Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Disaster, Conflict and Society in Crisis : Everyday Politics of Crisis Response
    Hilhorst, D. - \ 2013
    London : Routledge (Routledge humanitarian studies series ) - ISBN 9780415640817 - 304
    rampen - humanitaire hulp - conflict - crises - natuurrampen - politieke conflicten - conflictmanagement - noodhulp - politiek - peace building - wereld - disasters - humanitarian aid - conflict - crises - natural disasters - political conflicts - conflict management - emergency relief - politics - peacebuilding - world
    Humanitarian crises are usually perceived as a complete break from normality, spurring special emergency policies and interventions. In reality, there are many continuities and discontinuities between crisis and normality. What does this mean for our understanding of politics, aid, and local institutions during crises? This book, first in the new Routledge Humanitarian Studies Series, examines this question from a sociological perspective. It provides a qualitative inquiry into the social and political dynamics of local institutional response, international policy and aid interventions in crises caused by conflict or natural disaster.
    Crisis in aantocht! : een interactioneel perspectief op crisiscommunicatie
    Klarenbeek, J.M.E. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum, co-promotor(en): Hedwig te Molder. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789461732361 - 223
    crises - bedrijfsvoering - sociaal conflict - conflictmanagement - communicatie - rijksoverheid - nederland - crises - management - social conflict - conflict management - communication - central government - netherlands
    De overheid wil klokkenluiders via regels en procedures beschermen. Denk aan het recente wetsvoorstel ‘Huis voor Klokkenluiders’. Toch kan er veel mis gaan. Klokkenluiders lopen bijvoorbeeld het risico dat hun signaal niet wordt opgepikt. Annette Klarenbeek, richtte haar promotieonderzoek op de wijze waarop de klokkenluider zich verantwoordt ten opzichte van de vaak vijandige buitenwereld. Dit deed zij aan de hand van twee geanalyseerde praktijkvoorbeelden uit de crisiscommunicatie Bepaalde actoren die crisis kunnen signaleren en daarover anderen willen waarschuwen worden in haar onderzoek als ‘crisismakelaars’ opgevat. Veelal zitten deze personen met bepaalde interactionele problemen om een crisis aan te kaarten. Iemand die een probleem aankaart kan bijvoorbeeld worden aangezien voor zwartkijker, klikspaan of heethoofd,’ benoemt Annette Klarenbeek. ‘Klokkenluiders moeten duidelijk maken dat het de moeite waard is te luisteren naar wat zij zeggen, dat het waar is wat zij naar voren brengen en vooral dat ze zich verantwoordelijk voelen voor de omgeving.’ Haar studie concentreert zich op crisismakelaars. Dit zijn personen die een misstand zien en die bij anderen willen overbrengen. Kenmerkend voor crisismakelaars is dat zij hun zorgen over een potentiële crisissituatie op eigen initiatief presenteren. Meerwaarde onderzoek. Het onderzoek van Annette Klarenbeek toont aan dat organisaties de communicatieproblemen van crisismakelaars beter kunnen herkennen. Door hier in een vroeg stadium op te anticiperen, krijgt een organisatie beter zicht op hoe een crisis zich kan ontwikkelen. ‘
    Interculturele mediation
    Frerks, G.E. ; Breukelaar, A.W. ; Jongbloed, T. ; Schonewille, F. ; Uitslag, M. - \ 2011
    Apeldoorn/Antwerpen : Maklu - ISBN 9789046604823 - 162
    interculturele communicatie - communicatie - conflict - conflictmanagement - arbeidsbemiddeling - verbale communicatie - niet-verbale communicatie - intercultural communication - communication - conflict - conflict management - employment mediation - verbal communication - nonverbal communication
    Conflicten over belangen, waarden, doelen en middelen komen vaak voor tussen groepen of personen met een verschillende religieuze, culturele of etnische identiteit. De conflictdynamiek scherpt deze verschillen vaak verder aan en dat belemmert een vreedzame oplossing van het geschil. Dergelijke verschillen staan een eenvoudige oplossing tijdens de onderhandelingen of bemiddeling dikwijls in de weg, doordat ze kunnen leiden tot uiteenlopende interpretaties van het geschil, vooroordelen tegen de andere partij, onwetendheid of verkeerde interpretatie van culturele uitingen en symbolen. Sociaal-economische-, gender- of taalproblemen komen hier vaak nog bovenop. Dergelijke verschillen vereisen specifieke onderhandelingsvormen en mediationstijlen. Hierbij kan bijvoorbeeld worden gedacht aan andere omgangsvormen, verbale- en non-verbale communicatie, het vermijden van te direct taalgebruik, alsook het schenken van speciale aandacht aan rituelen en context.
    Plurality of religion, plurality of justice : exploring the role of religion in disputing processes in Gorongosa, Central Mozambique
    Jacobs, C. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. von Benda-Beckmann, co-promotor(en): K. von Benda-Beckmann. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858010 - 262
    recht - rechtssystemen - sociale systemen - cultuur - religie - conflict - pluriforme samenleving - mozambique - christendom - conflictmanagement - law - legal systems - social systems - culture - religion - conflict - plural society - mozambique - christianity - conflict management
    Secularisation and modernisation theories long predicted the demise of supernatural forces in the lives of people after the Enlightenment. By the end of the twentieth century however, scholars slowly came to recognise that a belief in the supernatural was not disappearing at all but, in fact, gaining momentum in many parts of the world, especially in the global South. Religion is (back) at the centre of attention. The current attention, however, appears to be mainly to religion in a negative sense; to fundamentalism and religiously-oriented wars that are wreaking havoc in many parts of the world. Less effort has been made to come to an understanding of the role of religion in disputes that are not necessarily about religion. This dissertation explores the role of religion in disputing processes in Gorongosa, a district in Central Mozambique. Religion might provide important orientations to people on how to behave in everyday life vis-à-vis each other and vis-à-vis the spiritual world. But which normative orientations does religion provide to people in the prevention, mediation, and resolution of disputes?
    In Chapter 1, theoretical approaches towards religion and disputing are discussed. Central to religion is a belief in spiritual beings, which provides normative orientations to people. In the context of Gorongosa, Christianity and traditional religion play important roles. The latter is usually referred to simply as ‘tradition’ by people in Gorongosa. After the discussion of religion, follows a discussion of theoretical approaches towards processes of disputing in the context of legal pluralism. At the end of the chapter, the selection of Gorongosa, Mozambique for the study is explained and the field site is introduced.
    Chapter 2 provides a historical overview of key developments in Mozambique in general, and in Gorongosa in particular, especially in relation to governance and religion. Crucial legal changes are described and how they have affected the society of Gorongosa. It is shown that the first lasting evangelisation in Gorongosa started only in 1947, which is relatively recent. Therefore, many of the older people still vividly recall times in which traditional beliefs held a more central role.
    Chapter 3 further elaborates on the changes brought to society and individuals in this society from early Christianisation onwards. Today, plurality of religion is ingrained in both society and individuals. In this chapter, I describe the way in which people identify with tradition and Christianity in discourse and in praxis. Many people define themselves as Christians, but when looking for normative orientations to guide their behaviour, they frequently shift between tradition and Christianity. Both categories of religion play a role in providing normative orientations and spiritual security to people in a rapidly changing world. When people in Gorongosa, refer to religion, they are typically referring to Christianity, not to traditional religion. It is argued that this is partly due to missionary discourse that defines Christianity as the one and only religion. Not defining tradition in the same terms as Christianity makes the two categories more compatible. It also makes it easier for people to more efficiently shop at the religious marketplace when they are in search of normative orientations.
    In Chapter 4, I present a case study of a conflict over land in the Gorongosa district. At the centre of the conflict between the local population and the Gorongosa National Park was a mountain. For the Park management, the mountain was of interest because it is part of the park’s watershed and, it was argued, essential for the Park’s ecosystem. For the local population, the mountain is an important resource, with fertile lands due to the favourable climatic conditions. Additionally, certain parts of the mountain are believed to be sacred and access is tightly regulated due to ritual prescriptions laid down by the ancestral spirits. The case shows how people can empower themselves by referring to the spirits.
    The role of religious leaders in disputing processes is described in Chapter 5. The first part of the chapter describes the way in which spirit mediums participate in the disputing process by first revealing the spiritual truth and subsequently by retaliation. Only once these phases have been fulfilled, steps can be taken towards reconciliation. Special attention is paid to ‘the video’; an innovative method to reveal the truth that one of the spirit mediums in Gorongosa introduced early 2008. Within a couple of weeks, this method was fully accepted by large parts of the population. I show that the instrument was innovative, yet strongly rooted in tradition. The second part of the chapter shows the mediatory role of the pastors in disputes. Pastors follow a different path through the disputing process than spirit mediums, but they strive for a similar aim; reconciliation. To achieve reconciliation, pastors first pray and read the Bible with the disputing parties. The next step is mutual forgiveness. Once this is done, the way to reconciliation is open. Pastors mainly intervene in conflicts that people want to keep ‘within the house’.
    In Chapter 6, I move from the religious realms to the staterooms of disputing; the police station and the district court. While religion does appear in these settings, it is mainly traditional religion, via a reference to the spirits. People – plaintiffs and defendants alike – allocate responsibility to the spirits to justify or explain their behaviour and to defend their rights. Although many of the local state officials share a belief in ‘the spirits of tradition’ with their subjects, ‘spiritual arguments’ are seldom taken into consideration in the decision-making stage of the disputing process. I show that this sometimes leads to dissatisfaction among the disputants, who subsequently turn their backs on the state and search for a solution outside the control of the state.
    Neighbourhood secretaries, community courts, and régulos are more or less hybrid authorities who have more freedom to accommodate a wide range of arguments when they are consulted to mediate in conflicts. In Chapter 7, I show that these authorities not only assist in the mediation of a wider range of arguments, but that they themselves also actively invoke normative orientations provided by both Christianity and traditional religion. Although these shifts in orientations might seem inconsistent, I argue that they are in line with the shifting orientations of their subjects, as presented in Chapter 3.
    In Chapter 8, I will describe the ‘problem of order’ that the Mozambican state faces. In recent years, Mozambique has been increasingly affected by waves of ‘private justice’; often very violent forms of justice that citizens impose with their own hands. Targets of these acts of justice are mainly people suspected of crimes, witchcraft, or a combination of the two. I describe several of these incidents and discuss in which way they are linked to each other. I argue that this private justice should be understood as a questioning of the order that is imposed by the state. I use this phenomenon of private justice to show that to regain control the state is driven to cooperate with other authorities who are more trusted by the people. After independence, the Mozambican state has taken a strongly secular stance and rejected religion. Yet, the acts of private justice led the local state administration in Gorongosa to seek the cooperation of church leaders to indirectly sensitise the population. But typically, no such cooperation has been solicited from the spirit mediums. The state thus seems to be approaching the Christian leaders but much less the spirit mediums. This is despite the fact that both categories of religious leaders feel they are able to give their responses to these forms of violence meant to impose justice.
    In the concluding chapter of this dissertation, Chapter 9, I come back to the main question: what role does religion play in disputing processes? It is argued that religion plays a role not only through religious leaders who engage in the mediation of disputes but also via normative orientations that might prevent conflicts from taking place. Moreover, religion is not as absent in secular rooms of disputing as might be expected. Spirits, particularly, also play a role in disputes taken to the police station and district court, yet, their role is often downplayed as being insignificant. For complainants and defendants however, this is often a crucial aspect in a conflict and when not recognised within the secular rooms of the state, people can turn their backs to the state and find justice somewhere else. In conclusion, I argue that a plurality of religion contributes to a plurality of justice in Gorongosa via the different normative orientations it provides.
    Preventieve Mediation
    Frerks, G.E. ; Jongbloed, T. ; Kalff, S. ; Potters, L. ; Schonewille, A. - \ 2010
    Apeldoorn, Antwerpen : Maklu uitgevers - ISBN 9789046603482 - 219
    conflict - bedrijfsvoering - arbeidsbemiddeling - conflictmanagement - conflict - management - employment mediation - conflict management
    Mediation heeft inmiddels een erkende plaats verworven in de maatschappij als een effectieve manier om conflicten op te lossen, naast of in plaats van gerechtelijke procedures. Mediation kent ten opzichte van andere methoden van conflictoplossing dan ook verschillende voordelen. Een zwak punt blijft echter dat mediators vaak bij een conflict geroepen worden als het al enigszins uit de hand is gelopen en posities - al dan niet geharnast - zijn ingenomen. Daarom is er aandacht gekomen voor de mogelijkheid mediation in een vroeger stadium en - zo mogelijk - preventief toe te passen. In dit boek staat dit onderwerp van ‘preventieve mediation’ centraal. Preventieve mediation kan goed werken wanneer er ingewikkelde contracten of zogeheten ‘deals’ moeten worden gesloten. Door hier al (van te voren) mediators bij te halen kan de kans op een conflict later aanzienlijk worden verminderd door structureel al oplossingen of een bepaalde werkwijze of procedure in te bouwen voor eventuele toekomstige problemen. Ook bij familiebedrijven, huwelijken en andere samenlevingsvormen kan preventieve mediation hoge financiële en emotionele kosten, verstoorde verhoudingen en ingewikkelde procedures voorkomen, onder andere door ook een voorlichtingsaspect in de mediation mee te nemen. Hetzelfde geldt door in allerlei takken van economische bedrijvigheid en de gezondheidszorg ‘real time strategies’ voor conflictoplossing te volgen. Ten aanzien van het publieke domein wordt in dit boek behandeld hoe verschillende soorten van kennis onder uiteenlopende betrokkenen op een zinvolle wijze kunnen worden betrokken bij grote openbare projecten en de daaraan gekoppelde complexe bestuurlijke processen, leidend tot het idee van ‘kennismediation’. Verder worden in dit boek internationale ervaringen met mediation besproken. Dit gebeurt vooral vanuit het oogpunt hoe de effectiviteit en kwaliteit daarvan elders worden gewaarborgd. Ten slotte wordt ingegaan op de uitvoering van mediation in de praktijk. Eén auteur vergelijkt mediation met vechtkunst, terwijl een ander de rol van humor in mediation bespreekt.
    Reflectie op mediation
    Frerks, G.E. ; Jongbloed, T. ; Kalff, S. ; Potters, L. ; Schonewille, A. ; Uitslag, M. - \ 2009
    Apeldoorn-Antwerpen : Maklu - ISBN 9789046602751
    conflict - rechtssystemen - psychologie - nederland - arbeidsbemiddeling - conflictmanagement - burgerlijk recht - conflict - legal systems - psychology - netherlands - employment mediation - conflict management - civil law
    Is mediation een gereedschapskist gevuld met vaardigheden is of een al dan niet wetenschappelijk onderbouwde methode? Dat is de rode draad in het tweede door de Universiteit Utrecht en Hogeschool Utrecht georganiseerde Mediationcongres, waarvan deze publicatie de neerslag is. Vanuit uiteenlopende invalshoeken hebben de sprekers dit onderwerp belicht. Wetenschappelijk is er relatief nog maar weinig bekend over mediation. Het verschijnsel mediation is een breed en gedeeltelijk nog onontgonnen terrein voor wat betreft wetenschappelijk en toegepast onderzoek. Een relevante vraag op het terrein van de toepassing is of hetgeen is afgesproken in een mediation door betrokkenen een aantal jaren later nog positief gewaardeerd wordt. Mediators vinden mediation een mooie methode voor confl ictoplossing. Vinden hun cliënten dit ook? Naast mediation en spiritualiteit, de persoon van de mediator, de gewenste vaardigheden van de mediator en de aandacht voor onderzoek op het terrein van mediation is ook de stand van zaken met betrekking tot mediation in Nederland in deze uitgave behandeld.
    Partners in peace : discourses and practices of civil-society peacebuilding
    Leeuwen, M. van - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049562 - 252
    oorlog - conflict - sociale onrust - preventie - internationale samenwerking - ontwikkelingsbeleid - hedendaagse samenleving - sudan - rwanda - burundi - democratische republiek kongo - guatemala - peace building - vrede - maatschappelijk middenveld - internationale conflicten - politieke conflicten - sociaal conflict - conflictmanagement - war - conflict - social unrest - prevention - international cooperation - development policy - contemporary society - sudan - rwanda - burundi - congo democratic republic - guatemala - peacebuilding - peace - civil society - international conflicts - political conflicts - social conflict - conflict management
    This study looks into images, and assumptions, of civil-society peacebuilding and its support by international development organizations, and how this relates to politics and practices of peacebuilding on the ground. It is built principally on a series of case studies of peacebuilding interventions and organizations working in southern Sudan, Burundi and the African Great Lakes Region, and Guatemala. This study underscores the importance of implicit assumptions in contemporary peacebuilding work. International support to civil-society peacebuilding is often guided by simplified notions on conflict and the potential roles of civil society in bringing about peace. To arrive at better peacebuilding practices, it is necessary to know more about what civil society is, how it works, and how the assumptions motivating its support work out in practice. This requires exploring the everyday peacebuilding practices of civil-society organizations. In particular, attention needs be given to the organizing practices of peacebuilding organizations, how they operate and develop, to the different meanings attributed to peacebuilding by the diverse parties involved, and to how understanding peacebuilding is part of organizational politics.
    In fieldwork and analysis, I applied an actor-oriented approach. Such an approach helps to clarify how policies and interventions of organizations result from the everyday practices of organizations and the people and authorities of the communities where they implement their programs. A core notion in this study is discourse, referring to collective practices of ordering or ‘framing’ in the minds of actors, who make sense of their experiences through coherent schemes. Discourses are often seen as implying power: as dominant traditions of looking at the world which eliminate alternative visions, or as affecting social relations through diverse ways. Organizations may use discourses strategically, for example, to legitimize interventions. Discourse can be highly political, promoting particular agendas for development.
    While acknowledging the power of discourse, this study focuses on discourse as a cognitive process. To be able to operate and to respond to the complexity of conflict and peacebuilding, development organizations simplify reality. But simplifying reality always implies that parts of reality are lost or remain underexposed. In the case studies, I reflect on the consequences of simplification, and explore how development organizations can better take account of the necessary simplifications they make. In practice, it is often difficult to separate the cognitive exercise of ordering from the politics of ordering - the two often interact or go closely together. Simplification always implies political choices by prioritizing certain problems and interpreting particular interventions as the most appropriate. The study argues that to understand ordering requires giving equal attention to the several attributes of discourse. This research approach is elaborated upon in chapter 1.
    Chapter 1 also reflects on my experiences with an interactive research approach. Through such an interactive approach, I aimed to develop a sense of ownership over questions and recommendations by the civil-society organizations involved in the research and so enhance their peacebuilding work. In my experience, an interactive approach enhances the depth of ethnography and analysis of findings. Carrying out research with (instead of only on) organizations facilitates relations of trust and witnessing organizing practices from within organizations, and enables discussing findings with research partners. It stands out in this study that rather than a research methodology, the interactive character of research should be seen as an intention. The extent to which research becomes interactive cannot be planned, nor assured by the adoption of particular interactive methodologies. Rather, the interactive character of research develops with the advancement of collaboration. Crucial to this process is mutual commitment, which depends on the flexibility of the research and research partners, the expected benefits for the participants, the extent to which expectations are satisfied along the way, and the enthusiasm of individual participants. The interactive character of research is also affected by organizational changes and changing interests. Practically, this means that a researcher needs to ensure that space for participation and non-participation is maintained throughout the process.
    The subsequent two chapters analyse international discourses and policies of peacebuilding, and look at a general level at how organizations make sense of conflict. Chapter 2 analyzes how over the 1990s, peacebuilding discourses developed that attributed a major role to civil society in realizing peace. Though seeming consensus on peacebuilding evaporated with the anti-terrorist policies after 9/11, and peacebuilding roles taken on by international NGOs and local civil-society organizations were reclaimed by donor governments and multi-lateral agencies, many international and local organizations continued to be involved in peacebuilding. Nonetheless, consensus on what peacebuilding should look like remains absent. Development actors differ considerably in prioritizing particular domains, and do not agree on the sequencing and interdependence of particular interventions. Moreover, practices of civil-society peacebuilding implicitly build on strong assumptions about the roles civil society, the state and international actors should play in peacebuilding and governance.
    Chapter 3 analyses how those policy trends and emerging discourses regarding peacebuilding and civil society are reflected in the work of particular international development organizations. The chapter demonstrates that peacebuilding is not just an opportunistically applied policy label but has acquired different meanings in practice. Definitions of peacebuilding in policy strategies reflect the different backgrounds of organizations. At the same time, local conditions set limits and pose specific opportunities for peacebuilding. The chapter illustrates that rather than that international development organizations change their practices when new discourses come into fashion and replace previous ones, practices of organizations follow slower. Newer and older discourses continue to be relevant in the practices of organizations. This provides room for manoeuvre to organizations who find in this multiple grounds to legitimize a large range of intervention strategies. Policies are an ongoing process, and are shaped along the way by diverse participants, a theme that is elaborated upon also in the next chapters.
    The remainder of the study discusses case studies of the everyday practices of civil-society peacebuilding in a variety of countries. Chapter 4 analyses the organizing practices of a local women’s peace organization in southern Sudan. The case underscores how the practice of policy making and implementation is more related to the internal dynamics of an organization than to the planned objectives of the intervention. The chapter highlights that to better understand civil-society peacebuilding we need qualitative approaches that give central attention to dynamics of peace organizations. These include the history of an organization and the context in which it develops, the way conflict is experienced in the every day life of local people, the way how actors in and around organizations give meaning to the organization and its practices, and the politics of organizations. The chapter outlines such an approach, presenting five properties of local peace organizations that need be taken into account when supporting local peacebuilding.
    The next two case studies look in particular at how the framing of conflict situations works through in interventions. Chapter 5 analyses how conflict and peacebuilding in the Great Lakes Region are increasingly framed in regional terms. In practice, however, local and international organizations have difficulty in analysing the regional character of conflict and arriving at collaborative regional strategies. Moreover, local civil-society organizations are deeply embedded in the politics of regional conflict. Consequently, the shift to regional peacebuilding approaches remains more theoretical than practical. A regional framing of conflict helps to understand conflict, but fails to inform intervention practice.
    Chapter 6 discusses the consequences of understanding land disputes in Burundi as short term problem, resulting from the massive return of refugees and displaced to their home communities. This particular framing of land disputes urged international and local organizations to initiate programmes for strengthening the capacities of local conflict resolving institutions. The case material shows that though the return of refugees was a factor in disputes about land, there is a lot of continuity between conflict-related and regular land disputes in Burundi. Many land disputes require first and foremost solutions at the political level, rather than at the local level. Moreover, the question was whether the strengthening of local dispute resolving mechanisms would enhance their legitimacy and accessibility, and could guarantee the protection of vulnerable people. While a framing of local land disputes in terms of an emergency helped to define interventions, this framing neglected the long-term, structural character of many land disputes.
    Chapter 7 tackles the question of what the official ending of violence implies for the roles, policies and practices of civil-society organizations. It discusses how Guatemalan civil-society organizations deal with agrarian conflict, ten years after the 1996 peace agreements. The case study shows how international organizations tend to assume that the peace agreements implied a switch to a peaceful situation, in which state institutions function, and civil society can effectively participate in the democratic process. This imagining makes them to assume that civil society now has to switch from protest to proposal, and to neglect the slow process of societal transformation in a post-conflict setting. The chapter argues that the pace and extent of societal transformation has a strong influence on how organizations can develop. It also illustrates that framing conflict and intervention is a continuous process, in which organizational politics play an important role. Finally, the chapter raises some questions on the overall roles of the international community in realizing peace. It argues that the increasing global influence on national governance processes effectively diminishes the power of local citizens to demand accountability from their governments for the processes of change initiated.
    Chapter 8, the conclusion of the study, argues the importance of looking at the everyday practices of peacebuilding. It points out how international discourses on civil-society peacebuilding have resonated in the policies of international development organizations. Over the last fifteen years many organizations have come to reflect on how their programmes contribute to peaceful societies. What emerged was not a circumscribed and shared peacebuilding agenda, but a shared preoccupation with the impacts of diverse interventions on peace and conflict. The precise reasons why organizations apply the term, what peacebuilding does and how it works cannot be read from mandates and policy documents. It requires one to look at the everyday politics and practices of organizations. The meaning of peacebuilding results from everyday negotiations of staff-members and stakeholders at different levels in the aid-chain, each with their own interests and perspectives. To understand peacebuilding, one needs to understand the history of organizations and individual staff members, and the multiple identities and realities organizations represent to the people participating in them, and explore the roles of both organizational politics and conflict politics in defining interventions.
    The conclusion also poses pertinent questions on the assumptions underlying contemporary peacebuilding work, in particular on the roles of civil society and governance. The particular roles civil-society organizations may play in peacebuilding and their most effective contributions to governance strongly depend on local conditions, and on how those influence organizations. International development organizations tend to have particular images of what civil society should do and look like and are eager to support only those organizations fitting their image. International support to local civil society needs to take more account of prevailing forms of governance and the history and development of civil society in a particular context.
    Finally, the conclusion lines out different processes through which organizations arrive at particular framings of the reality in which they operate. Such framings simplify reality in ways that create possibilities for intervention or restrict them. Framing involves cognitive processes of ordering and creating routine, as much as organizational politics. Organizations tend to separate emergency from normality, to focus on techniques of intervention, and to interpret contexts and peacebuilding interventions according to their own frames of reference and particular expertise. At the same time, organizational politics –intentionally or unintentionally– play a strong role in ordering. Organizations promote particular representations of reality that are in line with their possibilities for intervention, and that legitimize them to intervene, and that present their interventions in a-political terms.
    The chapter underscores the high expectations international organizations often have of their intervention. The study points to the need to observe modesty and connect to local agendas. Rather than to work on grand schemes of peacebuilding and taking the lead in societal transformation, they need to be partners in peace.


    Land disputes and local conflict resolution mechanisms in Burundi
    Leeuwen, M. van; Haartsen, L. - \ 2005
    Bujumbura, Wageningen : CED Caritas, Disaster Studies - 16
    landgebruik - landbouwgrond - conflict - vluchtelingen - grondeigendom - burundi - conflictmanagement - land use - agricultural land - conflict - refugees - land ownership - burundi - conflict management
    Over the year 2004, CED-CARITAS has been assisting the return of Burundian refugees and accompanied their reinsertion in their original communities. The progressive return of refugees accentuates the already existing pressure on agricultural land. Convinced that the question of land property is a key factor for sustainable peace, the Catholic Church of Burundi would like to start a project for ‘accompanying the peace process and reinsertion of victims in Burundi through the identification of land properties in dispute’. The first phase of the project consists of an identification and analysis of disputed land properties, to provide precise information on the nature and magnitude of the actually existing disputes about land. This research is meant to help decision takers in defining strategies for the prevention and peaceful resolution of disputes arising from the return of refugees. Hence, in cooperation with the Commission Episcopal Justice & Paix and its sub-offices in the communities, CED-Caritas has conducted a quantitative enquiry to identify all land problems and disputes existing in the different parishes of Burundi.
    Les conflits liés à la terre et les mécanismes locaux de résolution des conflits au Burundi
    Leeuwen, M. van; Haartsen, L. - \ 2005
    [S.l.] : S.n. - 21
    landgebruik - meervoudig landgebruik - conflict - grondeigendom - probleemoplossing - burundi - conflictmanagement - land use - multiple land use - conflict - land ownership - problem solving - burundi - conflict management
    Land disputes and local conflict resolution mechanisms in Burundi
    Leeuwen, M. van; Haartsen, L. - \ 2005
    Bujumbura, Wageningen : CED Caritas, Disaster Studies - 80
    landgebruik - landbouwgrond - conflict - vluchtelingen - grondeigendom - burundi - conflictmanagement - land use - agricultural land - conflict - refugees - land ownership - burundi - conflict management
    Over the year 2004, CED-CARITAS has been assisting the return of Burundian refugees and accompanied their reinsertion in their original communities. The progressive return of refugees accentuates the already existing pressure on agricultural land. Convinced that the question of land property is a key factor for sustainable peace, the Catholic Church of Burundi would like to start a project for ‘accompanying the peace process and reinsertion of victims in Burundi through the identification of land properties in dispute’. The first phase of the project consists of an identification and analysis of disputed land properties, to provide precise information on the nature and magnitude of the actually existing disputes about land. This research is meant to help decision takers in defining strategies for the prevention and peaceful resolution of disputes arising from the return of refugees. Hence, in cooperation with the Commission Episcopal Justice & Paix and its sub-offices in the communities, CED-Caritas has conducted a quantitative enquiry to identify all land problems and disputes existing in the different parishes of Burundi.
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