Verbetering lichtinval winterlicht : Improving the availability of natural light in winter
Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Swinkels, G.L.A.M. ; Hemming, S. - \ 2015
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1375) - 55
glastuinbouw - kasgewassen - kastechniek - constructie - natuurlijk licht - lichtdoorlating - condenseren - diffuus glas - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse crops - greenhouse technology - construction - natural light - light transmission - condensation - diffused glass
In winter at northern latitudes light is the limiting factor for crop growth. The design of the Venlo greenhouse has not changed for many years although the development of diffuse glass and use of Anti Reflection coatings were only recent. This report shows results of Ray-tracing calculations of the effect of several measures as roof slope, ridge orientation, symmetry of the roof, reflection of the construction elements and the effect of condensation on light transmission of the greenhouse. Results show that it is possible to increase light transmission by more than 10% in case a combination of measures are taken. Effects of standard glass on transmission are higher than with diffuse glass. The measurements on the effect of condensation shows a hugh variation but in average condensation can cost you light, 2% (standard glass) but can gain light as well, up to 6%. Economic feasibility and restrictions in constructions are not taken into account. The optimal winter light greenhouse means a complete re-design of the Venlo type greenhouse cover.
Tomatenteelt in de hooggeïsoleerde VenLow Energy Kas
Zwart, H.F. de; Janse, J. ; Kempkes, F.L.K. - \ 2015
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapport GTB 1366) - 34
glastuinbouw - kastechniek - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - energiebesparing - energiegebruik - kassen - constructie - isolatie (insulation) - ontvochtiging - doelstellingen - haalbaarheidsstudies - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - tomatoes - solanum lycopersicum - energy saving - energy consumption - greenhouses - construction - insulation - dehumidification - objectives - feasibility studies
In the research program Greenhouse as Energy Source aims at having energy-neutral operated greenhouses by 2020. Therefore, a reduction of the energy use is important. The highly insulated VenLow Energy greenhouse have shown a low energy consumption for several years and in 2014 it was attempted to bring it below 10 m³ of natural gas equivalents per m² without a lowered production. To achieve this the leakage had to be reduced further and the screen quality was improved and a high humidity control setpoint was accepted. This in order to reduce the evaporation. Also the manipulation of the EC in the slab could lower the crop transpiration related energy consumption. The experiment showed an energy consumption of 8 m³/m² per year without a decreased crop production. This is far below target, but 2014 was a historically warm year. However, simulations showed that even in an average Dutch year the measurements taken would have met the target. The manipulation of the EC of the slab worked adversely, meaning that it increased the crop transpiration. The conclusion reads that the measures taken in the greenhouse make a productive tomato crop with less than 10 m³ of gas equivalents per m² per year realistic. With respect to the climate, a high humidity must be accepted and a shortened growing season running from mid-January to late November. A tomato variety like Komeett will yield at least 70 kg/m² can be expected, providing that CO2 dosing is not related to gas consumption for heating.
Grassroots scalar politics: Insights from peasant water struggles in the Ecuadorian and Peruvian Andes
Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. ; Verzijl, A. - \ 2015
Geoforum 62 (2015). - ISSN 0016-7185 - p. 13 - 23.
irrigation system - user organizations - latin-america - governance - ecology - bolivia - justice - rights - construction - reflections
Based on insights from peasant and indigenous communities’ struggles for water in Andean Peru and Ecuador, in this article we argue that the defense of grassroots interests -and with it the advancement of more equitable governance- greatly hinges on the capacity of these groups to engage in grassroots scalar politics. With increasing pressure on water resources in the Andes, the access to water of many rural peasant and indigenous communities is being threatened. The growing realization that their access to water and related interests are embedded in broader regional and national politics, legal frameworks and water policies, has led many communities and peasant water user associations to engage in networks and create alliances with other water users, governmental institutions and non-governmental actors. To better understand these (and other) grassroots struggles and strategies, in this contribution we develop the concept of grassroots scalar politics, which we use as a lens to analyze two case studies. In Ecuador we present how water users of the province of Chimborazo have defended their interests through the consolidation of the Provincial Water Users Associations’ Federation Interjuntas-Chimborazo and its networks. Then we focus on how with the support of Interjuntas-Chimborazo the Water Users Association of the Chambo irrigation system defended their historical water allocation. In Peru we analyze the conformation and achievements of the federative Water Users Association of Ayacucho (JUDRA) and present how the community of Ccharhuancho in the region of Huancavelica, managed to defend its waters and territory against the coastal irrigation sector of Ica
Seal monitoring and evaluation for the Luchterduinen offshore wind farm: 2. Tconstruction - 2014 report
Kirkwood, R.J. ; Aarts, G.M. ; Brasseur, S.M.J.M. - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C152/14) - 65
zeehonden - habitats - halichoerus grypus - phoca vitulina - menselijke invloed - windmolenpark - constructie - monitoring - ecologische verstoring - noordzee - zuid-holland - seals - habitats - halichoerus grypus - phoca vitulina - human impact - wind farms - construction - monitoring - ecological disturbance - north sea - zuid-holland
Two seal species live in Dutch waters: the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) and the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). They occupy land-based sites (haul-outs) in both the Wadden Sea and the Delta region, and move between these regions along the North Sea coastal zone. Human activities, such as construction of a wind farm in this zone, may influence movement and use of the zone by the seals. Monitoring of potential impacts on seals to Luchterduinen construction was required in the permit to construct. The Luchterduinen offshore wind farm is the third wind farm development in the Dutch North Sea coastal zone (between Den Helder and Rotterdam). Pile-driving of the turbine towers occurred between 31 July and 16 October, 2014. Seals exposed to pile-driving, even at close distances of
Development of a leafy Brassica rapa fixed line collection for genetic diversity and population structure analysis
Pang, W. ; Li, X. ; Choi, S.R. ; Dhandapani, V. ; Im, S. ; Park, M.Y. ; Jang, C.S. ; Yang, M.S. ; Ham, I.K. ; Lee, E.M. ; Kim, W. ; Lee, S.S. ; Bonnema, A.B. ; Park, S. ; Piao, Z. ; Lim, Y.P. - \ 2015
Molecular Breeding 35 (2015)1. - ISSN 1380-3743
genome sequencing project - microspore culture - linkage map - napus l. - microsatellite markers - repeat markers - construction - crop - association - centers
Brassica rapa is an economically important crop with a wide range of morphologies. Developing a set of fixed lines and understanding their diversity has been challenging, but facilitates resource conservation. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of 238 fixed lines of leafy B. rapa with 45 new simple sequence repeat markers and 109 new NGS (next-generation sequencing)-generated single nucleotide polymorphism markers evenly distributed throughout the B. rapa genome. Phylogenetic analysis classified the vegetable fixed lines into four subgroups, with the three oil types forming a separate and relatively distant cluster. A model-based population structure analysis identified four subpopulations corresponding to geographical origins and morphological traits, and revealed extensive allelic admixture. In particular, the Chinese cabbage cluster was subdivided into three groups and showed considerable correlation with leaf- and heading-related traits (leaf and heading shape). The vegetable B. rapa fixed lines successfully developed in our study could be valuable materials for establishing a multinational Brassica rapa diversity resource. Understanding the genetic diversity and population structure could be useful for utilization of the representative genetic variation and further genomic analysis.
Insecten in je achtertuin (2) Praktisch: Zo krijg je meer vlinders en bijen in je tuin
Alebeek, Frans van - \ 2015
insects - apidae - lepidoptera - biotopes - habitats - gardens - construction - knowledge - biodiversity
Efficient development of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers based on polymorphic repeats in transcriptome sequences of multiple individuals
Vukosavljev, M. ; Esselink, G. ; Westende, W.P.C. van 't; Cox, P. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Arens, P. ; Smulders, M.J.M. - \ 2015
Molecular Ecology Resources 15 (2015)1. - ISSN 1755-098X - p. 17 - 27.
est-ssr markers - genetic-linkage maps - in-silico - rose - l. - diversity - transferability - construction - variability - identification
The first hurdle in developing microsatellite markers, cloning, has been overcome by next generation sequencing. The second hurdle is testing to differentiate polymorphic from non-polymorphic loci. The third hurdle, somewhat hidden, is that only polymorphic markers with a large effective number of alleles are sufficiently informative to be deployed in multiple studies. Both steps are laborious and still done manually. We have developed a strategy in which we first screen reads from multiple genotypes for repeats that show the most length variants, and only these are subsequently developed into markers. We validated our strategy in tetraploid garden rose using Illumina paired-end transcriptome sequences of 11 roses. Out of 48 tested two markers failed to amplify but all others were polymorphic. Ten loci amplified more than one locus, indicating duplicated genes or gene families. Completely avoiding duplicated loci will be difficult because the range of numbers of predicted alleles of highly polymorphic single- and multi-locus markers largely overlapped. Of the remainder, half were replicate markers (i.e., multiple primer pairs for one locus), indicating the difficulty of correctly filtering short reads containing repeat sequences. We subsequently refined the approach to eliminate multiple primer sets to the same loci. The remaining 18 markers were all highly polymorphic, amplifying on average 11.7 alleles per marker (range = 6 to 20) in 11 tetraploid roses, exceeding the 8.2 alleles per marker of the 24 most polymorphic markers genotyped previously. This strategy, therefore, represents a major step forward in the development of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers.
Effect of pile-driving sound on the survival of fish larvae.
Bolle, L.J. ; Jong, C.A.F. ; Blom, E. ; Wessels, P.W. ; Damme, C.J.G. van; Winter, H.V. - \ 2014
IJmuiden : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C182/14) - 33
larven - vissen - geluidshinder - onderwaterakoestiek - offshore - constructie - windmolenpark - nederland - dierenwelzijn - larvae - fishes - noise pollution - underwater acoustics - offshore - construction - wind farms - netherlands - animal welfare
Er bestaat zorg over de mogelijk schadelijk effecten van onderwatergeluid gegenereerd gedurende het heien bij de aanleg van offshore windparken. Harde impulsgeluiden zoals heigeluid kunnen dodelijke verwondingen veroorzaken bij vissen. Tot voor kort was er weinig bekend over de geluidsniveaus waarbij fysieke schade optreedt. Wij hebben letale effecten van blootstelling aan heigeluid onderzocht in verschillende larvale stadia van drie vissoorten (tong Solea solea, zeebaars Dicentrarchus labrax en haring Clupea harengus). De experimenten zijn uitgevoerd met de ‘larvaebrator’, een apparaat dat ontwikkeld is om larven bloot te kunnen stellen aan heigeluid in het laboratorium.
Possibilities and challenges of the potato genome sequence
Visser, R.G.F. ; Bachem, C.W.B. ; Borm, T.J.A. ; Boer, J.M. de; Eck, H.J. van; Finkers, H.J. ; Linden, G. van der; Maliepaard, C.A. ; Uitdewilligen, J.G.A.M.L. ; Voorrips, R.E. ; Vos, P.G. ; Wolters, A.M.A. - \ 2014
Potato Research 57 (2014)3-4. - ISSN 0014-3065 - p. 327 - 330.
This paper describes the progress that has been made since the draft genome sequence of potato has been obtained and the analyses that need to be done to make further progress. Although sequencing has become less expensive and read lengths have increased, making optimal use of the information obtained is still difficult, certainly in the tetraploid potato crop. Major challenges in potato genomics are standardized genome assembly and haplotype analysis. Sequencing methods need to be improved further to achieve precision breeding. With the current new generation sequencing technology, the focus in potato breeding will shift from phenotype improvement to genotype improvement. In this respect, it is essential to realize that different alleles of the same gene can lead to different phenotypes depending on the genetic background and that there is significant epistatic interaction between different alleles. Genome-wide association studies will gain statistical power when binary single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data can be replaced with multi-allelic haplotype data. Binary SNP can be distributed across the many different alleles per locus or may be haplotype-specific, and potentially tag specific alleles which clearly differ in their contribution to a certain trait value. Assembling reads from the same linkage phase proved to allow constructing sufficiently long haplotype tracts to ensure their uniqueness. Combining large phenotyping data sets with modern approaches to sequencing and haplotype analysis and proper software will allow the efficiency of potato breeding to increase.
Identifying the methodological characteristics of European green city rankings
Meijering, J.V. ; Kern, K. ; Tobi, H. - \ 2014
Ecological Indicators 43 (2014). - ISSN 1470-160X - p. 132 - 142.
quality-of-life - environmental sustainability - composite indicators - urban areas - construction - pitfalls - indexes
City rankings that aim to measure the environmental sustainability of European cities may contribute to the evaluation and development of environmental policy of European cities. The objective of this study is to identify and evaluate the methodological characteristics of these city rankings. First, a methodology was developed to systematically identify methodological characteristics of city rankings within different steps of the ranking development process. Second, six city rankings European Energy Award, European Green Capital Award, European Green City Index, European Soot-free City Ranking, RES Champions League, Urban Ecosystem Europe were examined. Official websites and any methodological documents found on those websites were content analyzed using the developed methodology. Interviews with representatives of the city rankings were conducted to acquire any additional information. Results showed that the city rankings varied greatly with respect to their methodological characteristics and that all city rankings had methodological weaknesses. Developers of city rankings are advised to use the methodology developed in this study to find methodological weaknesses and improve their ranking. In addition, developers ought to be more transparent about the methodological characteristics of their city rankings. End-users of city rankings are advised to use the developed methodology to identify and evaluate the methodological characteristics of city rankings before deciding to act on ranking results.
Development and validation of a 20K Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) whole genome genotyping array for apple (Malus × domestica Borkh)
Bianco, L. ; Cestaro, A. ; Sargent, D.J. ; Guardo, M. Di; Jansen, J. ; Weg, W.E. van de - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)10. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 9 p.
linkage map - construction - cultivars - alignment - accurate - barley
High-density SNP arrays for genome-wide assessment of allelic variation have made high resolution genetic characterization of crop germplasm feasible. A medium density array for apple, the IRSC 8 K SNP array, has been successfully developed and used for screens of bi-parental populations. However, the number of robust and well-distributed markers contained on this array was not sufficient to perform genome-wide association analyses in wider germplasm sets, or Pedigree-Based Analysis at high precision, because of rapid decay of linkage disequilibrium. We describe the development of an Illumina Infinium array targeting 20 K SNPs. The SNPs were predicted from re-sequencing data derived from the genomes of 13 Malus × domestica apple cultivars and one accession belonging to a crab apple species (M. micromalus). A pipeline for SNP selection was devised that avoided the pitfalls associated with the inclusion of paralogous sequence variants, supported the construction of robust multi-allelic SNP haploblocks and selected up to 11 entries within narrow genomic regions of ±5 kb, termed focal points (FPs). Broad genome coverage was attained by placing FPs at 1 cM intervals on a consensus genetic map, complementing them with FPs to enrich the ends of each of the chromosomes, and by bridging physical intervals greater than 400 Kbps. The selection also included ~3.7 K validated SNPs from the IRSC 8 K array. The array has already been used in other studies where ~15.8 K SNP markers were mapped with an average of ~6.8 K SNPs per full-sib family. The newly developed array with its high density of polymorphic validated SNPs is expected to be of great utility for Pedigree-Based Analysis and Genomic Selection. It will also be a valuable tool to help dissect the genetic mechanisms controlling important fruit quality traits, and to aid the identification of marker-trait associations suitable for the application of Marker Assisted Selection in apple breeding programs.
2SaveEnergy® kasconcept: van design naar realisatie
Kempkes, F.L.K. ; Deursen, A. van - \ 2014
glastuinbouw - kassen - constructie - innovaties - energiebesparing - lichtregiem - lichtdoorlating - economische analyse - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - construction - innovations - energy saving - light regime - light transmission - economic analysis
De doelstelling van dit onderzoek is de ontwikkeling en realisatie van een kasconcept dat een potentieel hoge energie besparing kan bereiken zonder dat dit ten koste gaat van de productie en of productkwaliteit bij een beperkt investeringsniveau.
Governance van innovatieve dijkconcepten in de Zuidwestelijke Delta : handreiking voor projecten die veiligheid, economie en ecologie van een dijkzone combineren
Groot, A.M.E. ; Leeuwen, C.J. van; Tangelder, M. ; Timmerman, J.G. ; Werners, S.E. ; Loon-Steensma, J.M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2506) - 62
dijken - constructie - klimaatverandering - governance - innovaties - landgebruik - dykes - construction - climatic change - governance - innovations - land use
In het Deltaprogramma Zuidwestelijke Delta wordt op het moment gewerkt aan strategieën om de gevolgen van klimaatverandering op waterveiligheid en zoetwater op te vangen. Ter ondersteuning bij het formuleren van kansrijke strategieën (2014) wordt sinds 2011 voor het Deltaprogramma Zuidwestelijke Delta beleidsondersteunend onderzoek uitgevoerd op het gebied van innovatieve dijkconcepten. Innovatieve dijkconcepten worden in dit onderzoek gedefinieerd als: nieuwe typen waterkeringen of aanpassingen van bestaande waterkeringen die veiligheid bieden tegen overstromingen, of hieraan een bijdrage leveren en tegelijkertijd ook mogelijkheden bieden voor multifunctioneel (mede)gebruik zoals voor recreatie, natuur, visserij en aquacultuur.
Peasant-driven agricultural growth and food sovereignty
Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 2014
The Journal of Peasant Studies 41 (2014)6. - ISSN 0306-6150 - p. 999 - 1030.
rural-development - self-employment - latin-america - china - agroecosystems - construction - questions - crisis
The concept of food sovereignty presents us with an important theoretical and practical challenge. The political economy of agriculture can only take up this gauntlet through improving its understanding of the processes of agricultural growth. It is very difficult to address the issue of food sovereignty without such an understanding. Developing such an understanding involves (re)combining the political economy of agriculture with the Chayanovian approach. This paper gives several explanations (all individually valid but stronger in combination) as to why peasant agriculture results in sturdy and sustainable growth and also identifies the factors that undermine this capacity. The paper also argues that peasant agriculture is far from being a remnant of the past. While different peasantries around the world are shaped and reproduced by today's capital (and more specifically by current food empires), they equally help to shape and contribute to the further unfolding of the forms of capital related to food and agriculture. It is important to understand this two-way interaction between capital and peasant agriculture as this helps to ground the concept of food sovereignty. The article argues that the capacity to produce enough food (at different levels, distinguishing different needs, and so on) needs to be an integral part of the food sovereignty discourse. It concludes by suggesting that peasant agriculture has the best potential for meeting food sovereignty largely because it has the capacity to produce (more than) sufficient good food for the growing world population and that it can do so in a way that is sustainable.
Genetic diversity of Vietnamese domestic chicken populations as decision-making support for conservation strategies
Pham, H.T.M. ; Berthouly-Salazar, C. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. - \ 2013
Animal Genetics 44 (2013)5. - ISSN 0268-9146 - p. 509 - 521.
multilocus genotype data - breeds - program - microsatellites - construction - resources - inference - software - ecotypes - alleles
The aims of this study were to assess the genetic diversity of 17 populations of Vietnamese local chickens (VNN) and one Red Jungle Fowl population, together with six chicken populations of Chinese origin (CNO), and to provide priorities supporting the conservation of genetic resources using 20 microsatellites. Consequently, the VNN populations exhibited a higher diversity than did CNO populations in terms of number of alleles but showed a slightly lower observed heterozygosity. The VNN populations showed in total seven private alleles, whereas no CNO private alleles were found. The expected heterozygosity of 0.576 in the VNN populations was higher than the observed heterozygosity of 0.490, leading to heterozygote deficiency within populations. This issue could be partly explained by the Wahlund effect due to fragmentation of several populations between chicken flocks. Molecular analysis of variance showed that most of genetic variation was found within VNN populations. The Bayesian clustering analysis showed that VNN and CNO chickens were separated into two distinct groups with little evidence for gene flow between them. Among the 24 populations, 13 were successfully assigned to their own cluster, whereas the structuring was not clear for the remaining 11 chicken populations. The contributions of 24 populations to the total genetic diversity were mostly consistent across two approaches, taking into account the within- and between-populations genetic diversity and allelic richness. The black H'mong, Lien Minh, Luong Phuong and Red Jungle Fowl were ranked with the highest priorities for conservation according to Caballero and Toro's and Petit's approaches. In conclusion, a national strategy needs to be set up for Vietnamese chicken populations, with three main components: conservation of high-priority breeds, within-breed management with animal exchanges between flocks to avoid Wahlund effect and monitoring of inbreeding rate.
Linkage mapping in the oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. reveals a locus controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which cause seed toxicity
King, A.J. ; Montes, L.R. ; Clarke, J.G. ; Affleck, J. ; Li, Y. ; Witsenboer, H. ; Vossen, E. van der; Linde, P. van der; Tripathi, Y. ; Tavares, E. ; Shukla, P. ; Rajasekaran, T. ; Loo, E.N. van; Graham, I.A. - \ 2013
Plant Biotechnology Journal 11 (2013)8. - ISSN 1467-7644 - p. 986 - 996.
transcriptome analysis - genetic diversity - biofuel plant - genome - oil - markers - qtl - construction - sequence - maps
Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring ‘nontoxic’ provenances exist which produce seed lacking PE. As an important step towards the development of genetically improved varieties of J. curcas, we constructed a linkage map from four F2 mapping populations. The consensus linkage map contains 502 codominant markers, distributed over 11 linkage groups, with a mean marker density of 1.8 cM per unique locus. Analysis of the inheritance of PE biosynthesis indicated that this is a maternally controlled dominant monogenic trait. This maternal control is due to biosynthesis of the PE occurring only within maternal tissues. The trait segregated 3 : 1 within seeds collected from F2 plants, and QTL analysis revealed that a locus on linkage group 8 was responsible for phorbol ester biosynthesis. By taking advantage of the draft genome assemblies of J. curcas and Ricinus communis (castor), a comparative mapping approach was used to develop additional markers to fine map this mutation within 2.3 cM. The linkage map provides a framework for the dissection of agronomic traits in J. curcas, and the development of improved varieties by marker-assisted breeding. The identification of the locus responsible for PE biosynthesis means that it is now possible to rapidly breed new nontoxic varieties.
|Geboeid door het verleden: de Bocht van Barkman
Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Ozinga, W.A. - \ 2013
Stratiotes 2013 (2013)44. - ISSN 0928-2297 - p. 13 - 18.
plantengemeenschappen - vegetatietypen - historische ecologie - infrastructuur - constructie - structurele aanpassing - twente - plant communities - vegetation types - historical ecology - infrastructure - construction - structural adjustment
Geboeid door het verleden is de titel van een onlangs verschenen boek in de reeks 'Vegetatiekundige Monografieën', dat de historische ecologie tot onderwerp heeft. Onder deze titel willen we in Stratiotes op gezette tijden ruimte bieden aan min of meer vergeten of minder bekende maar interessante onderwerpen uit het rijke verleden van het vegetatieonderzoek in ons land. In deze bijdrage aandacht voor een gewijzigde tracé bij de aanleg van de snelweg A1. In de zeventiger jaren voerde prof. Barkman met succes actie tegen de aanvankelijk geplande route, dwars door een natuurreservaat met opvallende jenerbesstruwelen
Pilotstudie Groene Dollard Dijk : een verkenning naar de haalbaarheid van een brede groene dijk met flauw talud en een voorland van kwelders
Loon-Steensma, J.M. van; Schelfhout, H.A. ; Reintsema, R. ; Jolink, E. ; Leij, H. van der - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2437) - 102
dijken - constructie - hellingshoek - haalbaarheidsstudies - graslanden - wetlands - oost-groningen - dykes - construction - angle of repose - feasibility studies - grasslands - wetlands - oost-groningen
In dit rapport worden de mogelijkheden voor een Groene Dollard Dijk verkend. Deze dijken hebben een met gras bekleed flauw buitentalud dat op natuurlijke wijze overgaat in de voorliggende kwelders. Door het golfreducerend vermogen van het kweldervoorland en een verflauwd dijktalud, is er geen harde bekleding nodig op het buitentalud. Het waterschap wil de Groene Dollard Dijk graag als (voorkeurs)variant meenemen in de MER-procedure voor de komende dijkversterking. Het blijkt dat een brede groene dijk weliswaar meer ruimte vraagt, maar toch nog binnen de huidige beheerzone van de dijk kan worden gerealiseerd. Wel zijn er nog diverse vragen over mogelijkheden om de benodigde grond op een duurzame en natuurvriendelijke manier te winnen, het effect van de brede groene dijk op natuurwaarden, de aanleg- en beheerkosten en het draagvlak.
Tomato breeding in the genomics era: insights from a SNP array
Víquez-Zamora, M. ; Vosman, B. ; Geest, H. van; Bovy, A.G. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Finkers, H.J. ; Heusden, A.W. van - \ 2013
BMC Genomics 14 (2013). - ISSN 1471-2164 - 28 p.
backcross qtl analysis - phylogenetic-relationships - lycopersicon-hirsutum - evolutionary history - essential derivation - genus lycopersicon - l-pimpinellifolium - dna - construction - technologies
Background - The major bottle neck in genetic and linkage studies in tomato has been the lack of a sufficient number of molecular markers. This has radically changed with the application of next generation sequencing and high throughput genotyping. A set of 6000 SNPs was identified and 5528 of them were used to evaluate tomato germplasm at the level of species, varieties and segregating populations. Results - From the 5528 SNPs, 1980 originated from 454-sequencing, 3495 from Illumina Solexa sequencing and 53 were additional known markers. Genotyping different tomato samples allowed the evaluation of the level of heterozygosity and introgressions among commercial varieties. Cherry tomatoes were especially different from round/beefs in chromosomes 4, 5 and 12. We were able to identify a set of 750 unique markers distinguishing S. lycopersicum 'Moneymaker' from all its distantly related wild relatives. Clustering and neighbour joining analysis among varieties and species showed expected grouping patterns, with S. pimpinellifolium as the most closely related to commercial tomatoesearlier results. Conclusions - Our results show that a SNP search in only a few breeding lines already provides generally applicable markers in tomato and its wild relatives. It also shows that the Illumina bead array generated data are highly reproducible. Our SNPs can roughly be divided in two categories: SNPs of which both forms are present in the wild relatives and in domesticated tomatoes (originating from common ancestors) and SNPs unique for the domesticated tomato (originating from after the domestication event). The SNPs can be used for genotyping, identification of varieties, comparison of genetic and physical linkage maps and to confirm (phylogenetic) relations. In the SNPs used for the array there is hardly any overlap with the SolCAP array and it is strongly recommended to combine both SNP sets and to select a core collection of robust SNPs completely covering the entire tomato genome
Pilotproject voor het gebruik van onderwater-geluidloggers voor het monitoren van omgevingsfactoren
Lucke, K. - \ 2012
Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C152/12) - 45
geluid - onderwaterakoestiek - geluidsleer - geluidsopnames - constructie - zeezoogdieren - noise - underwater acoustics - acoustics - recordings - construction - marine mammals
Om onderwatergeluid op te kunnen nemen, zijn in de winter van 2011/2012 voor een periode van meer dan drie maanden twee geluidsloggers geplaatst in de Eems. De locaties zijn zo gekozen dat één van de recorders vlakbij de ingang van de Eemshaven hangt, terwijl de andere vlakbij de zandbank Hond & Paap gesitueerd is. Het doel van dit pilotproject is het testen van de bruikbaarheid van de techniek om geluidsuitstoot, van zowel bouwgerelateerde activiteiten bij de Eemshaven als niet aan de bouw gerelateerde activiteiten, te identificeren en deze te koppelen aan de gerapporteerde tijdsinformatie van de bouwactiviteiten. De opnames lieten zien dat het niveau van het achtergrondgeluid in de Eems vooral vanwege de sterke stroming relatief hoog is. Passerende Scheepvaart op de Eems bleek de grootste bijdrage te leveren aan het totale onderwatergeluid ter plaatse van de geluidsloggers, waarbij dit geluid verschillende keren bouwgerelateerde activiteiten maskeerde. Het resultaat laat zien dat verschillende typen geluidsbronnen, naast de scheepvaart op de Eems, met zekerheid konden worden geïdentificeerd.