Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Invloed van vaste rijpaden op de bodem
    Balen, D.J.M. van - \ 2017
    landbouw - biologische landbouw - akkerbouw - grondbewerking - bodemdeeltjes - bodemverdichting - bodemsamenstelling - bodemstructuur - grondbewerking gericht op bodemconservering - bodemkwaliteit - rijspoorverdichtingen - verdichting - agriculture - organic farming - arable farming - tillage - aggregates - soil compaction - soil composition - soil structure - conservation tillage - soil quality - tractor pans - compaction
    Landbewerking: video over de invloed van vaste rijpaden op de bodem
    NKG met woelen gunstig voor gewasgroei
    Balen, Derk van - \ 2016
    tillage - minimum tillage - reduced tillage - conservation tillage - soil structure - crop yield - soil quality - soil management - soil compaction - circular agriculture
    Soil carbon storage and stratification under different tillage/residue-management practices in double rice cropping system
    Chen, Z. ; Zhang, H. ; dikgwatlhe, S.B. ; Xue, J. ; Qiu, K. ; Tang, H. ; Chen, F. - \ 2015
    Journal of Integrative Agriculture 14 (2015)8. - ISSN 2095-3119 - p. 1551 - 1560.
    no-tillage - organic-matter - conservation tillage - climate-change - sequestration - impacts - agriculture - phosphorus - nitrogen
    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils as climate-change-mitigating strategy has become an area of focus by the scientific community in relation to soil management. This study was conducted to determine the temporal effect of different tillage systems and residue management on distribution, storage and stratification of SOC, and the yield of rice under double rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system in the southern China. A tillage experiment was conducted in the southern China during 2005-2011, including plow tillage with residue removed (PT0), plow tillage with residue retention (PT), rotary tillage with residue retention (RT), and no-till with residue retention on the surface (NT). The soil samples were obtained at the harvesting of late rice in October of 2005, 2007 and 2011. Multiple-year residue return application significantly increased rice yields for the two rice-cropping systems; yields of early and late rice were higher under RT than those under other tillage systems in both years in 2011. Compared with PT0, SOC stocks were increased in soil under NT at 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depths by 33.8, 4.1, 6.6, and 53.3%, respectively, in 2011. SOC stocks under RT were higher than these under other tillage treatments at 0-30 cm depth. SOC stocks in soil under PT were higher than those under PT0 in the 0-5 and 20-30 cm soil layers. Therefore, crop residues played an important role in SOC management, and improvement of soil quality. In the 0-20 cm layer, the stratification ratio (SR) of SOC followed the order NT>RT>PT>PT0; when the 0-30 cm layer was considered, NT also had the highest SR of SOC, but the SR of SOC under PT was higher than that under RT with a multiple-year tillage practice. Therefore, the notion that conservation tillage lead to higher SOC stocks and soil quality than plowed systems requires cautious scrutiny. Nevertheless, some benefits associated with RT system present a greater potential for its adoption in view of the multiple-year environmental sustainability under double rice cropping system in the southern China.
    3 vragen aan: Joanneke Spruijt, onderzoeker WUR (interview)
    Spruijt, J. - \ 2015
    Landbouwmechanisatie 66 (2015)4. - ISSN 0023-7795 - p. 9 - 9.
    akkerbouw - grondbewerking gericht op bodemconservering - grondbewerking - kosten-batenanalyse - veldproeven - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodemstructuur na grondbewerking - duurzaam bodemgebruik - opbrengst - arable farming - conservation tillage - tillage - cost benefit analysis - field tests - soil fertility - tilth - sustainable land use - outturn
    Het antwoord op 3 vragen over Kosten en baten van NKG bewerking op basis van verschillende onderzoeken in Nederland
    Grond bewerken op juiste snelheid : PPO 't Kompas
    Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, - \ 2015
    Boerderij 100 (2015)27. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 82 - 85.
    akkerbouw - toegepast onderzoek - lichte kleigronden - verstuiven - grondbewerking gericht op bodemconservering - mestinjectie - arable farming - applied research - silt loam soils - dusting - conservation tillage - soil injection
    Op lichte gronden kan de akkerbouwer schade door stuiven of slemp voorkomen door een combinatie van maatregelen. Dat blijkt uit onderzoek van PPO en Aequator.
    Earthworm assemblages as affected by field margin strips and tillage intensity: An on-farm approach
    Crittenden, S. ; Huerta, E. ; Goede, R.G.M. de; Pulleman, M.M. - \ 2015
    European Journal of Soil Biology 66 (2015). - ISSN 1164-5563 - p. 49 - 56.
    conservation tillage - land-use - soil - population - communities - diversity - abundance - systems - growth - term
    Earthworm species contribute to soil ecosystem functions in varying ways. Important soil functions like structural maintenance and nutrient cycling are affected by earthworms, thus it is essential to understand how arable farm management influences earthworm species. One aim of arable field margin strips and non-inversion tillage is to enhance agrobiodiversity, however their influence on earthworm species assemblages remains unclear. In particular, on-farm studies conducted over multiple years that capture variability across the landscape are rare. The current study monitored earthworm species assemblages on 4 farms in Hoeksche Waard, The Netherlands, from 2010 to 2012. It was hypothesised that arable field margin strips (FM) and non-inversion tillage (NIT; a reduced tillage system that loosens subsoil at 30-35 cm depth) would have higher earthworm species abundances (epigeics and anecics in particular), soil organic matter, and soil moisture than adjacent mouldboard ploughing (MP) fields, and that earthworm numbers would decrease with distance away from FM into arable fields (MP only). FM contained a mean total earthworm abundance of 284 m-2 and biomass of 84 g m-2 whereas adjacent MP arable fields had only 164 earthworms m-2 and 31 g m-2. Aporrectodea rosea, Lumbricus rubellus, Lumbricus terrestris, and Lumbricus castaneus were significantly more abundant in FM than adjacent arable soil under MP. However, no decreasing trend with distance from FM was observed in earthworm species abundances. A tillage experiment initiated on the farms with FM showed that relative to MP, NIT significantly increased mean total earthworm abundance by 34% to 275 m-2 and mean total earthworm biomass by 15% to 51 g m-2 overall sampling dates and farms. L. rubellus, A. rosea, and L. terrestris were significantly more abundant overall in NIT than MP. FM and NIT positively affected earthworm species richness and abundances and it is noteworthy that these effects could be observed despite variation in environmental conditions and soil properties between samplings, farms, and crops. Higher top-soil organic matter and less physical disturbance in FM and NIT likely contributed to higher earthworm species richness and abundances. The anecic species L. terrestris (linked to water infiltration and organic matter incorporation) was more abundant in FM, but densities remained very low in arable soil, irrespective of tillage system.
    Niet-ploegen vergt anders denken
    Meijering, Luuk ; Balen, D.J.M. van - \ 2014
    Boerderij/Akkerbouw 99 (2014)26. - ISSN 0169-0116 - p. 4 - 7.
    akkerbouw - cultuurmethoden zonder grondbewerking - proeven op proefstations - veldproeven - teeltsystemen - grondbewerking gericht op bodemconservering - bodemdichtheid - fysische bodemeigenschappen - biologische landbouw - gereduceerde grondbewerking - bodembiodiversiteit - groenbemesters - arable farming - no-tillage - station tests - field tests - cropping systems - conservation tillage - soil density - soil physical properties - organic farming - reduced tillage - soil biodiversity - green manures
    Om het maximale voordeel uit niet-kerende grondbewerking te halen heeft de teler andere referenties nodig zegt Derk van Balen van het PPO agv. Op het biologische proefbedrijf Broekemahoeve wordt daarnaar gezocht. In het project Basis (Broekemahoeve Applied Soil Innovation Systems) worden alternatieve grondbewerkingssystemen getest en verbeterd, en landbouwkundige en milieukundige voor- en nadelen van deze systemen beoordeeld.
    Water management for rainfed maize in semi-arid Zimbabwe
    Nyakudya, I.W. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738981 - 148
    waterbeheer - zea mays - regenafhankelijke landbouw - akkerbouw - semi-aride klimaatzones - zimbabwe - grondbewerking gericht op bodemconservering - water management - zea mays - rainfed agriculture - arable farming - semiarid zones - zimbabwe - conservation tillage
    Reduced tillage and cover crops improve water capture and reduce erosion of fine textured soils in raised bed tomato systems
    Alliaume, F. ; Rossing, W.A.H. ; Tittonell, P.A. ; Jorge, G. ; Dogliotti, S. - \ 2014
    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 183 (2014). - ISSN 0167-8809 - p. 127 - 137.
    lycopersicon-esculentum mill. - use efficiency - conservation tillage - nitrogen-fertilization - hydraulic-properties - irrigation regimes - residue management - processing tomato - vegetable farms - organic-matter
    Smallholder vegetable farmers tend to specialize and intensify their production to secure income. In south Uruguay, frequent tillage and little or no inputs of organic matter have resulted in soil degradation that threatens soil productivity and systems sustainability. This study aimed to quantify the impact of tillage, crop residue management, and organic matter incorporation on runoff, soil erosion, water dynamics, and productivity of a raised bed tomato-oat rotation system. A field trial was set up in 2010 and replicated in 2011 in a temperate climate on a fine textured soil including four soil management practices: reduced tillage with a cover crop left as mulch and chicken manure incorporation (RT), conventional tillage with a cover crop used as green manure and chicken manure incorporation (CGM), conventional tillage with chicken manure incorporation (CChM), and conventional tillage system as control (CT). RT decreased soil erosion and runoff by more than 50% compared with the three conventional tillage systems. We proposed a non-linear model to estimate the reduction in runoff due to stubble as a function of rainfall, with locally adjusted parameters. Yields under CChM were the largest both years, and more than 50% greater than under RT. Causes of low yields under RT are most likely poor crop establishment under the organic cover in combination with N immobilization. Compared with CChM water use efficiency under RT was reduced by 43% during the first season, and by 35% under both RT and CGM during the second season. In a dry season, RT increased soil water capture by 20% (45 mm) compared with conventional tillage treatments. This is of special interest in these systems as it may result in a larger cultivated area of irrigation-dependent crops on a farm, thus building resilience to climate change. Future research on soil and water conserving practices in vegetable production systems should particularly address crop establishment and N management to avoid yield penalties under reduced tillage.
    Mitigation options to reduce phosphorus losses from the agricultural sector and improve surface water quality: a review
    Schoumans, O.F. ; Chardon, W.J. ; Bechmann, M. ; Gascuel-Odoux, C. ; Hofman, G. ; Kronvang, B. ; Rubaek, G.H. ; Ulen, B. ; Dorioz, J.M. - \ 2014
    Science of the Total Environment 468-469 (2014). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 1255 - 1266.
    semiarid altered wetland - blue-green-algae - subsurface drainage - nutrient losses - fresh-water - particulate phosphorus - conservation tillage - constructed wetlands - manure application - buffer strips
    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) obliges Member States to improve the quality of surface water and groundwater. The measures implemented to date have reduced the contribution of point sources of pollution, and hence diffuse pollution from agriculture has become more important. In many catchments thewater quality remains poor. COST Action 869was an EU initiative to improve surfacewater quality that ran from2006 to 2011, in which 30 countries participated. Its main aim was a scientific evaluation of the suitability and costeffectiveness of options for reducing nutrient loss from rural areas to surface waters at catchment scale, including the feasibility of the options under different climatic and geographical conditions. This paper gives an overview of various categories of mitigation options in relation to phosphorus (P). The individual measures are described in terms of their mode of action, applicability, effectiveness, time frame, environmental side-effects (N cycling) and cost. In total, 83 measures were evaluated in COST Action 869.
    Influence of reduced tillage on earthworm and microbial communities under organic arable farming
    Kuntz, M. ; Berner, A. ; Gattinger, A. ; Scholberg, J.M.S. ; Mäder, P. ; Pfiffner, L. - \ 2013
    Pedobiologia 56 (2013)4-6. - ISSN 0031-4056 - p. 251 - 260.
    fumigation-extraction method - conservation tillage - cropping systems - lumbricus-terrestris - ecosystem services - soil fertility - biomass - management - abundance - dynamics
    Although reduced tillage is an agricultural practice reported to decrease soil erosion and external inputs while enhancing soil fertility, it has still rarely been adopted by European organic farmers. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term interactive effects of tillage (conventional (CT) vs. reduced (RT)) and fertilization (slurry (S) vs. composted manure/slurry (MCS)) on earthworms and microbial communities in a clay soil under spelt in an organic 6-year crop rotation. Earthworm populations (species, density and biomass, cocoons) were investigated by handsorting the soil nine years after initial implementation of the treatments. Soil microbial carbon (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) were measured by chloroform-fumigation extraction and a simplified phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used to separate for populations of bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Significantly increased total earthworm density in RT plots was mainly attributed to increased numbers of juveniles. Moreover, we found five times more cocoons with RT. Species richness was not affected by the treatments, but tillage treatments had differentially affected populations at the species-level. In addition, cluster analysis at the community level revealed two distinct groups of plots in relation to tillage treatments. In RT plots Cmic increased in the 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm soil layers, while PLFA concentrations indicative of Gram-negative bacteria, fungi and protozoa only increased in the topsoil. Lower bacteria-to-fungi ratios in the upper soil layer of RT plots indicated a shift to fungal-based decomposition of organic matter whereas a higher Cmic-to-Corg ratio pointed towards enhanced substrate availability. Slurry application decreased microbial biomass and enhanced density of juvenile anecic earthworms but overall fertilization effect was weak and no interactions with tillage were found. In conclusion, tillage is a major driver in altering communities of earthworms and microorganisms in arable soils. The use of reduced tillage provides an approach for eco-intensification by enhancing inherent soil biota functions under organic arable farming.
    European Perspectives on the Adoption of Nonchemical Weed Management in Reduced-Tillage Systems for Arable Crops
    Melander, B. ; Munier-Jolain, N.M. ; Charles, R. ; Wirth, J. ; Schwarz, J. ; Weide, R.Y. van der; Bonin, L. ; Jensen, P.K. ; Kudsk, P.K. - \ 2013
    Weed Technology 27 (2013)1. - ISSN 0890-037X - p. 231 - 240.
    thistle cirsium-arvense - population-dynamics - oilseed rape - no-till - alopecurus-myosuroides - herbicide performance - conservation tillage - cropping systems - stubble tillage - spring barley
    Noninversion tillage with tine- or disc-based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape, and maize in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use might hinder further expansion of reduced-tillage systems. European agriculture is asked to become less dependent on pesticides and promote crop protection programs based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. Conventional noninversion tillage systems rely entirely on the availability of glyphosate products, and herbicide consumption is mostly higher compared to plow-based cropping systems. Annual grass weeds and catchweed bedstraw often constitute the principal weed problems in noninversion tillage systems, and crop rotations concurrently have very high proportions of winter cereals. There is a need to redesign cropping systems to allow for more diversification of the crop rotations to combat these weed problems with less herbicide input. Cover crops, stubble management strategies, and tactics that strengthen crop growth relative to weed growth are also seen as important components in future IPM systems, but their impact in noninversion tillage systems needs validation. Direct mechanical weed control methods based on rotating weeding devices such as rotary hoes could become useful in reduced-tillage systems where more crop residues and less workable soils are more prevalent, but further development is needed for effective application. Owing to the frequent use of glyphosate in reduced-tillage systems, perennial weeds are not particularly problematic. However, results from organic cropping systems clearly reveal that desisting from glyphosate use inevitably leads to more problems with perennials, which need to be addressed in future research.
    You can’t eat your mulch and have it too : cropping system design and tradeoffs around biomass use for Conservation Agriculture in Cameroon and Madagascar
    Naudin, K. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): E. Scopel. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734341 - 220
    grondbewerking gericht op bodemconservering - teeltsystemen - dekgewassen - mulchen - rotaties - madagascar - conservation tillage - cropping systems - cover crops - mulching - rotations - madagascar

    Conservation agriculture is defined by three main principles: minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover and crop rotations. CA is promoted as a promising technology for Africa, but to date, only a small area under CA fully complies with the above three principles. CA has both short and long term effects on crop productivity and sustainability through the modification of various agroecological functions. These functions are related to the quantity of crop and cover crop biomass produced and kept as mulch. One of the main challenges in designing CA for smallholder farming systems in developing countries is the competing uses for biomass, in particular for feeding livestock. The main difficulties are linking the efficiency of agroecological functions to varying degrees of biomass export, and evaluating the performance of cropping systems at farm level, which is where the decisions are made. In North Cameroon the quantity of biomass produced in the field has been doubled by associating a cover crop with a cereal crop. Part of the biomass was consumed by cattle during the dry season but the quantity of mulch that remained on the ground had a positive impact on the cotton water balance in the driest part of North Cameroon. In the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar, the soil cover in rice fields under CA can vary, from 30% to 84% even in the same type of field depending on the plant used as cover crop, the quantity of biomass produced and management of the residues. The range is even greater when different kinds of fields are taken into consideration. Of course, the different agroecological functions can be fulfilled to a greater or lesser extent depending on the amount of available biomass and the resulting soil cover. The relationship between the quantity of biomass and soil cover has been calculated for different kinds of residues. We used these relationships to explore the variability of soil cover that could be generated in farmers’ fields, and to estimate how much of the biomass could be removed to feed livestock while leaving sufficient soil cover. Our results showed that under farmers’ conditions in Madagascar, the production and conservation of biomass was not always sufficient to fulfill all the agroecological functions of mulch. For example, partial export of biomass to be used as forage might have no effect in terms of erosion control but may considerably reduce the efficiency of physical weed control. As the balance between the potential benefits of exporting biomass and the efficiency of agroecological functions varies depending on the constraints and goals of each farm, we chose to analyze the potential benefits of exporting aboveground biomass to feed cattle at farm level. To this end, we modeled different size farms in Madagascar to investigate the relation between raising dairy cows and efficient application of CA. Our aim was to explore trade-offs and synergies between combinations of CA practices (i.e. different amounts of biomass exported) and the size of dairy cow herds (varying biomass needs and animal production). Changing the percentage of soil cover in CA plots did not significantly modify total farm net income, as this was more influenced by the characteristics of the milk market. Overall, CA systems can be beneficial for dairy cow farmers thanks to the forage produced, although the milk market and thus the value of biomass for forage, has a major influence on the way CA can be implemented at field level. To explore the range of possible cropping systems in a given biophysical situation, we created a tool named PRACT (Prototyping rotation and association with cover crop and no till). We used this tool to organize expert knowledge on crops and cover crops, biophysical characteristics of fields and agronomic rules and to link them using Malagasy conditions. PRACT generate a list of cropping systems, i.e. crops and cover crops and their sequences over three years. These cropping systems are characterized by their potential agroecological functions and crop production. The cropping systems are first selected based on the biophysical requirements of plants, plant compatibility and agronomic rules. But all the systems are not suitable for every kind of farm. Consequently using PRACT outputs, a second selection of cropping systems can be made based on the characteristics of the cropping system, i.e. crop production and agroecological functions. In this way, the selected cropping systems can be reduced to a number that can reasonably be handled by technicians and farmers. Finally, we recommend a more rigorous definition and characterization of treatments when comparing CA to conventional systems to obtain a clearer view of the link between the impact of CA, crop rotations and the level of biomass production. Key words: conservation agriculture, cropping system design, optimization, cover crops, cotton, rice, Cameroon, Madagascar

    Tillage and crop residue effects on rainfed wheat and maize production in Northern China
    Wang Xiaobin, ; Wu Huijin, ; Dai Kuai, ; Zhang Dingchen, ; Feng Donghui, ; Zhao Quansheng, ; Wu Xueping, ; Jin Ke, ; Cai Diangxiong, ; Oenema, O. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. - \ 2012
    Field Crops Research 132 (2012). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 106 - 116.
    conservation tillage - management-practices - thermal-properties - soil-water - no-tillage - yield - availability - agriculture - adoption - stubble
    Dryland farming in the dry semi-humid regions of northern China is dominated by mono-cropping systems with mainly maize (Zea mays L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum), constrained by low and variable rainfall, and by improper management practices. Addressing these problems, field studies on tillage and residue management for winter wheat and spring maize were conducted at 4 sites in Linfen, Tunliu and Shouyang (Shanxi province) and Luoyang (Henan province). These studies (a.o.) explored the impacts of different tillage and residue application methods on soil physical conditions, water storage, water use, water use efficiency (WUE) and crop yields of wheat and maize. An analysis of the results of these studies is presented. Conservation tillage, comprising no-till as well as reduced tillage practices (subsoiling, deep ploughing) showed benefits which were more prominent in combination with residue application. Benefits compared to conventional tillage were found in the form of improved soil physical conditions, such as higher topsoil bulk densities but lower subsoil bulk densities. This resulted in a better water storage during the summer fallow or rainy season in winter wheat fields, and a better water conservation and soil protection in spring maize fields. Compared to conventional methods, reduced tillage gave yields around 13–16% higher in spring maize and round 9–37% higher in winter wheat. Yields under no-till were very close to those from conventional methods. Surface application of crop residue for maize was found to increase the risk for delayed seedling emergence, because of low temperatures, leading to a recommendation for incorporation of residue in combination with reduced tillage. For winter wheat, subsoiling in combination with straw mulching after harvest in summer every other two or three year, and no-till seeding is a promising practice for sandier soils and low rainfall conditions. For heavier clay loam soils, deep ploughing with straw mulching after wheat harvest in summer every other two or three year, and no-till seeding practice is recommended. For spring maize, deep ploughing with straw and fertilizers incorporation after harvest in fall, and no-till seeding practices are recommended. Subsoiling or no-till with residue mulching after harvest in fall, and no-till seeding practices in spring are also promising practices, the latter only in situations where low spring temperatures are not a problem. Continuous no-till is not recommended
    Long-term effects of conservation soil management in Saria, Burkina Faso, West Africa
    Zacharie, Z. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): A. Mando; B. Ouattara. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858362 - 142
    bodembeheer - grondbewerking gericht op bodemconservering - bodemfauna - bodemeigenschappen - sorghum - rotaties - veldwaterbalans - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - soil management - conservation tillage - soil fauna - soil properties - sorghum - rotations - field water balance - africa south of sahara

    The negative degradation spiral that currently leads to deteriorating soil properties in African drylands is a serious problem that limits food production and threatensthe livelihoods of the people. Nutrient depletion and water and wind erosion are the main factors in soil degradation in Africa. This thesis describes field research conducted from 2006 through 2008 to assess how changes in physical and hydrological soil properties, induced by differences in land management and macro-faunal biodiversity determine water and nitrogen use efficiencies in Burkina Faso. The methodology involved systematic soil sampling of selected treatments (including a fallow control) coupled with macro-fauna identification. Measurements were used to generate information on the effect of the long-term land management practices on soil properties and the different terms of the field water balance. Crop sampling (leaves, stem and grains) allowed determination of plant nutrient uptake and calculation of water and nitrogen use efficiency. Differences in soil properties between treatments were smaller than expected after so many years of applying the same soil management practice. Results indicate that long-term permanent cultivation result in a decrease in the quality of most soil properties when compared with the fallow. We also found that there are clear benefits from inclusion of cowpea in a rotation system due to its N fixation and deeper root system. Regarding soil fauna, long-term application of the same soil management practices resulted in specialization of the food type for the macro-fauna leading to less fauna diversity. Also, more diverse and abundant macro-fauna was discovered under superficially tilled plots compared to tractor plowed plots. The contribution of the soil fauna to aggregate building depends on the amount and type of organic material available to the fauna as well as the soil management regime. In spite of the amount of applied organic amendments used in our trials, the C-stock in the soil has decreased at a rate of 0.25 % per year, perhaps limiting macro-fauna activity. The 3-year average of the green water use efficiency (ratio T/P) was only 14% and the crop yield was also low due to less than optimal crop management. Results further suggest that systematic, rather than strategically timed, N applications (organic and/or mineral) are likely to lead to N losses. Synchronizing N fertilizer application with crop-N demand and accounting for residual Nitrogen will lead to higher N fertilizer use efficiency. Soil management practices, crop selection and fertilizer regime can have positive or negative impacts on water and nutrient use efficiency. Practices with positive impact should be encouraged in order to increase crop productivity and improve food security in Burkina Faso.

    Dryland maize yields and water use efficiency in response to tillage/crop stubble and nutrient management practices in China
    Wang, X.B. ; Dai, K. ; Zhang, D. ; Zhang, X. ; Wang, Y. ; Zhao, Q. ; Cai, D.X. ; Hoogmoed, W.B. ; Oenema, O. - \ 2011
    Field Crops Research 120 (2011)1. - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 47 - 57.
    reduced tillage - northern china - conservation tillage - nitrogen losses - prone savannas - crop residue - soil - fertilizer - agriculture - systems
    Rainfed crop production in northern China is constrained by low and variable rainfall. This study explored the effects of tillage/crop residue and nutrient management practices on maize (Zea mays L.) yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and N agronomic use efficiency (NAE) at Shouyang Dryland Farming Experimental Station in northern China during 2003–2008. The experiment was set-up using a split-plot design with 3 tillage/crop residue methods as main treatments: conventional, reduced (till with crop residue incorporated in fall but no-till in spring), and no-till (with crop residue mulching in fall). Sub-treatments were 3 NP fertilizer rates: 105–46, 179–78 and 210–92 kg N and P ha-1. Maize grain yields were greatly influenced by the growing season rainfall and soil water contents at sowing. Mean grain yields over the 6-year period in response to tillage/crop residue treatments were 5604, 5347 and 5185 kg ha-1, under reduced, no-till and conventional tillage, respectively. Grain yields under no-till, were generally higher (+19%) in dry years but lower (-7%) in wet years. Mean WUE was 13.7, 13.6 and 12.6 kg ha-1 mm-1 under reduced, no-till, and conventional tillage, respectively. The no-till treatment had 8–12% more water in the soil profiles than the conventional and reduced tillage treatments at sowing and harvest time. Grain yields, WUE and NAE were highest with the lowest NP fertilizer application rates (at 105 kg N and 46 kg P ha-1) under reduced tillage, while yields and WUE tended to be higher with additional NP fertilizer rates under conventional tillage, however, there was no significant yield increase above the optimum fertilizer rate. In conclusion, maize grain yields, WUE and NAE were highest under reduced tillage at modest NP fertilizer application rates of 105 kg N and 46 kg P ha-1. No-till increased soil water storage by 8–12% and improved WUE compared to conventional tillage, thus showing potentials for drought mitigation and economic use of fertilizers in drought-prone rainfed conditions in northern China.
    Telen zonder ploeg
    Weide, R.Y. van der; Balen, D.J.M. van; Meuffels, G.J.H.M. - \ 2010 2010 (2010)13-10-2010.
    minimale grondbewerking - cultuurmethoden zonder grondbewerking - grondbewerking gericht op bodemconservering - bodemstructuur - groenbemesters - teeltsystemen - bodembeheer - akkerbouw - minimum tillage - no-tillage - conservation tillage - soil structure - green manures - cropping systems - soil management - arable farming
    De laatste jaren is er wereldwijd, maar ook in Nederland in de landbouw meer interesse ontstaan voor de niet kerende grondbewerking (in de rest van dit artikel NKG genoemd). Deze toename in belangstelling is tweeledig. In dit artikel de mogelijkheden en noodzaak van NKG-technieken.
    The corporate shaping of GM crops as a technology for the poor
    Glover, D. - \ 2010
    The Journal of Peasant Studies 37 (2010)1. - ISSN 0306-6150 - p. 67 - 90.
    sustainable agriculture - conservation tillage - strategic change - monsanto - politics - biotechnology - science - africa - sensemaking - revolution
    Genetically modified (GM, transgenic) crops are often invoked in debates about poverty, hunger, and agricultural development. The framing of GM crops as a 'pro-poor' and environmentally sustainable technology was partly a creation of the biotechnology industry, but cannot be explained as merely a cynical exercise in public relations. Storylines about poverty alleviation and sustainable development actually helped to drive and shape the technical and commercial strategies of the leading transnational agribusiness company, Monsanto, during the 1970s, 80s and 90s. However, while those storylines emerged alongside the GM crop technologies that were being developed in the company's laboratories and greenhouses, they failed to influence their design or technological content. Nevertheless, the pro-poor and sustainability rhetoric contributed directly to a transformation of Monsanto's sectoral and geographical scope, to include a new focus on markets in developing countries. In principle, serving farmers in these markets could lead the company to develop new products and technologies that are designed to address the needs of resource-poor smallholders, but the evidence of such a change occurring is scant
    Niet kerende grondbewerking in akkerbouw en vollegrondsgroenteteelt
    Balen, Derk van - \ 2010
    organic farming - minimum tillage - conservation tillage - soil biology - green manures - soil structure - soil conservation - outdoor cropping
    Pests, pesticide use and alternative options in European maize production: current status and future prospects
    Meissle, M. ; Mouron, P. ; Musa, T. ; Weide, R.Y. van der; Groten, J.A.M. - \ 2010
    Journal of Applied Entomology 134 (2010)5. - ISSN 0931-2048 - p. 357 - 375.
    corn zea-mays - soybean glycine-max - weed-control - ostrinia-nubilalis - biological-control - mycotoxin contamination - fumonisin contamination - symptomless infection - fusarium-moniliforme - conservation tillage
    Political efforts are made in the European Union (EU) to reduce pesticide use and to increase the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM). Within the EU project ENDURE, research priorities on pesticide reduction are defined. Using maize, one of the most important crops in Europe, as a case study, we identified the most serious weeds, arthropod pests, and fungal diseases as well as classes and amounts of pesticides applied. Data for 11 European maize growing regions were collected from databases, publications and expert estimates. Silage maize dominates in northern Europe and grain production in central and southern Europe. Crop rotations range from continuous growing of maize over several years to well-planned rotation systems. Weeds, arthropod pests and fungal diseases cause economic losses in most regions, even though differences exist between northern countries and central and southern Europe. Several weed and arthropod species cause increasing problems, illustrating that the goal of reducing chemical pesticide applications is challenging. Pesticides could potentially be reduced by the choice of varieties including genetically modified hybrids, cultural control including crop rotation, biological control, optimized application techniques for chemicals, and the development of more specific treatments. However, restrictions in the availability of alternative pest control measures, farm organization, and the training and knowledge of farmers need to be overcome before the adoption of environmentally friendly pest control strategies can reduce chemical pesticides in an economically competitive way. The complex of several problems that need to be tackled simultaneously and the link between different control measures demonstrates the need for IPM approaches, where pest control is seen in the context of the cropping system and on a regional scale. Multicriteria assessments and decision support systems combined with pest monitoring programs may help to develop region-specific and sustainable strategies that are harmonized within a EU framework
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