Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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How to pursue quality of life
Antonides, G. - \ 2016
Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462573734 - 28 p.
well-being - income - consumption - society - western world - quality of life - welzijn - inkomen - consumptie - samenleving - westerse wereld - kwaliteit van het leven
Well-being, happiness or quality of life is a desirable life goal which can be pursued in many different ways.
Sustainable consumption and marketing
Dam, Y.K. van - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576490 - 176
consumer behaviour - marketing - consumption - household consumption - market research - decision making - behavioural changes - behaviour - economic psychology - sustainability - consumentengedrag - marketing - consumptie - huishoudelijke consumptie - marktonderzoek - besluitvorming - gedragsveranderingen - gedrag - economische psychologie - duurzaamheid (sustainability)

Sustainable development in global food markets is hindered by the discrepancy between positive consumer attitudes towards sustainable development or sustainability and the lack of corresponding sustainable consumption by a majority of consumers. Apparently for many (light user) consumers the ‘importance’ of ‘sustainability’ has a meaning that is not directly translated into purchases.

The cognitive and motivational perceptual structures of sustainability among light users of sustainable products are empirically compared to the Brundlandt definition (needs of future generations) and the Triple-P-Baseline (people, planet, prosperity) definition of sustainability. Results show that light users cognitively can distinguish between the social and temporal dimensions of the Brundlandt definition, as well as the people, planet and prosperity dimensions of the Triple-P definition of sustainability. In the motivational structure of light users of sustainable products, all attributes that do not offer direct and personal benefits are collapsed into a single dimension. This single dimension explains purchases more parsimoniously than a more complex structure, and is itself explained by a set of psychographic predictors that appears to be related to identity.

Perceived relevance and determinance are two distinct constructs, underlying the overall concept of attribute importance. Attribute relevance is commonly measured by self-reported importance in a Likert type scale. In order to measure attribute determinance a survey based measure is developed. In an empirical survey (N=1543) determinance of sustainability related product attributes is measured through a set of forced choice items and contrasted to self-reported relevance of those attributes. In line with expectations, a priori determinance predicts sustainable food choice more efficiently than perceived relevance. Determinance of sustainability related product attributes can be predicted by future temporal orientation, independently of relevance of these attributes.

These results support an interpretation of the attitude to behaviour gap in terms of construal level theory, and this theory allows for testable hypotheses on low construal motivators that should induce light users to purchase sustainable products. Sustainable consumption is viewed as a dilemma between choices for immediate (low construal) benefits and choices that avoid long-term collective (high construal) harm.

Identity theory suggests that self-confirmation could be a driving motive behind the performance of norm-congruent sustainable behaviour. Through identity people may acquire the intrinsic motivation to carry out pro-environmental behaviour. This view is tested in two empirical studies in The Netherlands. The first study shows that sustainable identity predicts sustainable preference, and that the effect of identity on preference is partly mediated by self-confirmation motives. The second study confirms that sustainable identity influences the determinance of sustainable attributes, and through this determinance has an impact on sustainable product choice. This effect is partly mediated by stated relevance of these attributes.

Sustainable certification signals positive sustainable quality of a product, but fail to create massive demand for such products. Based on regulatory focus theory and prospect theory it is argued that negative signalling of low sustainable quality would have a stronger effect on the adoption of sustainable products than the current positive signalling of high sustainable quality. The effects of positive vs. negative signalling of high vs. low sustainable quality on attitude and preference formation are tested in three experimental studies. Results show (1) that negative labelling has a larger effect on attitude and preference than positive labelling, (2) that the effect of labelling is enhanced by regulatory fit, and (3) that the effect of labelling is mediated by personal norms, whereas any additional direct effect of environmental concern on preference formation is negligible.

Overall the present thesis suggests that the attitude to behaviour gap in sustainable consumption can be explained as a conflict between high construal motives for the abstract and distant goals of sustainable development and the low construal motives that drive daily consumption. Activating low construal motives for sustainable consumption, be it intrinsic motives to affirm a sustainable self-concept or loss aversion motives, increases sustainable consumer behaviour. Applying these insights to marketing decision making opens a new line of research into the individual, corporate, and institutional drivers that may contribute to the sustainable development of global food markets.

Portraying the sustainable consumer : exploring sustainable food consumption using a lifestyle segmentation approach
Verain, M.C.D. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides, co-promotor(en): Siet Sijtsema; H. Dagevos. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575790 - 220
consumenten - consumptie - voedselconsumptie - voedsel - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - levensstijl - consumentengedrag - consumers - consumption - food consumption - food - sustainability - lifestyle - consumer behaviour
We have to eat, right? : food safety concerns and shopping for daily vegetables in modernizing Vietnam
Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575745 - 241
voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - groenten - consumenten - consumptiepatronen - consumptie - milieubeleid - vietnam - zuidoost-azië - food safety - food quality - vegetables - consumers - consumption patterns - consumption - environmental policy - vietnam - south east asia

This thesis analyses how people during everyday life confront real food safety risks that are difficult to influence and come to grips with and focuses on food safety risks in modernizing Vietnam.

Over the past 40 years Vietnam has developed from war torn country with a highly centralized planned economy ranking among the world’s most impoverished nations to a socialist-oriented market economic power house, currently ranking highest among the world’s largest growth economies. Throughout this transition Vietnam has struggled with food security in which concerns have shifted from ‘is there enough to eat?’ to ‘is it safe to eat?’. Food safety has become a major social and political issue in Vietnam. Urbanization puts pressure on the provision of daily fresh food. The distanciation of production-consumption relationships and the intensification of cultivation methods, as a response to growing urban demand with a declining farmland acreage, results in regular food safety incidents related to the inappropriate use of chemicals in agricultural production. The wide media coverage of such incidences has resulted in food safety being the ‘number one consumer concern’ in Vietnam.

To improve food safety and to restore trust among consumers, authorities in Vietnam, as in other parts of Asia, promulgate policies that focus on the modernization of the food retail system. Western models of consumption and retailing strongly influence these retail modernization policies, placing supermarket development at the core of strategies. The retail modernization policies are designed to influence choices and persuade consumers to change their behavior based on the idea that consumers make rational choices, assuming that food safety concerns will drive consumers into supermarket channels. However, despite consumer food safety concerns, in the performance of everyday life, consumers don’t ‘en masse’ adopt the policy enabled risk-reducing alternative of supermarkets. Traditional channels such as wet markets continue to dominate in the daily fresh vegetable purchasing practices. This phenomenon is observed across the Asian continent. As it turns out, transitions in the food buying practices of Asian consumers are not so easily established.

This thesis addresses consumption as a social practice. The application of social practice based approaches to the analysis of consumption started around the turn of the century and has since gained importance in thinking about food system changes with a strong focus on western developed societies. By applying the research on the specific case of shopping for vegetables in Vietnam, this thesis exemplifies how a social practices approach is relevant beyond OECD countries. In studying the relation and dynamics between local cultural tradition and advanced globalization at the consumption junction, this thesis uncovers how practices of shopping for vegetables and their inherent food safety dynamics emerge, evolve, or die out within the rapidly transforming urban context of Hanoi, Vietnam. This thesis is concerned with the question:

How do ordinary people in Vietnam confront food safety risks and why and how they do, or do not adopt alternative practices, like modern retail shopping, to respond to their increasing concerns about the fresh-food made available to them?

The conducted research and its findings are described in this thesis over six chapters. It starts with an introductory chapter 1, followed by four distinct, though coherent, empirical research chapters (chapter 2-5). Each of these chapters delivers a complementary understanding on the everyday practice of shopping for vegetables in the transformative context of Vietnam. Combined these empirical research chapters provide an understanding of how practices of shopping for vegetables develop, are sustained and/or die out within a rapidly transforming urban context. The thesis ends with a concluding chapter 6.

The first chapter describes the research problem, the theoretical framing of the problem and the research questions. The chapter explicates why this thesis takes a social practices theory based research approach. Exploring the middle ground of two interlinked debates - a debate with extreme positions in retail development and a debate on how to bring about behavioral change, - it is discussed that a social practices approach is relevant for obtaining understandings of everyday life, because of its non-individualist perspective, its empirical focus on habitual activity, and its inclusion of the local context. Next, the chapter outlines the conceptual approach in which relations between provision systems on the one hand and consumers on the other are mediated at the food retailing sites. By giving primacy to neither agency nor structure, it is discussed how practices based research, might deliver an understanding of the relation and dynamics between local cultural tradition and advanced globalisation. It than elaborates on the novel programmatic methodological approach of shifting perspectives - zooming in on situated practices and zooming out through a historical mapping of a portfolio of embedded practices - that allow the detection of the dynamics in situated habitual and contextually constrained activities, as well as longer term transformations of practices over time. Chapter 1 concludes with an exposition of the mix of methods applied.

Chapter 2 investigates which characteristics of the dominant and persistent practice of shopping at wet markets account for its continued reproduction and addresses the question of how food safety concerns are confronted within this well–established practice. Taking a rural city not yet touched by retail modernization as the research setting, this chapter presents in-depth empirical research insights on interactions at wet-market from the perspective of both sales persons and citizen-consumers. This chapter shows that food safety is a well-recognized dilemma by both providers and consumers of vegetables, but that food safety concerns are not the principal factor in determining the purchasing practices. Shopping at wet markets is a highly routinized taken for granted activity and food safety concerns only become prominent within this habitual shopping setting. Deploying specific heuristics for vendor and product selection, food safety is shown to be continuously reproduced along pre-given lines. As long as the existing, ‘practical’ repertoire of food safety heuristics deployed by consumers suffices in counter balancing their anxieties, consumers adhere to their established food shopping routines of shopping at wet markets.

Chapter 3 explores the persistence of shopping for vegetables at informal, uncontrolled, and unhygienic street markets in the context of advancing retail modernization in urban Hanoi. Government induced policies aim at replacing wet markets by supermarkets and therewith enforce breaks with well-established routines. However, although supermarkets are recognized and valued as safe vegetable retailing sites, they are only marginally successful in attracting daily vegetables consumers. This chapter addresses the question of what context specific processes and circumstances account for the continued reproduction of shopping at street markets that do not offer formal food safety guarantees. The empirical study of vegetable shopping practices at six different street markets, reveals how consumers handle food safety concerns in combination with other choices about where and when to buy. It shows how and why daily routines are time-spatial constrained. Where and how to buy vegetables is importantly shaped by other activities in daily life. The empirical research illustrates that temporal and spatial dimensions of practices in contemporary daily life in Hanoi constitute a reinforcing mechanism for the persistence of uncontrolled and unhygienic street markets, rather than the uptake of supermarkets. This chapter points out that food safety policies and interventions that do not take into consideration the existing everyday consumption practices, might fail to address acute food safety issues.

Chapter 4 assesses the extent of the outreach of modernized retail formats in terms of who benefits, who is excluded and what context specific processes and circumstances influence the uptake of modified or modern retail formats by different social groups. A practice realist perspective is demonstrated to be relevant for addressing outreach and social inclusion and understanding how policy interventions play out in practice. On the basis of a collective case study of six distinct policy induced retail modernization interventions, this chapter illustrates the emerging and on-going process of food retail transformation. This approach exposes how and why similar supermarket interventions can yield contrasting intermediate outcomes when they do not accommodate for differences in shopper population and do not adapt to variations in the urban conditions. The current one-dimensional, supermarket oriented, retail modernization policy that aims to reduce the exposure to uncertified ‘unsafe’ food, is shown to lead to the exclusion of a large proportion of the population. This chapter points out the importance for Vietnamese policymakers to consider the risk of social deprivation and to explicitly reflect on the unanticipated consequences of the normative direction of their interventions in food provision. This chapter indicates that reaching a more diverse population requires more flexible policies that allow for malleability in response to local conditions.

Chapter 5 addresses the questions: what practices of purchasing or appropriating fresh vegetables do exist in contemporary Vietnam; how do they relate to food safety concerns and dynamics; why did they emerge and evolve during the past 40 years; and what factors are important in explaining the dynamics of change in the overall set of shopping practices? Deploying a practice historical perspective, this chapter unravels the complex evolving relationships between the local and the global as they can be read from the ways in which Vietnamese consumers deal with food safety risks when shopping for fresh food, by analyzing a portfolio of shopping practices against the background of historical changes over the period 1975-2015. Discussing the way in which six situated social practices are embedded in the broader set of food appropriation practices, this chapter portrays how practices show consistency in change over time, influenced by transformations in their environment, in which practices are interrelated with other practices in daily life beyond the act of shopping for food and beyond the domain of food. Further this chapter demonstrates how food safety related trust mechanisms as deployed by Vietnamese consumers show patterns of hybridization of personalized trust with abstract guidance systems. The historical approach provides insights on why shopping at supermarkets is not just currently still limited in recruiting practitioners. Also looking forward, it is not reasonable to expect homogenization in food retail system transformation.

This thesis concludes with chapter 6 which addresses the question of what lessons can be learned from social practices research in assessing the present and future role of supermarkets and the accompanying food safety strategies, which imply the de- and re-routinization of well-established contemporary practices of shopping for fresh-food. Along the four empirical research chapters, it first sets out to answer the research questions. Next it elaborates on the theoretical and methodological approach. The chapter describes the iterative research process and depicts how methodological variance can be used as a strength when applied as an intelligible program of shifting perspectives - zooming in and out on practices - and a mix of methods. It is pointed out that although practices based approaches are criticized on their complexity and ambiguity, the approach used in this thesis is proven to deliver concrete results and might be useful in similar cases. Lastly, this concluding chapter discusses how practices based perspectives have the potential to inform a more versatile and amenable portfolio of public regulations and resources when striving for amelioration in food provision, not only in Vietnam, but across the Asian continent.

This thesis demonstrates how changes in infrastructures are not sufficient for changing practices and thus warns against making food safety policies strongly dependent on a single supermarket model. Instead of putting all strategic resources on one strategy, efforts of integration and mutual adaptation of modern and traditional structures could be considered. Pursuing a trend of hybridization prevents that consumers have to break with long established routines in an isolated, radical way.

Greening production and consumption: the case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand
Thongplew, N. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren, co-promotor(en): Kris van Koppen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574397 - 176
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - consumptie - productie - consumenten - milieubeleid - zuivelindustrie - toestellen - computerwetenschappen - engineering - thailand - sustainability - consumption - production - consumers - environmental policy - dairy industry - appliances - computer sciences - engineering - thailand

Abstract

Natapol Thongplew

Thesis title: Greening production and consumption: The case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

This research looked into the greening of the appliance and dairy industries in globalizing Thailand from a product chain perspective. It studied roles and strategies of appliance and dairy companies in greening consumption with an explicit involvement of consumers. This research finds that appliance and diary have increasingly attempted to engage Thai consumers in buying and using more sustainable products. To do so, companies employ different consumer-oriented strategies, including providing environmental information; however, they do not yet have a full-fledged consumer-oriented strategy to activate and engage (silent green) consumers. The study summarizes that appliance and diary companies in Thailand can advance their consumer-oriented strategies for better engaging Thai consumers (with green products and green markets) by acknowledging the role of consumers as citizens, recognizing emerging sustainable practices and lifestyles of citizens, and organizing consumer groups.

EUBerry – verhoging van duurzaamheid en consumptie kleinfruit : samenvatting activiteiten DLO Wageningen UR : PT Eindrapport EUBerry 2011-2014
Kruistum, G. van; Evenhuis, A. ; Groot, M.J. ; Roelofs, P.F.M.M. ; Sijtsema, S.J. ; Zimmermann, K.L. - \ 2015
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit PPO-agv - 31
europese unie - kleinfruit - geïntegreerde bestrijding - residuen - teeltsystemen - voeding en gezondheid - consumptie - gewaskwaliteit - aardbeien - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - marketing - european union - small fruits - integrated control - residues - cropping systems - nutrition and health - consumption - crop quality - strawberries - sustainability
Doel van dit EU-project is de bevordering van de consumptie van kwalitatief hoogwaardig vers kleinfruit door geïntegreerde gewasbescherming en residuarme teelt, verbeterde teelttechnieken en aandacht voor gezondheidsaspecten.
Market intelligence champignons : productie en handel van Nederlandse champignons in context
Logatcheva, K. ; Smit, P.X. ; Meulen, H.A.B. van der - \ 2014
LEI Wageningen UR
eetbare paddestoelen - champignonbedrijven - economische situatie - marktconcurrentie - marktprijzen - consumptie - nederland - agrarische handel - export - edible fungi - mushroom houses - economic situation - market competition - market prices - consumption - netherlands - agricultural trade - exports
De Nederlandse champignonsector staat onder grote druk. De financiële resultaten dalen, evenals het aantal bedrijven en het areaal. Dit komt door de hevige concurrentie in binnen- en buitenland. Deze factsheet geeft informatie over recente ontwikkelingen in productie, handel, consumptie en prijs van champignons.
Fast food in Ghana’s restaurants: prevalence, characteristics, and relevance : an interdisciplinary perspective
Omari, R. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke; Guido Ruivenkamp, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572584 - 169
fast foods - consumptie - snelbuffetten - gemaksvoedsel - consumentengedrag - karakteristieken - gezondheid - interdisciplinair onderzoek - ghana - fast foods - consumption - fast food restaurants - convenience foods - consumer behaviour - characteristics - health - interdisciplinary research - ghana

Abstract

Fast food has been extensively criticised for its link to health and environments problems and for its tendency to undermine traditional food cultures. Notwithstanding these aspects, this study questioned the assumption that fast food by definition has negative impact on health, environment and traditional food cultures for three main reasons. Firstly, fast-food restaurants are spreading quickly in the Accra Metropolitan Area (AMA) of Ghana and have become an important source of urban food. Secondly, fast food in Ghana is undergoing various changes, such as the introduction of healthier food options, use of environmentally friendly packaging and the incorporation of local cultural features. Thirdly, there has been ambiguity in the definition of fast food in existing literature, which is often exclusively built upon practices in Western, modernised countries and hence has determined how fast food is normatively evaluated. Moreover, evidence shows that some of the characteristics of fast food used in these definitions are changing, as well as being perceived differently in various regions or sociocultural settings. Against this background, this thesis sought to clarify what constitutes fast food in Ghanaian restaurants, assess its prevalence and explore its characteristics and relevance for urban food provisioning, health improvement and tourism development. An interdisciplinary and a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to gather data for a restaurant study to assess the availability and characteristics of fast food in the AMA using the cuisine concept as an analytical framework. The same approaches were used to gather data for a consumer study to explain how (i) convenience influences fast-food consumption, (ii) identity influences fast-food consumption and (iii) personal responsibility influences fast-food purchase, consumption and waste disposal decisions. Findings indicated that the core food items present in fast-food restaurants are menu items such as foods generally recognised as fast food (FGRAFF), including fried rice, fried chicken, burgers, pizzas and French fries, as well as common Ghanaian foods such as banku and kelewele. Interestingly, the FGRAFFs have been transformed in several ways mainly by the incorporation of aspects of the Ghanaian food culture. Most people eat fast food because of their desire to save time, mental and physical effort, as well as because of the inherent convenience attributes of fast food. Findings also showed that people consume fast food because of its role in identity formation and expression whereby eating in a fast-food restaurant is a way to be connected with what is new and unique, pleasurable and associated with social interaction and sensory and health values. Strikingly, findings showed that fast-food consumers do not only eat fast food for convenience and identity expression, but that they are also reflective about the health and environmental anxieties that might come along with the social practice of consumption. Therefore, consumers may adopt loyalty or exit strategies as a way of reducing the effects of the health and environmental anxieties on themselves and society as a whole. This study has shown that some consumers would prefer to adopt loyalty strategies, implying that fast food provides some major material, social, cultural and behavioural benefits for these consumers and so they may not choose to curtail their fast-food consumption. Therefore, for nutrition and health intervention programmes to be effective, there is a clear need to adopt more holistic approaches by incorporating material, social, cultural and behavioural aspects of food into formal programmes.

Monitoring and estimating the consumption of certified sustainable cocoa and coffee in the Netherlands : availability and application of data
Logatcheva, K. - \ 2014
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Memoradum / LEI 14-055) - 14
cacao - koffie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - consumptie - monitoring - cocoa - coffee - sustainability - consumption
Er zijn verschillende instanties die (niet-)systematische informatie verzamelen over de Nederlandse koffie- en cacaosectoren die bruikbaar is om het behalen van de doelstellingen van de intentieverklaringen in de koffie in cacaosectoren12 te meten: individuele bedrijven en sectororganisaties, publieke en private instellingen voor marktonderzoek. Volgens de Koninklijke Nederlandse Vereniging van Koffie en Thee (KNVKT) was het marktaandeel van duurzaam gecertificeerde koffie op de Nederlandse markt in 2012 40%. Dit gegeven zal systematisch en periodiek worden geactualiseerd op de website van de KNVKT. Andere informatie die de monitoring van de resultaten van de inspanningen van de sectoren in Nederland mogelijk zou kunnen maken, is echter beperkt door hoge kosten en complexiteit van de koffie- en cacaoketens. De sectoren worden gedomineerd door grote internationale bedrijven die in meerdere landen actief zijn. Voorts is er sprake van een grote differentiatie van soorten consumentenproducten, met name in de cacaosector. Adhocinformatie maakt slechts een enkele (grove) schatting voor een bepaalde periode mogelijk. Volgens deskundigen uit het cacaoverwerkingssegment was het aandeel gecertificeerde duurzame cacao in consumentenproducten die verkocht zijn op de Nederlandse markt in 2012 niet hoger dan 25%. Andere verzamelde (ad-hoc)informatie over de cacaomarkt geeft geen aanleiding om deze schatting te verwerpen. Het onderzoek naar koffiesector is verricht in 2012 met enkele relevante updates in 2013. Het onderzoek naar cacaosector is verricht in 2012 en 2013 met enkele relevante updates voor 2014.
Wealth and poverty in European rural societies from the Sixteenth to Nineteenth century
Schuurman, A.J. ; Broad, J. - \ 2014
Turnhout : Brepols - ISBN 9782503545165 - 253
geschiedenis - plattelandssamenleving - agrarische samenleving - landbouw - platteland - vermogensverdeling - armoede - levensstandaarden - consumptie - europa - history - rural society - agricultural society - agriculture - rural areas - wealth distribution - poverty - living standards - consumption - europe
This book sheds new light on old problems of wealth, poverty and material culture in rural societies. Much of the debate has concentrated on north-west Europe and the Atlantic world. This volume widens the geographic range to compare less well known areas, with case studies on the Mediterranean world (Catalonia and Greece), from central Europe (Bohemia and Hungary), and from the Nordic countries (Denmark). Methodologically, several papers link the possession of goods to the use of room space, while others highlight the importance of the channels for the circulation of goods, problems of stocks and flows of goods, and the complexities of urban/rural difference. Finally, this book seeks to stimulate new comparative studies in living standards and lifestyles by providing an overview of achievements up till now. John Broad is visiting academic at the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, University of Cambridge. He has published on rural society and poverty in England, and his current research interests include a book on English rural housing, and large-scale surveys of population, religion, and landholding in England in the eighteenth century. Anton Schuurman is associate professor of Rural History at Wageningen University. He has published on the history of material culture and rural transformations in the Netherlands. Currently he is writing a book on the processes of modernisation and democratisation in the Dutch countryside from 1840 till 1920.
How pride and guilt guide pro-environmental behaviour
Onwezen, M.C. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739070 - 230
economie - menselijk gedrag - consumentengedrag - milieu - keuzegedrag - gedragseconomie - economische psychologie - perceptie - consumptie - emoties - zelfbesef - omgevingspsychologie - economics - human behaviour - consumer behaviour - environment - choice behaviour - behavioural economics - economic psychology - perception - consumption - emotions - self perception - environmental psychology

The world is currently confronted with environmental problems such as water pollution, loss of biodiversity, and air pollution. A promising way to reduce environmental problems is to encourage consumers towards more sustainable consumption patterns. Pro-environmental consumer choices involve a tradeoff between environmental motives and more personally related motives such as healthiness, convenience, and price. In this dissertation we explore how feeling good about oneself influences pro-environmental decision making.

We focus on pride and guilt, which belong to the group of self-conscious emotions. Self-conscious emotions occur when individuals are aware of themselves and reflect on themselves in order to evaluate whether their behaviour is in accordance with their (personal and social) standards. In short, we explore the fundamental way in which pride and guilt guide pro-environmental behaviour via self-reflection. We propose that pride and guilt guide behaviour via a self-regulatory function, meaning that they provide feedback about how one is performing regarding one’s own standards and the perceived standards of others. The emotional feedback is used to guide oneself in accordance with these standards (i.e. self-regulation). Furthermore, we propose that the way one sees the self (who am I in relation to others), affects how individuals evaluate themselves, which in turn affects how pride and guilt are formed and guide behaviour.

This thesis has both theoretical implications, as we increase understanding in the function of self-conscious emotions, and practical implications, as understanding the functions of pride and guilt in consumer decision making can be used to develop interventions to promote pro-environmental behaviour among consumers. For a thorough discussion of these implications we refer to the General Discussion. Below we provide a short overview of the findings of the individual chapters.

Chapter 2 explores whether and how pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour. Previous studies do not provide clear evidence regarding the effects of pride and guilt on subsequent pro-environmental behaviour. Acting or not acting in a pro-environmental way might induce feelings of pride and guilt respectively, which does not necessarily mean that these emotions guide future pro-environmental choices. Three studies show that pride, and to a lesser extent guilt, guide future pro-environmental choices. Chapter 2 additionally explores how pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour. We propose that pride and guilt influence pro-environmental behaviour by providing information about whether the intended behaviour is in line with one’s standards, and not out of a basic tendency to feel good. Two studies show indeed that only related (endogenous) and not unrelated (exogenous) emotions affect pro-environmental behaviour. These findings imply that pride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour via a feedback-function and not via a basic mechanism to feel good.

Chapter 3explores howpride and guilt affect pro-environmental behaviour via a feedback-function. Up until now it was not clear how these emotions guide behaviour. The function of pride and guilt is explored in two vested theories: the Norm Activation model (NAM) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Several researchers who use the NAM propose that anticipated pride and guilt are associated with personal norms. However, these researchers have specified the nature of this association in different ways (including direct effects, mediating effects, or moderating effects), and have rarely tested these proposed associations empirically. This chapter shows how the function of pride and guilt within the NAM can be specified. The results support a self-regulatory function of pride and guilt which shows that they mediate the effects of personal norms on pro-environmental behaviour. Anticipated pride and guilt thus guide individuals to behave themselves in accordance with existing standards regarding the environment (i.e. self-regulatory function). Moreover, we integrated the NAM with the TPB and show that the self-regulatory functions of pride and guilt remain present in an integrated NAM-TPB model (Bamberg et al., 2007). Pride and guilt mediate the effects of personal norms, attitudes, and injunctive social norms on intentions. Pride and guilt therefore seem to regulate individual behaviour regarding the environment so as to allow a person to be in accordance with one’s personal and social standards towards the environment.

Chapter 4initially explores whether the self-regulatory functions of pride and guilt differ across personally oriented versus pro-socially oriented contexts. Previous studies that explore the self-regulatory function of self-conscious emotions within the TPB show mixed findings regarding the mediating effects of these emotions. This chapter distinguishes between injunctive and descriptive social norms and includes multiple contexts to explore whether this accounts for the mixed findings. Three survey studies show that anticipated pride and guilt regulate behavioural intentions to make them in accordance with attitudes and injunctive and descriptive social norms. Additionally, we show that the self-regulatory function of pride and guilt differs across contexts, which may account for the mixed findings of previous studies. We show preliminary evidence that anticipated self-conscious emotions have a larger mediating effect in altruistic (i.e. organic and fair trade consumption) rather than personally oriented (i.e. healthy consumption) contexts.

InChapter 5 we explore whether the self-regulatory function of pride and guilt differs across collectivistic and individualistic countries. Based on previous studies (e.g., Mesquita, 2001), we suggest that the function of emotions might differ due to cultural differences in the construal of the self. We propose that the way one sees the self in relation to others (i.e. self-construal) affects the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt. Individualistic countries are overrepresented by individuals with a private self (i.e. independent self) meaning that the self encompasses unique individuals with their own personal goals. Collectivistic countries are overrepresented by individuals with a social self (i.e. interdependent self) meaning that the self encompasses family, friends, and important others, and a striving to reach group-based goals. We conducted a survey across eight collectivistic and individualistic countries. As expected the results show that there are no differences across countries in the self-regulatory function of anticipated pride and guilt withinindividualistic and withincollectivistic cultures, but that there are differences betweencollectivistic and individualistic cultures. Individuals from collectivistic countries use more social standards and less personal standards to anticipate pride and guilt. These findings provide a first indication that the function of emotions is more socially driven for individuals from collectivistic rather than individualistic cultures. These findings imply that cultural differences in the function of emotions are associated with cultural differences in self-construal (i.e. independent and interdependent self).

Chapter 6explores whether the function of pride and guilt might also vary within individuals due to activating different construals of the self. Previous studies show that contextual cues can activate private versus social selves within an individual. We show that social media can also act as a contextual cue that activates the social self. Moreover, three experiments show that activating the social self increases the effects of guilt on pro-environmental intentions, whereas activating the private self increases the effects of pride on pro-environmental intentions. This finding implies that activating different construals of the self can increase the effects of emotions on intentions. Furthermore, we show that these effects occur because the activation of private versus social selves results in different self-evaluations. Activating the social self makes individuals more sensitive to social norms in self-evaluations that evoke emotions, whereas activating the private self makes individuals more sensitive to attitudes in self-evaluations that evoke emotions. The findings of this chapter imply that guilt is more social in nature than pride.

Conclusion. The current thesis shows that pride and guilt guide pro-environmental consumer behaviour via a self-regulatory function. Pride and guilt occur after a self-reflection on personal and social standards related to the environment, and in turn they guide pro-environmental behaviour. This function differs when different employments of the self are activated or cultivated. Thus how one sees oneself through one’s own eyes and through the eyes of others affects the emotions that one experiences, and how these emotions affect subsequent pro-environmental intentions.

Op weg naar een hogere groente- en fruitconsumptie: barrières en succesfactoren : eerste inventarisatie en verkenning van kennis en meest kansrijke interventies rondom het verhogen groente- en fruitconsumptie
Sluis, A.A. van der; Stijnen, D.A.J.M. ; Maaskant, A.J. ; Zeinstra, G.G. ; Vingerhoeds, M.H. ; Heuts, F. ; Heijnen, J. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Food & Biobased (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1431) - ISBN 9789461737007 - 91
consumptiepatronen - consumptie - voedselvoorkeuren - voedingsvoorkeuren - consumentenvoorkeuren - fruit - groenten - maatregel op voedingsgebied - voeding - consumption patterns - consumption - food preferences - feeding preferences - consumer preferences - fruit - vegetables - nutritional intervention - nutrition
Gezond eten en drinken is naast voldoende beweging, één van de belangrijkste manieren om zelf te zorgen dat je gezond en vitaal oud wordt. Een ongezond voedingspatroon en een ongezonde levensstijl zorgen voor een enorme stijging van de kosten voor medische zorg, verlies aan arbeidsproductiviteit en verlies aan gezonde levensjaren. Groente- en fruitproducten zijn een belangrijke bron van voedingsvezels en hebben een relatief hoog gehalte aan voedingstoffen die essentieel zijn voor de gezondheid. Zo leveren groenten en fruit een belangrijk aandeel in de inname van vitamines, mineralen en bioactieve stoffen. Bijkomend voordeel is dat groenten en fruit een relatief lage energiedichtheid hebben en vooral door de vezels een goede maagvulling zijn. Dat het eten van groenten en fruit bijdraagt aan een gezonde levensstijl is inmiddels voldoende bekend. Toch blijft de verkoop en consumptie van groenten en fruit veel lager dan de aanbevolen hoeveelheid. Tot dusver hebben campagnes en interventies deze lage consumptie niet of onvoldoende kunnen tegengaan. Dit rapport beschrijft het resultaat van een onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden om de groente- en fruitconsumptie in Nederland te verhogen. Het doel van dit onderzoek is het verkennen van het eetgedrag van consumenten rondom groente- en fruit en het inventariseren van recente interventies en strategieën om de groente- en fruitconsumptie te verhogen (welke hebben wel gewerkt, welke niet).
Consuming mobility : a practice approach to sustainable mobility transitions
Nijhuis, J.O. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren; J.T. Mommaas. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737724 - 267
mobiliteit - duurzame ontwikkeling - milieubeleid - consumptie - innovaties - systeeminnovatie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - consumentengedrag - samenleving - mobility - sustainable development - environmental policy - consumption - innovations - system innovation - sustainability - consumer behaviour - society
The current fossil fuel-based system of mobility is associated with a wide range of environmental and social problems. There is a growing body of literature on system innovations and transitions which has as a common understanding that long-term transformative change is necessary to deal with these complex problems. However, knowledge on the crucial role of citizen-consumers in sustainable mobility transitions is still underdeveloped. By incorporating the viewpoint of consumption patterns and everyday life routines, this book provides (new) knowledge on the role of citizen-consumers in sustainable mobility transitions. Theoretically, a practice based approach is developed as a novel framework to analyse, understand and influence transition processes to sustainable mobility at the level of everyday life. The focus in each of the three cases studies is on situated interactions between consumers and producers. Amongst these is an analysis of the role environmental information and subsidies in new car purchasing. Also, various examples in which an attempt was made to orchestrate a (modal) shift in commuting practices are examined. Each of the empirical case studies shows the important role of contextual factors in understanding and influencing mobility behaviour of citizen-consumers. In addition, this book helps to understand how and why innovation in mobility practices takes place or not.
Consuming mobility : a practice approach to sustainable mobility transitions
Nijhuis, J.O. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Environmental policy series volume 10) - ISBN 9789086867943 - 259
mobiliteit - duurzame ontwikkeling - milieubeleid - consumptie - innovaties - systeeminnovatie - samenleving - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - consumentengedrag - mobility - sustainable development - environmental policy - consumption - innovations - system innovation - society - sustainability - consumer behaviour
The current fossil fuel-based system of mobility is associated with a wide range of environmental and social problems. There is a growing body of literature on system innovations and transitions which has as a common understanding that long-term transformative change is necessary to deal with these complex problems. However, knowledge on the crucial role of citizen-consumers in sustainable mobility transitions is still underdeveloped. By incorporating the viewpoint of consumption patterns and everyday life routines, this book provides (new) knowledge on the role of citizen-consumers in sustainable mobility transitions. Theoretically, a practice based approach is developed as a novel framework to analyse, understand and influence transition processes to sustainable mobility at the level of everyday life. The focus in each of the three cases studies is on situated interactions between consumers and producers. Amongst these is an analysis of the role environmental information and subsidies in new car purchasing. Also, various examples in which an attempt was made to orchestrate a (modal) shift in commuting practices are examined. Each of the empirical case studies shows the important role of contextual factors in understanding and influencing mobility behaviour of citizen-consumers. In addition, this book helps to understand how and why innovation in mobility practices takes place or not.
Dutch business opportunities in the Russian agrifood sector; Animal protein sector and Moscow Metropolitan fresh food chain
Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Valeeva, N.I. ; Berkum, S. van - \ 2012
The Hague : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI memorandum 13-018) - 87
voedselproductie - verse producten - voedselketens - dierlijke eiwitten - beleid inzake voedsel - handel - consumptie - bedrijven - rusland - nederland - kennis - food production - fresh products - food chains - animal proteins - food policy - trade - consumption - businesses - russia - netherlands - knowledge
This report studies the Russian animal protein sector and the Moscow Metropolitan Food Security. It aims at identifying the opportunities for Dutch business to do businesses through exports or via local investments. Public available government policies, papers and interviews with stakeholders are the information sources for this study. Russia has a population of 140m and a robust GDP growth. Doing business indicators indicate several deficiencies in the economic environment in the country, yet the outlook for agricultural development and food consumption patterns show ample business opportunities.
Internationale teeltverbetering zwarte bes : zwarte bessen ook voor verse consumptie geschikt gemaakt
Heijerman, G. - \ 2012
De Fruitteelt 102 (2012)25. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 16 - 17.
zwarte bessen - ribes nigrum - rassen (planten) - nieuwe soorten - consumptie - klimaatfactoren - gewasopbrengst - wereldmarkten - black currants - varieties - new species - consumption - climatic factors - crop yield - world markets
Veredeling van zwarte bessen richt zich niet alleen op verbetering van de rassen voor verwerking, maar ook voor de verse consumptie. Dat werd duidelijk tijdens de derde internationale Zwarte bessen Conferentie die onlangs werd gehouden in Dundee (Schotland). Deelnemers kwamen vanuit de gehele keten: onderzoekers, telers, adviseurs en afzetpartijen.
Dag zonder vlees vraagt meer creativiteit
Bakker, H.C.M. de - \ 2010
Kennis Online 7 (2010)nov. - p. 23 - 23.
consumentenvoorkeuren - vleeswaren - consumptie - consumentengedrag - vleesvervangers - consumer preferences - meat products - consumption - consumer behaviour - meat alternates
Een grote groep consumenten wil best minder vlees eten, maar geen vegetariër worden. Deze vleesminderaars kunnen nog beter door campagnes en creatieve producten aangesproken worden.
Vleesminnaars, vleesminderaars en vleesmijders : duurzame eiwitconsumptie in een carnivore eetcultuur
Bakker, H.C.M. de; Dagevos, H. - \ 2010
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI Rapport. Onderzoeksveld Consument & Gedrag 2010-003) - ISBN 9789086154302 - 207
eiwitten - consumptie - vlees - consumentengedrag - consumentenvoorkeuren - vervangmiddelen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedingsgewoonten - nederland - vleesvervangers - eiwitbronnen - eiwitrijke voedingsmiddelen - proteins - consumption - meat - consumer behaviour - consumer preferences - substitutes - sustainability - feeding habits - netherlands - meat alternates - protein sources - protein foods
Deze studie behandelt de verduurzaming van onze vleesconsumptie vanuit een consumentenperspectief. Naast een historische schets van de Nederlandse eiwitpolitiek wordt ingegegaan op de huidige 'carnivore' eetcultuur, de rol van prijs en de veranderbaarheid van consumenten. Betrokken stakeholders spreken zich uit over de vermarkting van duurzame eiwitalternatieven. Consumenten zelf komen ook aan het woord over wat vlees voor hen betekent. Tot slot wordt aangegeven welke marktstrategieën en veranderingsroutes kunnen bijdragen aan de eiwittransitie.
De consumptie van dierlijke producten : ontwikkelingen, invloedsfactoren, actoren en interventies
Beekman, V. ; Pronk, A. ; Smet, A. de - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 192) - 59
dierlijke producten - consumptie - voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - interventie - beleid inzake voedsel - marktanalyse - animal products - consumption - food consumption - consumption patterns - intervention - food policy - market analysis
LEI Wageningen UR heeft in opdracht van het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) met behulp van kwantitatief onderzoek onderzocht hoe de consumptie van dierlijke producten zich in Europese landen in de afgelopen decennia heeft ontwikkeld. Daarnaast zijn met behulp van kwalitatief onderzoek mogelijke interventies geïdentificeerd gericht op het beïnvloeden van de consumptie van dierlijke producten. Dit onderzoek biedt een basis voor de verdere uitwerking en uitvoering van door publieke en private actoren te nemen maatregelen gericht op verandering of vermindering van de consumptie van dierlijke producten.
The food economy : global issues and challenges
Bunte, F.H.J. ; Dagevos, H. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086861095 - 191
agrarische economie - voedselindustrie - beleid inzake voedsel - voedselproducten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - consumptie - globalisering - marktstructuur - agricultural economics - food industry - food policy - food products - sustainability - consumption - globalization - market structure
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