Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Vochtgedrag schermsystemen : een zoektocht naar de oorzaak van toenemende problemen met druipend condensvocht in kassen met dubbele schermen
    Weel, P.A. van; Vanthoor, B.H.E. - \ 2017
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1436) - 34
    kastechniek - kasgewassen - kassen - afschermingsmateriaal - condenseren - greenhouse technology - greenhouse crops - greenhouses - screens - condensation
    Het Nieuwe Telen (The New Growing) results in applying more screen layers that stay completely closed. In practise this causes problems with drip. In this research the impact of 2 screen layers and using screen gaps on the amount of drip from the screens or the greenhouse cover is investigated. Solutions to reduce the problems related to drip were proposed and tested in the greenhouse. During spring and winter 2016, measurements were performed at a tomato greenhouse with artificial lighting, blackout screen, energy screen and a Ventilationjet system. The daily amount of the condensation water that drips from the greenhouse ridge, gutter and the Ventilationjet was determined. In contrast to the general expectations, the drip does not come from the screens but from the greenhouse cover and from the Ventilationjets. Condensation occurred at the screens but this did not result in drip from these screens. Only 0.2% of the condensation against the greenhouse cover drips into the greenhouse. If this drip would be re evaporated, the energy costs for heating would increase with 0.0008 m3 gas /m2/week. Investments to reduce drip can thus only be paid back by a better crop quality and not by energy savings. The use of the inlet ventilator of the Ventilationjet system or the use of a screen gap increases the amount of condensation on a cold greenhouse cover. Drip from the greenhouse gutter was solved by applying a condensation gutter and the drip from the duct of the Ventilationjet was solved by applying a collecting tray with drain hose.
    Meetprotocol voor lichttransmissie van materialen met condens
    Swinkels, Gert-Jan ; Breugel, Bram van; Tsafaras, Ilias - \ 2017
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen University & Research, BU Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1438) - 42
    kassen - meettechnieken - lichtdoorlating - glas - diffuus glas - condenseren - greenhouses - measurement techniques - light transmission - glass - diffused glass - condensation
    Measuring the light transmittance of greenhouse covering materials has become a standard procedure for the
    horticultural industry. This measurement is based on dry materials. However, transmittance changes (strongly)
    when water condenses on the inside of the material. For example, transmittance of traditional clear non-diffusing
    greenhouse glass usually decreases because the condensed droplets tend to reflect the light instead of transmit
    it, while some varieties of diffuse glass could increase light transmittance. Because a greenhouse is wet on the
    inside during a large period of the year it is important to be able to measure transmission with a standardized
    protocol. In this research a measurement protocol and associated equipment are developed for determining the
    effect of condensation on the hemispherical light transmission in a standardized way.
    The protocol is based on natural condensation on a material under a slope according to common greenhouse roof
    slopes, which is forced by a combination of temperature and humidity. In this way the natural process of draining
    of condensate is taken into account. The results show that the transmission of traditional clear uncoated (new)
    horticultural glass drops with about 3%-points while the effects on the behaviour of the tested types of diffuse
    glass vary between -1%- point up to + 1.5%-point.
    Carefully compile a wish list and measure objectivity : advice on choosing the right diffuse greenhouse roof
    Hemming, Silke - \ 2016
    horticulture - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - diffused glass - light transmission - condensation - glass - agricultural research - netherlands - belgium - coatings - scattering - roofs

    Growers know that a diffuse roof – with or without an anti-reflective coating – offers added value compared with traditional greenhouse glass. However, it is not so simple to decide which one to choose. Researcher Silke Hemming lists all the relevant aspects. An underestimated factor is measuring samples taken from good representative spots for new large-scale building projects.

    Verbetering lichtinval winterlicht : Improving the availability of natural light in winter
    Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Swinkels, G.L.A.M. ; Hemming, S. - \ 2015
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1375) - 55
    glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - kastechniek - constructie - natuurlijk licht - lichtdoorlating - condenseren - diffuus glas - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - greenhouse technology - construction - natural light - light transmission - condensation - diffused glass
    In winter at northern latitudes light is the limiting factor for crop growth. The design of the Venlo greenhouse has not changed for many years although the development of diffuse glass and use of Anti Reflection coatings were only recent. This report shows results of Ray-tracing calculations of the effect of several measures as roof slope, ridge orientation, symmetry of the roof, reflection of the construction elements and the effect of condensation on light transmission of the greenhouse. Results show that it is possible to increase light transmission by more than 10% in case a combination of measures are taken. Effects of standard glass on transmission are higher than with diffuse glass. The measurements on the effect of condensation shows a hugh variation but in average condensation can cost you light, 2% (standard glass) but can gain light as well, up to 6%. Economic feasibility and restrictions in constructions are not taken into account. The optimal winter light greenhouse means a complete re-design of the Venlo type greenhouse cover.
    Besteed zorg aan het wensenlijstje en het objectief doormeten : Silke Hemming over keuze juiste diffuse kasdek
    Staalduinen, J. van; Hemming, S. - \ 2015
    Onder Glas 12 (2015)6/7. - p. 10 - 11.
    glastuinbouw - beglazing - diffuus glas - optische eigenschappen - condenseren - verstrooiing - besluitvorming - bemonsteren - behoeften - greenhouse horticulture - glazing - diffused glass - optical properties - condensation - scattering - decision making - sampling - requirements
    Dat een diffuus kasdek – met of zonder antireflectiecoating – meerwaarde biedt ten opzichte van traditioneel basisglas weten telers inmiddels. Het is echter niet eenvoudig om tot een juiste glaskeuze te komen. Onderzoekster Silke Hemming zet de relevante aspecten op een rij. Een onderschatte factor is het doormeten van glasmonsters op basis van goede steekproeven bij grootschalige nieuwbouwprojecten.
    Analysis of sustainability metrics and application to the catalytic production of higher alcohols from ethanol
    Patel, A.D. ; Telalovic, S. ; Bitter, J.H. ; Worrell, E. ; Patel, M.K. - \ 2015
    Catalysis today 239 (2015). - ISSN 0920-5861 - p. 56 - 79.
    life-cycle assessment - nanofiber-supported platinum - solid-base catalysts - guerbet reaction - ghg emissions - hydroxyapatite - condensation - hydrogenation - 1-butanol - energy
    Use of sustainability metrics can help channel chemical research toward important long-term societal goals. For effective outcomes, it is important to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the sustainability assessment methods that can be applied in the chemical process development chain. In this paper we report the results from application of sustainability metrics in parallel with findings from laboratory research for production of higher alcohols from ethanol by application of the Guerbet reaction. 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is used as an exemplary compound for the targeted higher alcohols. The accuracy of early-stage sustainability metrics using laboratory data is evaluated by comparing the results with metrics based on detailed process simulation models, techno-economic analysis and life cycle assessment. The analysis has provided insights on pitfalls to avoid and effective application of early-stage metrics considering the dynamic nature of information available from laboratory research. Anticipation of the process configuration was found to be particularly important for effective application of early-stage metrics. The results from catalysis research for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol highlight the potential opportunities for higher chain Guerbet alcohols from biobased ethanol. The comparison of this biobased route with conventional fossil based process shows the challenges for such a process from an economic and environmental perspective.
    Supported La2O3 and MgO nanoparticles as solid base catalysts for aldol reaction while suppressing dehydration at room temperaure
    Frey, A.M. ; Kumar Karmee, S. ; Jong, K.P. de; Bitter, J.H. ; Hanefeld, U. - \ 2013
    ChemCatChem 5 (2013). - ISSN 1867-3880 - p. 594 - 600.
    platinum catalysts - carbon nanofibers - liquid - hydrotalcites - oxide - hydrogenation - condensation - hydrocarbons - chemicals - basicity
    La2O3 and MgO nanoparticles (3–4 nm) supported on carbon nanofibers were evaluated as solid base catalysts for the aldol reaction of benzaldehyde and acetone at room temperature. Both catalysts were found to be highly active and selective with respect to 4-hydroxy-4-phenylbutan-2-one, thus suppressing the elimination of H2O, which is a challenge for this reaction. La2O3 nanoparticles were more stable towards water, which makes them more applicable than MgO nanoparticles as a solid base catalyst for this reaction.
    Influence of base strength on the catalytic performance of nano-sized alkaline earth metal oxides supported on carbon nanofibers
    Frey, A.M. ; Yang, J. ; Feche, C. ; Essayem, N. ; Stellwagen, D.R. ; Figueras, F. ; Jong, K.P. de; Bitter, J.H. - \ 2013
    Journal of Catalysis 305 (2013). - ISSN 0021-9517 - p. 1 - 6.
    fine chemicals - co2 adsorption - basicity - transesterification - isomerization - hydrotalcites - condensation - alumina - sites - mgo
    Nano-sized (3 nm) alkaline earth metal oxides supported on carbon nanofibers were prepared by a facile impregnation and heat treatment method of the corresponding nitrates. These supported catalysts showed a significant improved activity for the aldol reaction and transesterification compared to the respective bulk materials which did not show any appreciable activity. A linear correlation was found between the initial reaction rate and the strength of the basic sites as determined by CO2 calorimetry indicating the importance of the base in the rate determining step of the reactions.
    Calcium Oxide Supported on Monoclinic Zirconia as a Highly Active Solid Base Catalyst
    Frey, A.M. ; Haasterecht, T. van; Jong, K.P. de; Bitter, J.H. - \ 2013
    ChemCatChem 5 (2013)12. - ISSN 1867-3880 - p. 3621 - 3628.
    earth metal-oxide - dimethyl carbonate - fine chemicals - soybean oil - biodiesel - hydrotalcites - transesterification - isomerization - condensation - basicity
    Calcium oxide supported on ZrO2 is a highly active catalyst for base-catalyzed reactions such as aldol-type reactions and transesterification reactions. The role of key parameters during preparation, that is, impregnation versus precipitation, heat treatment, and metal oxide loading on the basicity and catalytic activity were investigated for CaO supported on ZrO2. An impregnation of 10 wt¿% CaO on monoclinic zirconia followed by heat treatment at 600¿°C resulted in high activity for the self-condensation reaction of acetone. An evaluation of a series of CaO/ZrO2 samples with different loadings showed that the activity increased for impregnated amounts per gram catalyst of 0–10 wt¿% CaO, and at higher loading the activity decreased as a result of a decrease in dispersion. The number of strong base sites (calculated from CO2 desorbed at temperatures higher than 625¿°C) correlated with the activity. For MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO on zirconia the catalytic activity increased as the ionic radius of the metal cation increased, suggesting the impact of base strength on catalytic performance.
    Coating of Single DNA Molecules by Genetically Engineered Protein Diblock Copolymers
    Hernandez Garcia, A. ; Werten, M.W.T. ; Cohen Stuart, M.A. ; Wolf, F.A. de; Vries, R.J. de - \ 2012
    Small 8 (2012). - ISSN 1613-6810 - p. 3491 - 3501.
    gene delivery - block-copolymer - plasmid dna - drug-delivery - condensation - complexes - length - efficiency - polyplexes - filaments
    Coating DNA is an effective way to modulate its physical properties and interactions. Current chemosynthetic polymers form DNA aggregates with random size and shape. In this study, monodisperse protein diblock copolymers are produced at high yield in recombinant yeast. They carry a large hydrophilic colloidal block (˜400 amino acids) linked to a short binding block (˜12 basic amino acids). It is demonstrated that these protein polymers complex single DNA molecules as highly stable nanorods, reminiscent of cylindrical viruses. It is proposed that inter- and intramolecular bridging of DNA molecules are prevented completely by the small size of the binding block attached to the large colloidal stability block. These protein diblocks serve as a scaffold that can be tuned for application in DNA-based nanotechnology.
    Biocatalytic acylation of sugar alcohols by 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid
    Croitoru, R. ; Fitigau, F. ; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Frissen, A.E. ; Boeriu, C.G. - \ 2012
    Process Biochemistry 47 (2012)12. - ISSN 1359-5113 - p. 1894 - 1902.
    lipase-catalyzed esterification - candida-antarctica lipase - phenolic-acids - enzymatic preparation - organic media - esters - glycosides - condensation - copolyesters - solvents
    Enzymatic synthesis of aromatic esters of four different sugar alcohols (xylitol, arabitol, mannitol, and sorbitol) with 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was performed in organic solvent medium, using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase (Novozyme 435), and molecular sieves for control of the water content. The influence of reaction parameters on the conversion has been investigated, including reaction time, temperature, alcohol/acid molar ratio, and enzyme amount. The highest conversions (94% for xylitol, 98% for arabitol, 80% for mannitol, and 93% for sorbitol) were obtained in pure tert-butanol at 60 °C and 72 h reaction time, 0.3 alcohol/acid molar ratio, and 0.5 g/mol enzyme/substrate ratio. The isolated new sugar alcohols esters were identified by different spectral analyses. MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed the formation of monoesters, diesters, and small quantities of triesters for all investigated sugar alcohols. The catalytic efficiency of the enzyme was higher for the pentitol substrates, decreasing in the following order: arabitol > xylitol > sorbitol > mannitol. These new compounds could have interesting applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations
    Effect of surface roughness and softness on water capillary adhesion in apolar media
    Banerjee, S. ; Mulder, P. ; Kleijn, J.M. ; Cohen Stuart, M.A. - \ 2012
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry Part A: Molecules, Spectroscopy, Kinetics, Environment, & General Theory 116 (2012)25. - ISSN 1089-5639 - p. 6481 - 6488.
    atomic-force microscope - lamellae formation - phase-separation - mica surfaces - thin-film - condensation - kinetics - liquid - alkanes - pore
    The roughness and softness of interacting surfaces are both important parameters affecting the capillary condensation of water in apolar media, yet are poorly understood at present. We studied the water capillary adhesion between a cellulose surface and a silica colloidal probe in hexane by AFM force measurements. Nanomechanical measurements show that the Young’s modulus of the cellulose layer in water is significantly less (7 MPa) than in hexane (7 GPa). In addition, the cellulose surface in both water and hexane is rather rough (6–10 nm) and the silica probe has a comparable roughness. The adhesion force between cellulose and silica in water-saturated hexane shows a time-dependent increase up to a waiting time of 200 s and is much (2 orders of magnitude) lower than that expected for a capillary bridge spanning the whole silica probe surface. This suggests the formation of one or more smaller bridges between asperities on both surfaces, which is confirmed by a theoretical analysis. The overall growth rate of the condensate cannot be explained from diffusion mediated capillary condensation alone; thin film flow due to the presence of a wetting layer of water at both the surfaces seems to be the dominant contribution. The logarithmic time dependence of the force can also be explained from the model of the formation of multiple capillary bridges with a distribution of activation times. Finally, the force–distance curves upon retraction show oscillations. Capillary condensation between an atomically smooth mica surface and the silica particle show less significant oscillations and the adhesion force is independent of waiting time. The oscillations in the force–distance curves between cellulose and silica may stem from multiple bridge formation between the asperities present on both surfaces. The softness of the cellulose surface can bring in additional complexities during retraction of the silica particle, also resulting in oscillations in the force–distance curves.
    Emissie van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen hoofdzakelijk via waterstromen
    Beerling, E.A.M. - \ 2010
    emissie - pesticiden - glastuinbouw - kassen - waterkwaliteit - milieubeheer - regenwateropvang - condenseren - emission - pesticides - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - water quality - environmental management - water harvesting - condensation
    Informatieposter over emissie van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen. Deze emissie loopt hoofdzakelijk via waterstromen van kassystemen
    Condensatie tegen het kasdek : licht- en energie-effecten van condensatie op acht kasdekmaterialen
    Stanghellini, C. ; Mohammadkhani, V. ; Bruins, M.A. ; Hemming, S. ; Sonneveld, P.J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1025) - 50
    teelt onder bescherming - kassen - beglazing - bekleding, bouw - condenseren - ventilatie - temperatuur - klimaatregeling - energie - materialen - vergelijkend onderzoek - protected cultivation - greenhouses - glazing - cladding - condensation - ventilation - temperature - air conditioning - energy - materials - comparative research
    Condensatie tegen het kasdek is een bekend verschijnsel in de glastuinbouw. Uit berekeningen met het simulatiepro - gramma KASPRO blijkt dat per jaar ongeveer 100 liter water per vierkante meter tegen het kasdek condenseert. Dit getal wordt bevestigd door het geringe aantal beschikbare metingen. Bij condensatie komt energie vrij die eerder voor verdamping van water werd gebruikt, de latente warmte. Condensatie van 100 liter water komt overeen met een energie- equivalent van ca. 7,5m 3 gas wat 15-20% van het jaarverbruik is. Door condensatie wordt de kaslucht ontvochtigd. Condens heeft ook invloed op de lichttransmissie.
    Schermgebruik één van de sleutels om Botrytis in gerbera te voorkomen
    Weel, P.A. van; Voogt, J. - \ 2009
    Onder Glas 6 (2009)10. - p. 36 - 37.
    teelt onder bescherming - kassen - botrytis - schermen - condenseren - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - temperatuur - gerbera - glastuinbouw - snijbloemen - protected cultivation - greenhouses - botrytis - blinds - condensation - plant pathogenic fungi - temperature - gerbera - greenhouse horticulture - cut flowers
    Het probleem van uitstraling als oorzaak van Botrytis is tot nu toe onderschat. Het sluiten van een enkel schermdoek blijkt niet afdoende. Bij lagere buitentemperaturen kan dan nog steeds condensvorming bij de bloem optreden. Daarom is het noodzakelijk om niet alleen te schermen op basis van uitstraling, maar tevens een dubbel schermdoek toe te passen. Door de luchtspouw tussen het dubbele doek zal dan de temperatuur van het onderste scherm dicht bij de kastemperatuur blijven en wordt de uitstraling effectief gestopt
    Dehumidification of greenhouses
    Campen, J.B. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerard Bot. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854296 - 117
    kassen - milieubeheersing - ontvochtiging - ventilatie - condenseren - kastechniek - computationele vloeistofdynamica - mechanische bestrijding - greenhouses - environmental control - dehumidification - ventilation - condensation - greenhouse technology - computational fluid dynamics - mechanical control
    Dehumidification is an essential part of greenhouse climate control. High humidity is a cause of diseases which ultimately reduce the quantity and quality of production. The humidity surrounding the crop differs since the air temperature in the greenhouse is not homogenous. Humidity control increases energy consumption during heating periods.
    The various methods of dehumidification were evaluated from an economical, practical, and energetic point of view. It was concluded that the ventilation with outside air with heat recovery is the most economical, practical, and energy-saving method. Ventilation driven by buoyancy and wind cannot be controlled accurately though and gives rise to a heterogenic greenhouse climate. Therefore, the dehumidifying ventilation has to be mechanically controlled and the incoming air has to be distributed evenly over the greenhouse. Using this system the humidity can be controlled accurately in an energy-friendly way and the climate is more homogenous. For more sustainable greenhouses with lower heat demand realisable in the future this method will be indispensable.

    Energiezuinige vochtregeling onder gesloten scherm : gebruik van Aircobreeze met dubbele schermen
    Raaphorst, M.G.M. ; Weel, P.A. van; Eveleens-Clark, B.A. ; Voogt, J. - \ 2009
    Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport / Plant Research International 251) - 40
    glastuinbouw - vochtigheid - schermen - ontvochtiging - energiebesparing - kastechniek - mechanische methoden - klimaatregeling - ventilatie - condenseren - greenhouse horticulture - humidity - blinds - dehumidification - energy saving - greenhouse technology - mechanical methods - air conditioning - ventilation - condensation
    De Aircobreeze is een verticaal werkende ventilator die onder het spant is gemonteerd. Daarmee wordt in een gebied van 200-250m2 een verticale rondgaande luchtbeweging van ongeveer 5 cm/sec in stand gehouden. Er is geëxperimenteerd met een methode om door middel van de Aircobreeze in combinatie met een kleine kier in het schermdoek actief vocht af te voeren zonder gebruik van een minimum buis. Doel is om te proberen zo vaak als mogelijk één of twee energieschermen gesloten te houden zonder problemen met condensatie op het gewas.
    Nieuw meetprotocol maakt keuze kasdekmateriaal eenvoudiger : Diffuse lichttransmissie, hazefactor en invloed condens vaststellen
    Staalduinen, Jan van; Swinkels, G.L.A.M. ; Ruigrok, J. - \ 2009
    Onder Glas 6 (2009)5. - p. 64 - 65.
    tuinbouw - kassen - afdeklagen - diffuus glas - lichtdoorlating - meting - condenseren - glastuinbouw - protocollen - horticulture - greenhouses - coatings - diffused glass - light transmission - measurement - condensation - greenhouse horticulture - protocols
    Door de opkomst van nieuwe kasdekmaterialen en coatings schoot het bestaande meetprotocol voor het vaststellen van de lichttransmissie (NEN 2675) tekort. TNO en Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw hebben nieuwe meetprotocollen opgesteld waarmee de diffuse lichttransmissie, de hazefactor en de invloed van condens betrouwbaar zijn vast te stellen. Deze maken de keuze van het juiste materiaal voor specifieke situaties eenvoudiger
    Met Psychro-diagram natuurkundig inzicht in klimaatfactoren : grafiek beschrijft eigenschappen van vochtige lucht
    Weel, P.A. van; Voogt, J. - \ 2009
    Onder Glas 6 (2009)2. - p. 15 - 17.
    tuinbouwbedrijven - kassen - klimaatregeling - klimaatfactoren - relatieve vochtigheid - dauwpunt - condenseren - grafieken - glastuinbouw - energiebesparing - kastechniek - market gardens - greenhouses - air conditioning - climatic factors - relative humidity - dewpoint - condensation - graphs - greenhouse horticulture - energy saving - greenhouse technology
    De eigenschappen van kaslucht spelen een hoofdrol in nieuwe mogelijkheden om energie te besparen. Het Mollier-diagram geeft weer hoe temperatuur, RV, energie-inhoud en dauwpunt met elkaar samenhangen. Deze grafiek is voor velen moeilijk te lezen. In dit artikel wordt een variant behandeld: het Psychro-diagram. Daarmee kan iedereen aan de hand van praktijkvoorbeelden relatief eenvoudig bepalen hoe bij bepaalde buitenomstandigheden het gewenste kasklimaat het beste te realiseren is
    Passive dew collection in a grassland area
    Jacobs, A.F.G. ; Heusinkveld, B.G. ; Berkowicz, S.M. - \ 2008
    Atmospheric Research 87 (2008)3-4. - ISSN 0169-8095 - p. 377 - 385.
    water - condensation
    Passive dew collection experiments were initiated in late 2003 in the centre of The Netherlands within a grassland area. A specially designed 1 m2 insulated planar dew collector, set at a 30° angle from horizontal, was covered with a thin (0.39 mm) polyethylene foil and subsequently replaced with 4 mm polyvinyl chloride. A second dew collector, in the shape of an inverted pyramid, was constructed to reduce the view angle to only the nighttime sky. A simple surface energy-budget model and an aerodynamic model were used to simulate the dew collected by both collectors. The planar collector collected about 90% of the dew at the grass cover while the pyramid collector collected about 1.20% of the grass cover. The aerodynamic model was able to predict the amount of collector data to within 50% for the planar collector and 60% for the inverted pyramid collector. The pyramid collector design was able to collect about 20% more dew than the inclined planar collector.
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