Staff Publications

Staff Publications

  • external user (warningwarning)
  • Log in as
  • language uk
  • About

    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

    We have a manual that explains all the features 

    Current refinement(s):

    Records 1 - 12 / 12

    • help
    • print

      Print search results

    • export

      Export search results

    Check title to add to marked list
    Effect of constant or weekly varied eggshell temperature during incubation on broiler performance up until slaughter age
    Wijnen, H.J. ; Roovert-Reijrink, Inge van; Eijk-Priester, Marieke van; Pol, C. van der; Molenaar, R. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2018
    In: The XVth European Poultry Conference (EPC). - Zagreb, Croatia : Croatian Branch of the World's Poultry Science Association - ISBN 9789082915709 - p. 498 - 498.
    broiler - eggshell temperature - incubation - performance - compensatory growth - delayed nutrition - early nutrition
    After hatching in conventional systems, broiler chickens have a delay to nutrition thatcan last for 72h, depending on length of the hatch window, internal hatchery proceduresand transport duration. Previous research on early life feeding strategies has shownnegative effects on bodyweight (BW) gain after delayed nutrition (DN), compared withearly nutrition (EN). However, it is not known whether DN chickens can (partially)compensate for their lower BW between hatch and slaughter. In this study, we tested thehypothesis that DN chickens have an increased growth rate, as a result of compensatorygrowth. Data from 3 independent experiments were used. In these studies, broilerswere subjected to either EN or DN with different durations of DN (38 to 72 h) and daysto slaughter (14 to 35 d). In all experiments, DN groups had lower BW compared withEN which was sustained until slaughter. Relative differences in BW, however, decreasedfrom 114 to 176% post placement to 102 – 112 % at slaughter (35 d). Growth curves of DNand EN chickens were analysed to study whether compensatory growth could explain thedifferences in BW between EN and DN. Absolute average daily gain (aADG) was higher inEN chickens from start until slaughter. To analyse the growth curve independent of BW,relative ADG (rADG) between two ages was calculated as follows:Differences in rADG between DN and EN chickens were greater in the first 14 d (DN:63%, EN: 47%; P < 0.001), but smaller in the remaining grow-out period (14 – 28 d:DN: 18%, EN: 16%; 28 – 35 d: DN: 8%, EN: 7%; both P <0 .001). Based on these results,it seems that DN broilers compensate for their lag in BW during the first 14 d postplacement. As differences in absolute BW were still present at 35 d, the increase in rADGseems insufficient to catch up with EN broilers. EN chickens have higher aADG untilslaughter, however, rADG is lower, showing that growth rate is influenced by feedingstrategy. Previous literature describes interactions between compensatory growth andnutrient composition of diets on nitrogen and fat retention. This may give reason forfuture work to evaluate effects of early life feeding strategy on carcass traits.
    The effect of different eggshell temperature patterns during incubation on broiler chicken behavior determined by an automatic tracking system
    Molenaar, R. ; Haas, E.N. de; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Olde Bolhaar, Lara ; Wijnen, H.J. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2018
    In: The XVth European Poultry Conference (EPC). - Zagreb, Croatia : Croatian Branch of the World's Poultry Science Association - ISBN 9789082915709 - p. 248 - 248.
    behaviour - broiler chicken - incubation - tracking - compensatory growth - delayed nutrition - early nutrition

    Growth rate of broiler chickens is influenced by early life feeding strategy
    Hollemans, M.S. ; Lammers, A. ; Vries, S. de - \ 2018
    In: The XVth European Poultry Conference (EPC). - Zagreb, Croatia : - ISBN 9789082915709 - p. 579 - 579.
    delayed nutrition - early nutrition - Intestinal permeability - compensatory growth
    After hatching in conventional systems, broiler chickens have a delay to nutrition thatcan last for 72h, depending on length of the hatch window, internal hatchery proceduresand transport duration. Previous research on early life feeding strategies has shownnegative effects on bodyweight (BW) gain after delayed nutrition (DN), compared withearly nutrition (EN). However, it is not known whether DN chickens can (partially)compensate for their lower BW between hatch and slaughter. In this study, we tested thehypothesis that DN chickens have an increased growth rate, as a result of compensatorygrowth. Data from 3 independent experiments were used. In these studies, broilerswere subjected to either EN or DN with different durations of DN (38 to 72 h) and daysto slaughter (14 to 35 d). In all experiments, DN groups had lower BW compared withEN which was sustained until slaughter. Relative differences in BW, however, decreasedfrom 114 to 176% post placement to 102 – 112 % at slaughter (35 d). Growth curves of DNand EN chickens were analysed to study whether compensatory growth could explain thedifferences in BW between EN and DN. Absolute average daily gain (aADG) was higher inEN chickens from start until slaughter. To analyse the growth curve independent of BW,relative ADG (rADG) between two ages was calculated as follows:Differences in rADG between DN and EN chickens were greater in the first 14 d (DN:63%, EN: 47%; P < 0.001), but smaller in the remaining grow-out period (14 – 28 d:DN: 18%, EN: 16%; 28 – 35 d: DN: 8%, EN: 7%; both P <0 .001). Based on these results,it seems that DN broilers compensate for their lag in BW during the first 14 d postplacement. As differences in absolute BW were still present at 35 d, the increase in rADGseems insufficient to catch up with EN broilers. EN chickens have higher aADG untilslaughter, however, rADG is lower, showing that growth rate is influenced by feedingstrategy. Previous literature describes interactions between compensatory growth andnutrient composition of diets on nitrogen and fat retention. This may give reason forfuture work to evaluate effects of early life feeding strategy on carcass traits.
    Body weight is affected by early life feeding strategy and hatch moment in broiler chickens
    Hollemans, M.S. ; Noorloos, Marit ; Vries, S. de; Lammers, A. - \ 2018
    In: The XVth European Poultry Conference (EPC). - Zagreb, Croatia : - ISBN 9789082915709 - p. 259 - 259.
    delayed nutrition - early nutrition - Intestinal permeability - compensatory growth
    After hatching in conventional systems, broiler chickens have a delay to nutrition that can last for 72h, depending on length of the hatch window, internal hatchery procedures and transport duration. Previous research on early life feeding strategies has shown negative effects on bodyweight (BW) gain after delayed nutrition (DN), compared with early nutrition (EN). However, it is not known whether DN chickens can (partially)compensate for their lower BW between hatch and slaughter. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DN chickens have an increased growth rate, as a result of compensatory growth. Data from 3 independent experiments were used. In these studies, broilers were subjected to either EN or DN with different durations of DN (38 to 72 h) and days to slaughter (14 to 35 d). In all experiments, DN groups had lower BW compared withEN which was sustained until slaughter. Relative differences in BW, however, decreased from 114 to 176% post placement to 102 – 112 % at slaughter (35 d). Growth curves of DN and EN chickens were analysed to study whether compensatory growth could explain the differences in BW between EN and DN. Absolute average daily gain (aADG) was higher in EN chickens from start until slaughter. To analyse the growth curve independent of BW, relative ADG (rADG) between two ages was calculated as follows: Differences in rADG between DN and EN chickens were greater in the first 14 d (DN:63%, EN: 47%; P < 0.001), but smaller in the remaining grow-out period (14 – 28 d:DN: 18%, EN: 16%; 28 – 35 d: DN: 8%, EN: 7%; both P <0 .001). Based on these results,it seems that DN broilers compensate for their lag in BW during the first 14 d postplacement. As differences in absolute BW were still present at 35 d, the increase in rADG seems insufficient to catch up with EN broilers. EN chickens have higher aADG until slaughter, however, rADG is lower, showing that growth rate is influenced by feeding strategy. Previous literature describes interactions between compensatory growth and nutrient composition of diets on nitrogen and fat retention. This may give reason for future work to evaluate effects of early life feeding strategy on carcass traits.
    Effect of constant or weekly varied eggshell temperature during incubation on broiler performance up until slaughter age
    Wijnen, H.J. ; Roovert-Reijrink, Inge Van; Priester, Marieke ; Pol, C.W. van der; Molenaar, R. ; Brand, H. van den - \ 2018
    broiler - eggshell temperature - incubation - performance - compensatory growth - delayed nutrition - early nutrition
    During incubation, embryo development is particularly influenced by temperature. Thevast majority of commercial hatcheries aim at a constant eggshell temperature (EST) of37.8°C throughout incubation. However, it has been shown recently that lowering EST(36.7°C) in the last week of incubation might improve embryo development, as higher(yolk-free) body mass and relative organ weights at hatch were found. In addition,raising EST slightly in phases during which oxygen is not limited yet (before the lastweek of incubation), might improve embryo development as well. It is hypothesizedthat a lower EST (36.7°) in the last week of incubation and a higher EST (38.9°C) in thesecond week of incubation improve embryo development and perinatal chick qualitycompared to a constant intermediate EST (37.6°) throughout incubation. Moreover,EST during incubation might have long term effects on broiler performance as theincubation period covers a substantial part of their whole lifespan and as it is knownfor many animal species that perinatal experiences have an impact in later life. Totest this hypothesis, Ross 308 eggs from a prime parent flock were incubated in a 2x2experimental design. All eggs were incubated at a normal (37.8°C) EST until embryonicday (E) 7. Thereafter, eggs were either incubated at a normal (37.8°C) or high (38.9°C)EST during the second week (E7 – E14) of incubation and a normal (37.8°C) or low(36.7°C) EST during the last week (E14 – E21) of incubation. Within 6 hours afterhatch, chick development was evaluated by chick weight, length, navelscore, and organweights. Posthatch, 5 males and 5 females were housed in a 2 m2 pen with 8 replicatesper treatment (n=320) and reared until slaughter age (D42). Growth and feed intakewere monitored weekly. At D28, D35, and D39 gait was scored from all animals. Atslaughter, foot-pad dermatitis, hock burns, and carcass characteristics were determined.Preliminary results indicate that a low EST from E15 onwards results in slower growthand on average 103 g. lower body weight at slaughter. Other parameters were notsignificantly different or not analysed yet (e.g. carcass characteristics) at the moment ofabstract submission.
    Metabolic and transcriptional responses of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) to environmental stress: New insights in fish mitochondrial phenotyping
    Bermejo-Nogales, A. ; Nederlof, M.A.J. ; Benedito-Palos, L. ; Ballester-Lozano, G.F. ; Folkedal, O. ; Olsen, R.E. ; Sitjà-Bobadilla, A. ; Pérez-Sánchez, J. - \ 2014
    General and Comparative Endocrinology 205 (2014). - ISSN 0016-6480 - p. 305 - 315.
    skeletal-muscle - confinement exposure - compensatory growth - protein import - marine fish - factor-a - biogenesis - liver - exercise - acclimation
    The aim of the current study was to phenotype fish metabolism and the transcriptionally-mediated response of hepatic mitochondria of gilthead sea bream to intermittent and repetitive environmental stressors: (i) changes in water temperature (T-ST), (ii) changes in water level and chasing (C-ST) and (iii) multiple sensory perception stressors (M-ST). Gene expression profiling was done using a quantitative PCR array of 60 mitochondria-related genes, selected as markers of transcriptional regulation, oxidative metabolism, respiration uncoupling, antioxidant defense, protein import/folding/assembly, and mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis. The mitochondrial phenotype mirrored changes in fish performance, haematology and lactate production. T-ST especially up-regulated transcriptional factors (PGC1a, NRF1, NRF2), rate limiting enzymes of fatty acid ß-oxidation (CPT1A) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (CS), membrane translocases (Tim/TOM complex) and molecular chaperones (mtHsp10, mtHsp60, mtHsp70) to improve the oxidative capacity in a milieu of a reduced feed intake and impaired haematology. The lack of mitochondrial response, increased production of lactate and negligible effects on growth performance in C-ST fish were mostly considered as a switch from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. A strong down-regulation of PGC1a, NRF1, NRF2, CPT1A, CS and markers of mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis (BAX, BCLX, MFN2, MIRO2) occurred in M-ST fish in association with the greatest circulating cortisol concentration and a reduced lactate production and feed efficiency, which represents a metabolic condition with the highest allostatic load score. These findings evidence a high mitochondrial plasticity against stress stimuli, providing new insights to define the threshold level of stress condition in fish.
    Nutritional status of cattle grazing natural pasture in the Mid Rift Valley grasslands of Ethiopia measured using plant cuticular hydrocarbons and their isotope enrichment
    Bezabih, M. ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Tolera, A. ; Khan, N.A. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2014
    Livestock Science 161 (2014). - ISSN 1871-1413 - p. 41 - 52.
    n-alkanes - diet selection - compensatory growth - southern ethiopia - mineral status - feed-intake - botanical composition - mammalian herbivores - tropical forages - detergent fiber
    The seasonal diet composition, digestibility and nutrient intake of cattle grazing on natural pasture in the Mid Rift valley region of Ethiopia were determined using an improved n-alkanes method. Sixteen local Borana and Arsi cattle (8 bulls and 8 heifers, 175±10 kg weight) were randomly selected from herds at two sites; a moderately grazed ranch and a heavily grazed, communal grassland area. Grazing behaviour was observed and herbage species consumed sampled during five periods (early-dry, dry, short-rainy, main-rainy and end-of-rainy seasons) throughout the year at the two grazing sites. During each period, animals were dosed twice daily with 152±4 mg of C32 and 150±3 mg C36 alkanes for 10 consecutive days, with faeces samples collected in the morning during the last five days to determine dry matter intake (DMI).The proportion of consumed herbage species in the diet was determined using n-alkanes and their carbon isotope enrichments as markers, while the energy and nutrient intakes were derived from the DMI, digestibility, and diet composition of the DM consumed. Marked seasonal variations (P
    Effect of qualitative feed restriction on energy metabolism and nitrogen retention in sheep
    Kamalzadeh, A. ; Koops, W.J. - \ 2009
    South African Journal of Animal Science = Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Veekun 39 (2009)1. - ISSN 0375-1589 - p. 30 - 39.
    compensatory growth - body-composition - weight - steers - lambs - efficiency - nutrition - hay
    Periodic restrictions in feed quality and quantity is an important phenomenon in regions where animal production should bridge the gap between periods of forage production separated by a dry season. Eighteen Swifter male lambs, weaned at the age of ca. three months, were used to quantify effects of feed quality restriction and realimentation on changes in energy and nitrogen metabolism. The diet consisted of grass straw (17 MJ of gross energy [GE] and 46 g crude protein [CP] per kg dry matter [DM]) on an ad libitum basis and 35 g/kg(0.75)/d mixed concentrates (16.5 MJ of GE and 173 g CP per kg DM). At the age of ca. 3.5 months the animals were randomly divided into six blocks, based on live weight, according to a randomized complete block design. Within each block, the animals were randomly assigned to two restricted treatments (RI and R2) and an unrestricted control (C) treatment. Treatments R1 and R2 were subjected to feed quality restriction by withholding the concentrate for 3 and 4.5 months, respectively. A modified linear model was developed to study the effects of restriction and realimentation. The comparison between treatments was made by analyzing the data of the RI and R2 animals as deviations from the control animal in each block. During the restriction period, restricted animals lost weight and showed negative energy (EB) and nitrogen balances (NB), whereas their intake of low quality roughage increased significantly. During the realimentation period (5 and 6 months for the RI and R2 animal, respectively), the R1 and R2 animals grew significantly faster than the control animals. The realimented animals persisted in ingesting significantly more low quality roughage and their EB and NB were significantly greater that those of the control animals. The R2 animals needed a longer period of realimentation because of a longer period of restriction. The expression of compensatory growth was mainly related to a sustained higher grass straw (low quality roughage) intake during the realimentation periods, and a significantly greater efficiency of metabolizable energy intake. The maintenance requirement of realimented animals was significantly lower only during the initial stages of realimentation compared with the controls. It seemed as if a three months feed restriction period in weaned sheep was better than 4.5 months
    Effects of feed composition on life history developments in feed intake, metabolism, growth and body composition of European eel, Anguilla anguilla
    Heinsbroek, L.T.N. ; Hooff, P.L.A. ; Swinkels, W. ; Tanck, M.W.T. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2007
    Aquaculture 267 (2007)1-4. - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 175 - 187.
    trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - female atlantic salmon - rainbow-trout - compensatory growth - fresh-water - energy-metabolism - food-intake - protein - deposition - nutrient
    To examine the effect of feed composition on changes in feed intake and subsequent feed utilization with age, five populations of European eel, with an average initial body weight of 5 g each fed a different diet, were monitored for 302 d. The five feeds differed in their content of crude protein (33¿63% DM), crude fat (6¿28% DM) and calculated carbohydrates (NFE; 15¿42% DM) such that five levels of digestible protein/digestible energy (DP/DE) were realised: 13, 16, 21, 28 and 29 g MJ¿ 1. At three points in time, with three size groups, nitrogen and energy balance studies were conducted in which next to feed intake and growth also digestibilities of dry matter, protein, fat, NFE and energy as well as O2 consumption and NH4¿N excretion were measured. Due to the distinct life history of the semelparous, in the present study predominantly male eel, a well-defined goal in terms of mature size and composition could be inferred, presumably to maximize their lifetime reproductive output. In order to reach this goal the animal needs to survive and to grow and voluntary feed intake of the eels could be adequately described with the feed intake model `eating to requirements subject to constraints¿, where voluntary feed intake is considered to originate from a requirement for maintenance (survival) and a requirement for growth. Live weight gain is almost completely based on protein deposition (PD) and eels, like other animals, strive to reach a genetically determined growth potential (PDmax) thought to be driven by the difference from the mature protein mass (Ptmax). Body lipid content increases with size and varied with diet from a minimum of 25% at high DP/DE ratios to a maximum of 33% at low DP/DE ratios, at body weights of 130¿140 g. Preferable allocation of dietary protein to PD (protein sparing action of non-protein energy) was confirmed as marginal efficiency of protein utilization increased with decreasing DP/DE ratio from 0.29 to 0.54. Marginal energetic efficiency of PD, kp was 0.54 and marginal energetic efficiency of LD, kf varied from 0.67, indicating de novo lipid synthesis (from dietary protein) at high DP/DE ratios, to 0.93, indicating direct lipid synthesis (from dietary lipid) at low DP/DE ratios. Marginal efficiencies did not differ from those of other fish or other farm animals. Differences between fish species in feed intake and utilization of feeds differing in macronutrient composition, as well as life history developments in feed intake and feed utilization are therefore based on differences in growth rate, in turn with mature weight (Ptmax), and body composition (LD/PD ratio).
    Feed resources, livestock production and soil carbon dynamics in Teghane, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia
    Abegaz Yimer, A. ; Keulen, H. van; Oosting, S.J. - \ 2007
    Agricultural Systems 94 (2007)2. - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 391 - 404.
    compensatory growth - organic-matter - systems - quality - balance - design - model - sheep
    In the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia, integrated crop-livestock production within smallholder farms is the dominant form of agricultural production. Feed availability and quality are serious constraints to livestock production in Ethiopia in general, and in its Northern Highlands in particular. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between feed availability and quality and live weight gain, milk and manure production and the soil C balance in Teghane, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia. The so-called JAVA model procedure, that essentially predicts metabolizable energy intake and animal production on the basis of feed quality and quantity, has been used and linked to a soil carbon balance. Forages were ranked according to their quality (on the basis of metabolizable energy intake by livestock) in descending order. Rations were formulated by stepwise including components of increasingly lower quality to calculate the trade-offs between feed quantity and quality. In the model, the soil C balance was described in relation to soil organic matter decomposition, C input from roots, grazing and/or harvesting losses, feed residues and manure. Moreover, an analysis of monetary values of live weight gain/loss, manure and draught power is included. The results of the model showed that mean daily live weight gain and milk production per TLU continuously increased with decreasing herd size, while total annual live weight gain reached a maximum (62 Mg) at the use of the 30% best feeds and a herd size of 630 TLU. Soil C balance at this level of feed use is negative and deteriorates with increasing feed use. The model estimated an optimum herd size of 926 TLU to attain the maximum combined monetary value of live weight gain, manure and draught power at 50% feed use. Actual herd size in the study area was 1506 TLU. Our results indicate that in areas where feeds of very different quality are available, maximum benefits from meat and/or milk production and soil C balance can be attained by selective utilization of the best quality feeds, through a storage and carry-over system
    Temperatuurgrenzen bij tomaat : productie en opbrengsteffecten van kortere koudeperioden bij de teelt van tomaat, temperatuurgrenzen en compensatiemogelijkheden
    Kaarsemaker, R.C. ; Rijssel, E. van - \ 2003
    Naaldwijk : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Sector Glastuinbouw (PPO publicatie nr. 41705084) - 31
    solanum lycopersicum - tomaten - temperatuur - energie - gewasproductie - gewasopbrengst - compensatiegroei - nederland - solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - temperature - energy - crop production - crop yield - compensatory growth - netherlands
    Responses of broiler chickens to dietary protein: effects of early life protein nutrition on later responses
    Eits, R.M. ; Kwakkel, R.P. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Emmans, G.C. - \ 2003
    British Poultry Science 44 (2003)3. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 398 - 409.
    early feed restriction - compensatory growth - ascites
    1. A study was conducted with modern broiler chicks to test the effects of early life protein nutrition and sex on responses in growth and body composition to dietary protein at a later age. Effects on the incidence of metabolic disorders were also evaluated. 2. From 11 to 26 d of age (EXP1), birds were given 8 diets varying in balanced protein to energy ratio (BPE ratio) between 0.575 and 1.100 g digestible lysine per MJ AME(n). Birds from two treatment groups in EXP1 (BPE ratio of 0.725 and 1.025 g/MJ, respectively) were subsequently used in a test from 26 to 41 d of age (EXP2). In EXP2, 8 diets were used, varying in BPE ratio between 0.500 and 1.025 g/MJ. 3. Responses in weight gain and feed conversion to BPE ratio in EXP2 changed considerably when BPE ratio in EXP1 was modified, irrespective of sex. Up to 10% improvement in both weight gain and feed conversion in EXP2 was observed if BPE ratio in EXP1 was 0.725 compared with 1.025 g/MJ. With males, however, the effect of treatment in EXP1 on weight gain in EXP2 was present only at high BPE ratios. 4. For the relative gain of breast meat and abdominal fat, but not for carcase, the responses of male broilers to BPE ratio in EXP2 were altered by the BPE ratio in EXP1. With females, responses in composition of the gain to diet in EXP2 were independent of BPE ratio in EXP1. 5. The incidence of metabolic disorders was low, irrespective of treatment in EXP1. The lower BPE ratio in EXP1 increased mortality in EXP2 from 0.8 to 3.6%. 6. Our findings show that broiler responses to dietary protein depend on previous protein nutrition and sex. Effects of early life protein nutrition on incidence of metabolic disorders were not observed. The results strongly suggest that protein levels in grower and finisher diets should not be optimised independently, but simultaneously.
    Check title to add to marked list

    Show 20 50 100 records per page

     
    Please log in to use this service. Login as Wageningen University & Research user or guest user in upper right hand corner of this page.