop gericht te komen tot een internationaal tot de verbeelding sprekende toekomstige inrichting van het Binnengasthuisterrein, met behoud van het rustige, groene en monumentale karakter van het terrein, waarin wonen, leren, spelen, werken en recreëren door elkaar heen gebeurt door jonge en oude mensen, buurtbewoners, bezoekers, studenten en UvA medewerkers. In dit rapport beschrijft de wetenschapswinkel van Wageningen UR het onderzoek dat zij heeft uitgevoerd om de Vereniging Openbaar en leefbaar Binnengasthuisterrein (VOL-BG) bij het bereiken van dit doel te ondersteunen.
    Het mobiliseren en benutten van bovenlokaal burgerinitiatief: De zoektocht naar nieuwe manieren van samenwerking om de leefbaarheid in Noord- Holland te vergroten
    Aalvanger, A. ; Beunen, R. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573956 - 82
    plattelandssamenleving - dorpen - woonwijken - doelstellingen - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - bewonersparticipatie - sociale samenwerking - regionale ontwikkeling - noord-holland - rural society - villages - residential areas - objectives - community involvement - community participation - social cooperation - regional development - noord-holland
    De actieve inzet van burgers draagt bij aan de leefbaarheid van het platteland. De provincie Noord-Holland ziet de inzet van burgers zelfs steeds meer als een voorwaarde om duurzame oplossingen te vinden voor vraagstukken op het gebied van mobiliteit, voorzieningen en de woonomgeving. De verantwoordelijkheid voor het vinden en uitvoeren van deze oplossingen ligt niet langer alleen bij gemeenten en maatschappelijke organisaties. Vanuit hun grote betrokkenheid bij hun dorp of wijk, ontwikkelen burgers ook zelf ideeën en plannen om hun woonomgeving te verbeteren. De aandacht van burgerinitiatieven richt zich vaak op het eigen dorp of de eigen wijk. Het bovenlokale schaalniveau verdwijnt uit beeld, waardoor het moeilijker wordt creatieve oplossingen te vinden. Leefbaarheid is echter een vraagstuk dat om een bovenlokale aanpak vraagt...
    Governance of tourism conservation partnerships: lessons from Kenya
    Nthiga, R.W. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rene van der Duim, co-promotor(en): Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers; B.E.L. Wishitemi. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571662 - 231
    toerisme - duurzame ontwikkeling - wildbescherming - natuurbescherming - vennootschappen - governance - bewonersparticipatie - kenya - tourism - sustainable development - wildlife conservation - nature conservation - partnerships - governance - community participation - kenya

    Governance of Tourism Conservation Partnerships: Lessons from Kenya

    Rita Wairimu Nthiga

    Since the 19th century nature conservation in Eastern Africa has evolved in different stages. Initial interventions emerged as a result of the decline and potential extinction of species for sport hunting. Colonial administrations thus started by formulating hunting regulations and licenses. More structured efforts began after the Second World War with the setting aside of national parks and reserves referred to as a ‘preservationist’ approach to conservation. To address some of the weaknesses of this approach, a community paradigm, that sought to integrate the objectives of biodiversity conservation with objectives of socio-economic development, emerged in the 1980s.

    With the shift from ‘government to governance’, a variety of actors, including governments, NGOs and donor organizations, began to support market-based initiatives as a reaction to the flaws of community-based initiatives, including tourism-based ones, aimed at achieving conservation goals while at the same time addressing development challenges. In these programmes the partnership model has been increasingly adopted as a preferred mode of governance for addressing the objectives of conservation and development. In this thesis I analyze and explain the nature of governance in tourism conservation-development partnerships. The thesis studies two tourism-conservation-development partnerships in Kenya: the Sanctuary at Ol Lentille and the Koija Starbeds partnerships. Data collection involved the use of semi-structured interviews, document analysis and literature review, observations and informal discussions and focus group discussions.

    This thesis studied the governance of the two partnerships making use of the concepts of participation, transparency, accountability, equity, and effectiveness. Although these concepts are also known as prescriptive ‘good governance’ principles, this thesis departed from this normative view of ‘good governance’ and applies the concepts in an analytical way to study and understand the nature of governance in the partnerships. Moreover, it also examined the inter-relationships between participation, transparency, accountability, equity, and effectiveness, power-relations among the actors involved, as well as the local, national and international contexts in which these partnerships operate. The thesis therefore aimed to answer the following research question: What is the nature of governance of the partnerships in terms of participation, transparency, accountability, equity, and effectiveness, and how can this be explained?

    The results reveal both similarities and differences between the partnerships and show that governance in both partnerships is influenced by challenges related to among others un-balanced power-relations, inadequate local institutions, un-supportive legislative and cultural frameworks and cultural constraints. Despite these governance challenges both partnerships make important contributions to livelihoods and conservation. The research further reveals that partnerships are not simple institutions but comprise of ‘nested’ institutions which make their governance complex. In the thesis I therefore conclude that for partnerships to realize their potentials, they must be more consciously governed at the partnership level - by the various partners - and as a governance instrument more generally- by various societal actors.

    In de ban van de Waterleliegracht : naar een schone en aantrekkelijke Waterleliegracht in hartje Amsterdam
    Sol, A.J. ; Belgers, J.D.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 314) - ISBN 9789461738851 - 104
    stedelijke gebieden - kanalen - waterkwaliteit - kanaaloeverbeplantingen - waterbeheer - burgers - bewonersparticipatie - amsterdam - urban areas - canals - water quality - canal plantations - water management - citizens - community participation - amsterdam
    De eerste groene en ecologische wijk in Amsterdam werd 15 jaar geleden op het Gemeentelijke Waterleiding (GWL) terrein gebouwd. De wijk kent een aantal duurzame uitgangspunten, dit onderzoek gaat in op het duurzame waterbeheer en de waterkwaliteit van het water in de Waterleliegracht evenals de mogelijkheden die de gracht zou kunnen bieden in het bijzonder. De bewonersvereniging van het GWL terrein wil graag dat de waterkwaliteit in de gracht -die het woonterrein doorsnijdt- wordt verbeterd en dat het omliggende ecosysteem in diversiteit toeneemt en dat de gracht en zijn omgeving groener en aantrekkelijker wordt. In dit project werkten samen: de bewonersvereniging van GWL, bestuurscommissie West en Waternet.
    The role of information and knowledge in green urban initiatives : information govenance
    Dam, R.I. van; Hassink, J. ; Salverda, I.E. ; Vaandrager, L. ; Wentink, C.Q. - \ 2014
    Wageningen UR
    stadsomgeving - openbaar groen - natuur - bewonersparticipatie - sociaal kapitaal - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kennisniveau - kennisoverdracht - informatieverspreiding - urban environment - public green areas - nature - community participation - social capital - sustainability - knowledge level - knowledge transfer - diffusion of information
    In this project the role of information, communication, expertise and knowledge is addressed in the realization of citizens’ initiatives in a green urban environment.
    Community-driven reconstruction in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo : capacity building, accountability, power, labour, and ownership
    Kyamusugulwa, P.M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): Paul Richards; M. Mashanda. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739032 - 251
    bewonersparticipatie - reconstructie - ontwikkelingsprogramma - capaciteitsopbouw - gemeenschappen - politieke macht - sociale processen - democratische republiek kongo - community participation - reconstruction - development programmes - capacity building - communities - political power - social processes - congo democratic republic
    This PhD research focuses on community-driven reconstruction (CDR): the social dynamics of target communities in post-conflict eastern Congo. The main research question: how do social dynamics and power relations influence decision making and implementation of CDR and how do perceptions of local people and International Rescue Committee (IRC) staff shape development in the communities of Burhinyi, Luhwindja and Kaziba?
    Buurttuinen in Nederland: Motivaties, voedselpatronen en 'community'
    Veen, Esther - \ 2013
    urban agriculture - allotment gardens - gardens - community participation - social participation - urban areas
    Incentives for smallholders to enhance the production of quality cocoa beans in Ghana: the role of institutions
    Quarmine, W. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold van Huis; D. Obeng-Ofori; F. Asante, co-promotor(en): Rein Haagsma. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461738080 - 165
    theobroma cacao - cacao - cacaobonen - landbouwbeleid - kwaliteit - certificering - bewonersparticipatie - ghana - theobroma cacao - cocoa - cocoa beans - agricultural policy - quality - certification - community participation - ghana

    Cocoa beans from Ghana have a reputation of being of consistent quality. As such they sell at a premium on the international market. As a result of this quality reputation, Ghana is able to sell over 70% of its annual produce in forward markets. This trading practice ensures that farmers are protected from price fluctuation in the international market. Consequently, farmers, buyers, scientists and policy makers agree that sustaining Ghana’s premium quality position on the international market should be a central component of cocoa sector policies in Ghana.

    Over the years, therefore, policy and programme attention has been placed on ensuring that the produce supplied by farmers is of superior quality. Some of these efforts have included development of clearer quality parameters, establishment of cooperative societies, market liberalization, introduction of competition in the cocoa market, and farmer extension reforms among others. In spite of the attention paid to quality, evidence is emerging that farmers can do more to enhance the quality of their produce. For example, nationwide, disease infestation alone results in loss of up to 35% of the potential crop. Also, the surge in poorly fermented and not thoroughly dried produce has been amply described in the literature. These quality issues would not arise if farmers were to improve their rate of adoption of the several recommended quality-enhancing technologies developed by scientists.

    The question is therefore frequently asked: why does the rate of adoption of recommended technologies by farmers fall below the expectation of policy makers and scientists? Drawing mainly from new institutional economics, this thesis argues that the adoption by farmers of quality-enhancing technologies is hampered by the rules (or institutions) that govern interactions in the internal cocoa market of Ghana. The central object of this thesis is to gain an insight into what institutional factors are and how they can be altered to provide effective incentives for Ghanaian cocoa farmers to enhance the production of quality cocoa beans.Five specific objectives were addressed. First, impact of specific price-related institutional reforms on producer incentives was analysed. Second, the study identified relevant institutional factors constraining smallholders from enhancing the production of quality cocoa beans. These two studies set the stage for experimentation with alternative institutional mechanisms which might motivate cocoa farmers to enhance the quality of their produce. Hence, the third objective explored agricultural knowledge institutions by comparing the effectiveness of participatory and conventional extension methods on accumulation of knowledge and adoption of quality-enhancing technologies. The fourth and fifth objective of this study then focused on what alternative institutions may be designed to govern cocoa beans trade to ensure that Ghana sustains its good premium quality reputation. The fourth objective of this study assessed the influence of incentive mechanisms designed by certification programs on farmers’ effort to enhance the quality of cocoa beans they produce. The fifth objective then attempted to determine the extent to which farmers respond to a price differentiation structure which builds in mechanisms of rewards and punishments.

    Having introduced the thesis in the first chapter, Chapter 2 addressed three questions: (1) did prices and the variation of these prices influence cocoa supply?; (2) to what extent did institutional reforms affect the stability of producer prices? and (3) how did cocoa price-related institutional reforms affect the transmission of world price to producers? A time series econometrics approach was employed in this study. To assess the impact of prices on farmer behaviour, a double-logarithmic ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was estimated. Cocoa production was regressed on current and lagged producer prices and on a number of control variables, including the price of maize. To answer the question of how cocoa price-related institutional reforms affected the transmission of world price to producers, specific reform eras were first identified. These were: (1) before and after the introduction of the Producer Price Review Committee (PPRC); and (2) before the use of cost-plus-margin price rule; during the cost-plus-margin price rule; and during the percentage F.O.B. pricing rule. Next, a co-integration and error correction approach was employed to analyse the impact of these reform periods on the transmission of world prices to producers. The results confirmed economic theory in that increases in the producer price provided sufficient incentives for farmers to increase their output while the variation or instability of this price was a disincentive. The institutional reforms led to increases in prices but did little to stabilize producer prices over the years. These results pointed to the important role institutions can play in shaping farmer incentives.

    The time series data employed in the analyses of institutions failed to account for the perspectives of stakeholders. Chapter 3 therefore employed a cross-sectional approach to investigating how institutions shape the incentive for smallholders to enhance the quality of their produce. A number of formal and informal institutions work together to constrain farmers’ capacityand willingness to enhance the production of quality cocoa beans. Farmer knowledge institutions, especially the organization of cocoa extension, have resulted in low contact hours between farmers and extension agents. This affected the knowledge and hence capacity of farmers to utilize relevant technological innovations which could enhance the quality of their produce. Farmers’ unwillingness to enhance the quality of their cocoa beans any further also arises from institutional factors like land tenure contracts, corruption, and rent-seeking behaviour of cocoa buyers,whichaffect their income position. Farmers do not have enough countervailing power to deal with these problems because they are often very weakly organized. The willingness of farmers to enhance the quality of their produce is also influenced by an asymmetric information problem. This problem arises because buyers do not determine the quality features of the produce before or even after sale transaction. This asymmetric information is attributed to the lack of market governance structuresthat ensure thatcocoa beans are graded before purchase from farmers. The absence of grading before purchase results in payment of uniform pricesfor all quality grades. In the absence of a pay-for-quality policy farmers will rather not invest extra labour in furtherenhancing produce quality.

    In Chapter 4, the effectiveness of participatory and conventional extension methods of extension on accumulation of knowledge and adoption of quality-enhancing technologies was compared. Farmers involved in participatory research were compared with those involved in conventional extension in terms of knowledge accumulation, yields and bean quality. It was found that using recommended technologiescan enhance the cocoa bean quality 17% more than current practices. At a cocoa price of US$ 1.86 per kilogramme, profits per hectare were with recommended technologies about 8% higher than with farmers’ practices, just because recommended technologies yielded higher volumes of cocoa. If cocoa prices at the farm gate would be differentiated by quality, the relative profitability of using good agricultural practices would even be higher.Being trained through participatory methods resulted in significant improvement in farmers’ knowledge. Their gain in knowledge did not motivate farmers to enhance cocoa bean quality, butrather farmers selected specific yield-enhancing technologies for adoption. This chapter confirmed that as long as there is a lack of market incentives farmers are unwilling to adopt quality-enhancing recommended technologies.

    In Chapter 5,the question of how certification programs influence farmers to enhance the production of quality cocoa beans was addressed. The study identified the determinants of the choice between being an independent farmer and being a certified farmer. The study showed that farmers with a high marginal utility of income participated in certification. Furthermore, farmers that for some reason were constrained in their capacity to apply extra effort to their pre-harvest and post-harvest activities, by lack of time or health conditions, were not likely to join the certification program. Having joined certification programs a number of incentive mechanisms were used to coordinate farmers’ production activities to ensure they supply quality cocoa beans. First, certification programs organize farmers into producer organizations which use their internal rules of rewards and punishments to strictly enforce quality requirements. Also, certification programs employ traceability mechanisms where every cocoa bean can be traced to the farm where it was produced. Hence the information asymmetric problem is completely resolved. Additionally certification programs pay a higher price for the quality of produce they purchase. These mechanisms were not available to independent farmers. As a result of thesedifferences in trading practices and incentive mechanisms, certified farmers put up 17% more pre-harvest and 20% more post-harvest effort in their production practices than independent members. This explains why certified farmers recorded 52% higher yields and 12% better quality than independent farmers.

    In Chapter 6an alternative market governance mechanism to certification was experimented with. The impact of price differentiation with self-selection was tested by offering farmers in the Suhum district a menu of price; the regular producer price for lower quality Grade II cocoa beans and the higher price for Grade I cocoa. To receive the higher price however farmers were to pay a fee (of 1kg of cocoa beans) and had to have their beans tested. If the produce met the high standard set by the buyer, the seller received the high price (whichis equivalent to 3kg of cocoa), otherwise he or she just received the regular market price and the test fee would become his or her cost.The results showed that faced with this menu, farmers exposed to this test-cum-fee price option significantly improved the quality of their cocoa beans by 2.7% more than control farmers. Other factors which significantly impacted on the quality of farmers’ produce were previous involvement in farmer participatory research (Chapter 4) and dependence on cocoa as a main source of livelihood. A central aim of test-cum-fee price mechanism is to stimulate farmers to supply only their best quality produce. Over the two seasons of the experiment farmers who were exposed to the test-cum-fee price mechanism increased the proportion of their produce which was sold for a premium by 28%. The quality of these beans sold for a premium also improved over the experimental period by 3%. This self-selection behaviour is explained by farmers’ risk preferences, perception about the new price mechanisms, and their capacity to enhance their quality of their cocoa beans.

    In Chapter 7, the main findings of the study were summarisedand their policy implications were discussed. The study’s limitations were highlighted and some ideas for future research were proposed. Problems with cocoa bean quality at farmgate have been attributed to asymmetric information between farmers and buyers. As a result of this information problem, buyers are unwilling to pay for quality. This thesis puts forward two governance structures which can address the asymmetric information problem. First, it is demonstrated that certification of producer organizations with mechanisms of traceability, group control and price premiums can completely resolve the information problem. This thesis shows that another governance structure with a win-win potential to address the information problems in Ghana’s cocoa industry is price differentiation with self-selection mechanisms. Policy makers therefore need to pay closer attention to these mechanisms if Ghana is to sustain her position as a net supplier of premium quality cocoa beans.

    Participatieprocessen rondom stadslandbouw
    Stobbelaar, D.J. - \ 2013
    urban agriculture - participation - stakeholders - governance - group processes - community participation
    Community Biodiversity Management : Promoting Resilience and the Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources
    Boef, W.S. de; Subedi, A. ; Peroni, N. ; Thijssen, M.H. ; O'Keeffe, E. - \ 2013
    New York : Earthscan (Issues in agricultural biodiversity ) - ISBN 9780415502191 - 418
    biodiversiteit - agrobiodiversiteit - sociale participatie - bewonersparticipatie - duurzame landbouw - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - hulpbronnenbehoud - hulpbronnenbeheer - biodiversity - agro-biodiversity - social participation - community participation - sustainable agriculture - plant genetic resources - resource conservation - resource management
    The conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are issues that have been high on the policy agenda since the first Earth Summit in Rio in 1992. As part of efforts to implement in situ conservation, a methodology referred to as community biodiversity management (CBM) has been developed by those engaged in this arena. CBM contributes to the empowerment of farming communities to manage their biological resources and make informed decisions on the conservation and use of agrobiodiversity. This book is the first to set out a clear overview of CBM as a methodology for meeting socio-environmental changes. CBM is shown to be a key strategy that promotes community resilience, and contributes to the conservation of plant genetic resources. The authors present the underlying concepts and theories of CBM as well as its methodology and practices, and introduce case studies primarily from Brazil, Ethiopia, France, India, and Nepal. Contributors include farmers, leaders of farmers’ organizations, professionals from conservation and development organizations, students and scientists.
    Groene participatieprocessen : succes en faalfactoren
    Stobbelaar, D.J. - \ 2012
    public green areas - management of urban green areas - community participation - urban areas - utrecht
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