We have to eat, right? : food safety concerns and shopping for daily vegetables in modernizing Vietnam
Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575745 - 241
voedselveiligheid - voedselkwaliteit - groenten - consumenten - consumptiepatronen - consumptie - milieubeleid - vietnam - zuidoost-azië - food safety - food quality - vegetables - consumers - consumption patterns - consumption - environmental policy - vietnam - south east asia
This thesis analyses how people during everyday life confront real food safety risks that are difficult to influence and come to grips with and focuses on food safety risks in modernizing Vietnam.
Over the past 40 years Vietnam has developed from war torn country with a highly centralized planned economy ranking among the world’s most impoverished nations to a socialist-oriented market economic power house, currently ranking highest among the world’s largest growth economies. Throughout this transition Vietnam has struggled with food security in which concerns have shifted from ‘is there enough to eat?’ to ‘is it safe to eat?’. Food safety has become a major social and political issue in Vietnam. Urbanization puts pressure on the provision of daily fresh food. The distanciation of production-consumption relationships and the intensification of cultivation methods, as a response to growing urban demand with a declining farmland acreage, results in regular food safety incidents related to the inappropriate use of chemicals in agricultural production. The wide media coverage of such incidences has resulted in food safety being the ‘number one consumer concern’ in Vietnam.
To improve food safety and to restore trust among consumers, authorities in Vietnam, as in other parts of Asia, promulgate policies that focus on the modernization of the food retail system. Western models of consumption and retailing strongly influence these retail modernization policies, placing supermarket development at the core of strategies. The retail modernization policies are designed to influence choices and persuade consumers to change their behavior based on the idea that consumers make rational choices, assuming that food safety concerns will drive consumers into supermarket channels. However, despite consumer food safety concerns, in the performance of everyday life, consumers don’t ‘en masse’ adopt the policy enabled risk-reducing alternative of supermarkets. Traditional channels such as wet markets continue to dominate in the daily fresh vegetable purchasing practices. This phenomenon is observed across the Asian continent. As it turns out, transitions in the food buying practices of Asian consumers are not so easily established.
This thesis addresses consumption as a social practice. The application of social practice based approaches to the analysis of consumption started around the turn of the century and has since gained importance in thinking about food system changes with a strong focus on western developed societies. By applying the research on the specific case of shopping for vegetables in Vietnam, this thesis exemplifies how a social practices approach is relevant beyond OECD countries. In studying the relation and dynamics between local cultural tradition and advanced globalization at the consumption junction, this thesis uncovers how practices of shopping for vegetables and their inherent food safety dynamics emerge, evolve, or die out within the rapidly transforming urban context of Hanoi, Vietnam. This thesis is concerned with the question:
How do ordinary people in Vietnam confront food safety risks and why and how they do, or do not adopt alternative practices, like modern retail shopping, to respond to their increasing concerns about the fresh-food made available to them?
The conducted research and its findings are described in this thesis over six chapters. It starts with an introductory chapter 1, followed by four distinct, though coherent, empirical research chapters (chapter 2-5). Each of these chapters delivers a complementary understanding on the everyday practice of shopping for vegetables in the transformative context of Vietnam. Combined these empirical research chapters provide an understanding of how practices of shopping for vegetables develop, are sustained and/or die out within a rapidly transforming urban context. The thesis ends with a concluding chapter 6.
The first chapter describes the research problem, the theoretical framing of the problem and the research questions. The chapter explicates why this thesis takes a social practices theory based research approach. Exploring the middle ground of two interlinked debates - a debate with extreme positions in retail development and a debate on how to bring about behavioral change, - it is discussed that a social practices approach is relevant for obtaining understandings of everyday life, because of its non-individualist perspective, its empirical focus on habitual activity, and its inclusion of the local context. Next, the chapter outlines the conceptual approach in which relations between provision systems on the one hand and consumers on the other are mediated at the food retailing sites. By giving primacy to neither agency nor structure, it is discussed how practices based research, might deliver an understanding of the relation and dynamics between local cultural tradition and advanced globalisation. It than elaborates on the novel programmatic methodological approach of shifting perspectives - zooming in on situated practices and zooming out through a historical mapping of a portfolio of embedded practices - that allow the detection of the dynamics in situated habitual and contextually constrained activities, as well as longer term transformations of practices over time. Chapter 1 concludes with an exposition of the mix of methods applied.
Chapter 2 investigates which characteristics of the dominant and persistent practice of shopping at wet markets account for its continued reproduction and addresses the question of how food safety concerns are confronted within this well–established practice. Taking a rural city not yet touched by retail modernization as the research setting, this chapter presents in-depth empirical research insights on interactions at wet-market from the perspective of both sales persons and citizen-consumers. This chapter shows that food safety is a well-recognized dilemma by both providers and consumers of vegetables, but that food safety concerns are not the principal factor in determining the purchasing practices. Shopping at wet markets is a highly routinized taken for granted activity and food safety concerns only become prominent within this habitual shopping setting. Deploying specific heuristics for vendor and product selection, food safety is shown to be continuously reproduced along pre-given lines. As long as the existing, ‘practical’ repertoire of food safety heuristics deployed by consumers suffices in counter balancing their anxieties, consumers adhere to their established food shopping routines of shopping at wet markets.
Chapter 3 explores the persistence of shopping for vegetables at informal, uncontrolled, and unhygienic street markets in the context of advancing retail modernization in urban Hanoi. Government induced policies aim at replacing wet markets by supermarkets and therewith enforce breaks with well-established routines. However, although supermarkets are recognized and valued as safe vegetable retailing sites, they are only marginally successful in attracting daily vegetables consumers. This chapter addresses the question of what context specific processes and circumstances account for the continued reproduction of shopping at street markets that do not offer formal food safety guarantees. The empirical study of vegetable shopping practices at six different street markets, reveals how consumers handle food safety concerns in combination with other choices about where and when to buy. It shows how and why daily routines are time-spatial constrained. Where and how to buy vegetables is importantly shaped by other activities in daily life. The empirical research illustrates that temporal and spatial dimensions of practices in contemporary daily life in Hanoi constitute a reinforcing mechanism for the persistence of uncontrolled and unhygienic street markets, rather than the uptake of supermarkets. This chapter points out that food safety policies and interventions that do not take into consideration the existing everyday consumption practices, might fail to address acute food safety issues.
Chapter 4 assesses the extent of the outreach of modernized retail formats in terms of who benefits, who is excluded and what context specific processes and circumstances influence the uptake of modified or modern retail formats by different social groups. A practice realist perspective is demonstrated to be relevant for addressing outreach and social inclusion and understanding how policy interventions play out in practice. On the basis of a collective case study of six distinct policy induced retail modernization interventions, this chapter illustrates the emerging and on-going process of food retail transformation. This approach exposes how and why similar supermarket interventions can yield contrasting intermediate outcomes when they do not accommodate for differences in shopper population and do not adapt to variations in the urban conditions. The current one-dimensional, supermarket oriented, retail modernization policy that aims to reduce the exposure to uncertified ‘unsafe’ food, is shown to lead to the exclusion of a large proportion of the population. This chapter points out the importance for Vietnamese policymakers to consider the risk of social deprivation and to explicitly reflect on the unanticipated consequences of the normative direction of their interventions in food provision. This chapter indicates that reaching a more diverse population requires more flexible policies that allow for malleability in response to local conditions.
Chapter 5 addresses the questions: what practices of purchasing or appropriating fresh vegetables do exist in contemporary Vietnam; how do they relate to food safety concerns and dynamics; why did they emerge and evolve during the past 40 years; and what factors are important in explaining the dynamics of change in the overall set of shopping practices? Deploying a practice historical perspective, this chapter unravels the complex evolving relationships between the local and the global as they can be read from the ways in which Vietnamese consumers deal with food safety risks when shopping for fresh food, by analyzing a portfolio of shopping practices against the background of historical changes over the period 1975-2015. Discussing the way in which six situated social practices are embedded in the broader set of food appropriation practices, this chapter portrays how practices show consistency in change over time, influenced by transformations in their environment, in which practices are interrelated with other practices in daily life beyond the act of shopping for food and beyond the domain of food. Further this chapter demonstrates how food safety related trust mechanisms as deployed by Vietnamese consumers show patterns of hybridization of personalized trust with abstract guidance systems. The historical approach provides insights on why shopping at supermarkets is not just currently still limited in recruiting practitioners. Also looking forward, it is not reasonable to expect homogenization in food retail system transformation.
This thesis concludes with chapter 6 which addresses the question of what lessons can be learned from social practices research in assessing the present and future role of supermarkets and the accompanying food safety strategies, which imply the de- and re-routinization of well-established contemporary practices of shopping for fresh-food. Along the four empirical research chapters, it first sets out to answer the research questions. Next it elaborates on the theoretical and methodological approach. The chapter describes the iterative research process and depicts how methodological variance can be used as a strength when applied as an intelligible program of shifting perspectives - zooming in and out on practices - and a mix of methods. It is pointed out that although practices based approaches are criticized on their complexity and ambiguity, the approach used in this thesis is proven to deliver concrete results and might be useful in similar cases. Lastly, this concluding chapter discusses how practices based perspectives have the potential to inform a more versatile and amenable portfolio of public regulations and resources when striving for amelioration in food provision, not only in Vietnam, but across the Asian continent.
This thesis demonstrates how changes in infrastructures are not sufficient for changing practices and thus warns against making food safety policies strongly dependent on a single supermarket model. Instead of putting all strategic resources on one strategy, efforts of integration and mutual adaptation of modern and traditional structures could be considered. Pursuing a trend of hybridization prevents that consumers have to break with long established routines in an isolated, radical way.
Vis onbekend : zoeken naar het waarom van de geringe visconsumptie in Nederland
Dagevos, H. ; Zaalmink, W. - \ 2014
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota 14-089) - 19
visconsumptie - vis - visproducten - voedselconsumptie - voeding en gezondheid - consumptiepatronen - fish consumption - fish - fish products - food consumption - nutrition and health - consumption patterns
Vanuit verschillende perspectieven is gezocht naar mogelijke antwoorden op de vraag waarom de visconsumptie in het Nederland van vandaag relatief gering is.
Handreiking voor het berekenen van een ecologische voetafdruk : eindrapport KBIV WOt 2013
Verzandvoort, S.J.E. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Hack-ten Broeke, M.J.D. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2554) - 91
landgebruik - watergebruik - ecologische verstoring - productieprocessen - consumptiepatronen - inventarisaties - land use - water use - ecological disturbance - production processes - consumption patterns - inventories
Dit rapport geeft een raamwerk voor het bepalen van een ecologische voetafdruk voor veranderingen in productie- en consumptiesystemen. Het raamwerk kan worden gebruikt voor het bepalen van benodigd land- en watergebruik voor productie van goederen en diensten.
Focusgroepdiscussies over pizza en groentesalade met kinderen van 10-12 jaar: resultaten en aanbevelingen voor productontwikkeling
Janssen, A.M. ; Holthuysen, N.T.E. ; Stijnen, D.A.J.M. ; Zeinstra, G.G. ; Vrijhof, M.N. - \ 2014
Wageningen : FBR (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1449) - ISBN 9789461739858 - 86
kinderen - perceptie - pizza's - groenten - salades - voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - voeding en gezondheid - productontwikkeling - nederland - children - perception - pizzas - vegetables - salads - food consumption - consumption patterns - nutrition and health - product development - netherlands
In the Netherlands, the consumption of fruit and vegetables is too low among children. One of the main reasons is that children often do not like to eat vegetables. The focus in the project Healthy food for kids - Kids University was to measure children’s product experience of (more) healthy vegetable foods and to translate gained knowledge into food concepts high in vegetable content developed for children aged 10-12 years. In this report, results of the research aiming to better understand factors that are important for children when eating pizza and vegetable salad, is described. Another goal was to determine what choices children make when they compose their own pizza or vegetable salad.
Consumptie van Chinese wolhandkrab in Nederland
Leeuwen, S.P.J. van; Stouten, P. ; Zaalmink, W. ; Hoogenboom, L.A.P. - \ 2013
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT-rapport 2013.018) - 43
krabben (schaaldieren) - geïntroduceerde soorten - visconsumptie - voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - voedselveiligheid - dioxinen - krabsvlees - polychloorbifenylen - crabs - introduced species - fish consumption - food consumption - consumption patterns - food safety - dioxins - crab meat - polychlorinated biphenyls
Deze inventarisatie beschrijft de consumptiegebruiken van in Nederland woonachtige personen. Daarnaast zijn de handelsstromen van de wolhandkrab in Nederland en vanuit Nederland onderzocht.
Op weg naar een hogere groente- en fruitconsumptie: barrières en succesfactoren : eerste inventarisatie en verkenning van kennis en meest kansrijke interventies rondom het verhogen groente- en fruitconsumptie
Sluis, A.A. van der; Stijnen, D.A.J.M. ; Maaskant, A.J. ; Zeinstra, G.G. ; Vingerhoeds, M.H. ; Heuts, F. ; Heijnen, J. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Food & Biobased (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1431) - ISBN 9789461737007 - 91
consumptiepatronen - consumptie - voedselvoorkeuren - voedingsvoorkeuren - consumentenvoorkeuren - fruit - groenten - maatregel op voedingsgebied - voeding - consumption patterns - consumption - food preferences - feeding preferences - consumer preferences - fruit - vegetables - nutritional intervention - nutrition
Gezond eten en drinken is naast voldoende beweging, één van de belangrijkste manieren om zelf te zorgen dat je gezond en vitaal oud wordt. Een ongezond voedingspatroon en een ongezonde levensstijl zorgen voor een enorme stijging van de kosten voor medische zorg, verlies aan arbeidsproductiviteit en verlies aan gezonde levensjaren. Groente- en fruitproducten zijn een belangrijke bron van voedingsvezels en hebben een relatief hoog gehalte aan voedingstoffen die essentieel zijn voor de gezondheid. Zo leveren groenten en fruit een belangrijk aandeel in de inname van vitamines, mineralen en bioactieve stoffen. Bijkomend voordeel is dat groenten en fruit een relatief lage energiedichtheid hebben en vooral door de vezels een goede maagvulling zijn. Dat het eten van groenten en fruit bijdraagt aan een gezonde levensstijl is inmiddels voldoende bekend. Toch blijft de verkoop en consumptie van groenten en fruit veel lager dan de aanbevolen hoeveelheid. Tot dusver hebben campagnes en interventies deze lage consumptie niet of onvoldoende kunnen tegengaan. Dit rapport beschrijft het resultaat van een onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden om de groente- en fruitconsumptie in Nederland te verhogen. Het doel van dit onderzoek is het verkennen van het eetgedrag van consumenten rondom groente- en fruit en het inventariseren van recente interventies en strategieën om de groente- en fruitconsumptie te verhogen (welke hebben wel gewerkt, welke niet).
Consument aan het roer : onderzoek naar consumentenvoorkeur voor regionale producten in Wageningen en omgeving
Jagt, P.D. van der; Groen, P. ; Kavvouris, C. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 304) - ISBN 9789461738752 - 62
regionale voedselketens - streekgebonden producten - voedselcoöperaties - duurzame landbouw - voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - consumentengedrag - coöperatieve verenigingen - biologische landbouw - gelderland - gelderse vallei - biologische voedingsmiddelen - tendensen - regional food chains - regional specialty products - food cooperatives - sustainable agriculture - food consumption - consumption patterns - consumer behaviour - cooperative societies - organic farming - gelderland - gelderse vallei - organic foods - trends
De consumenten coöperatie CC2 van o.a. Buys & Ko uit Wageningen is een actieve groep consumenten die zich verenigd hebben om consumenten meer stem te geven in het aanbod van duurzaam voedsel in de regio. Een consumenten coöperatie is een nieuwe interactieve manier om consumenten en hun voedselaanbod meer op elkaar af te stemmen. Het bestuur van CC2 wil inzetten op ondersteuning van de regionale ketens, professionalisering van regionale productie en het mede-onderzoeken van een nieuw winkelconcept voor Buys & Ko. Op verzoek van CC2 is een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar consumentenwensen ten aanzien van deze thema’s in het segment duurzaam voedsel. Doel van het onderzoek is op basis van de voorkeuren van leden en potentiële leden van de consumentenvereniging gericht beleid te formuleren voor het aanbod van duurzaam voedsel in de regio de mogelijke rol daarbij van natuurvoedingswinkel Buys & Ko. Het onderzoek draagt zodoende direct bij aan het vergroten van invloed van de consument op het regionale voedselaanbod.
Optimaal sluiten van mineralenkringlopen : een mediterraan dieet met meer plantaardig eiwit
Cormont, A. ; Janssen, S.J.C. - \ 2012
plantaardig eiwit - eetpatronen - voedselconsumptie - scenario-analyse - berekening - dierlijke productie - consumptiepatronen - plant protein - eating patterns - food consumption - scenario analysis - calculation - animal production - consumption patterns
In opdracht van Milieudefensie is door Alterra uitgezocht in hoeverre het mogelijk is om in een regio in Europa een optimale balans te vinden voor de teelt van veevoer- en voedingsgewassen, het aantal productiedieren en voedings- en voederdiëten. In deze factsheet wordt de uitwerking van de balansen voor een rekenscenario beschreven waarbij de eiwitten in het humane consumptiepatroon voor 54% afkomstig zijn uit dierlijke producten – net zoveel als in het huidige consumptiepatroon van de inwoners van de Europese mediterrane landen.
Optimaal sluiten van mineralenkringlopen : een ongewijzigd dieet in een toekomst zonder kunstmest
Cormont, A. ; Janssen, S.J.C. - \ 2012
voedselvoorziening - zelfvoorzieningslandbouw - werkloosheid in de landbouw - humane voeding - consumptiepatronen - food supply - subsistence farming - agricultural unemployment - human feeding - consumption patterns
In een rekenscenario waarin het consumptiepatroon van de inwoners van de voorbeeldregio gelijk blijft aan het huidige consumptiepatroon, is voldoende land beschikbaar voor de teelt van gras (veevoer), maar onvoldoende land voor de teelt van overige gewassen, zoals granen en groenten. De stikstof uit de mest van de aanwezige veestapel en stikstofvastlegging door vlinderbloemigen kan vrijwel geheel voorzien in de bemesting van het teeltoppervlak voor plantaardige producten. Er hoeft zodoende nauwelijks tot geen aanvullende kunstmest gebruikt te worden.
Vegetable chains in Kenya: Production and consumption of vegetables in the Nairobi metropolis
Lans, C.J.M. van der; Snoek, H.M. ; Boer, F.A. de; Elings, A. - \ 2012
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture (Rapporten WUR GTB 1130) - 86
voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - groenten - analyse - internationale samenwerking - stedelijke bevolking - afrika - kenya - food consumption - consumption patterns - vegetables - analysis - international cooperation - urban population - africa - kenya
Vegetable consumption in African countries such as Kenya is low, which has a negative impact on the nutritional condition of the population, and on the production by smallholders. The goals of the project were to determine the potentials for consumption and cultivation in the Nairobi metropolitan region, to analyse the reasons for low consumption and to define strategies to stimulate consumption and production. Vegetable consumption can be increased, especially during the dry season when availability is low, and for low-income groups. Production can be increased through technical interventions and improvement of skills. Important is to improve the leverage of producers in the value chain and the efficiency of the value chain. Key elements are: stimulate urban farming; reduce the cost price throughout the value chain and make the value chain more transparent, accountable, shorter with less transaction costs; reduce post-harvest losses, develop a revenue system that better rewards farmers; improve cold storage and logistics, improve irrigation in the dry season; offer dry-season solutions through food processing; and pay attention to a number of life-style issues. The Netherlands can contribute in the fields of re-structuring the value chain, brokering between parties, food processing, consumer behaviour, production and product quality (irrigation, quality seeds, crop management), and R&D.
Sustainable food consumption in urban Thailand: an emerging market?
Kantamaturapoj, K. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732316 - 216
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - voedselketens - voedselproductie - voedselproducten - stedelijke gebieden - thailand - ontwikkelingslanden - zuidoost-azië - azië - sustainability - food consumption - consumption patterns - food chains - food production - food products - urban areas - thailand - developing countries - south east asia - asia
The food market in Bangkok has developed from a purely traditional one to a combination between traditional and modern sectors. In 1970s and earlier, fresh markets accounted for a hundred percent of food shopping in Bangkok. From that time on, the modern food retails in Bangkok has rapidly spread since the late 1990s. Many chain stores of the transnational supermarkets such as Carrefour, Tesco Lotus, and Casino are discovered everywhere in Bangkok. These multinational supermarkets have global sustainable development policy which the local chain must select some elements that compatible to the local context to implement in the country.
In Thailand, most of foods are produced in the rural area, processed by the food factories, supplied by food suppliers, and sold by the providers. At the end of this long food supply chain, there is a consumer in the urban area of the country who never knows sources of food and how were foods produced. Moreover, food scandals such as pesticide-use, bird flu, and swine flu makes consumers in Bangkok start questioning about safety of food sold in the stores whether they can be trusted. Besides, the urban lives and increase tension and physical health problems, which make Bangkok people pay attention to health issues. The consumers in Bangkok are modernized, urbanized, richer, and more concerned about food safety. The small part of consumers in Bangkok more frequently shop in the specialized shop for sustainable foods such as organic food, chemical free food, and fair-trade food that safe for their health and the environment.
This research focuses on both providers and consumers to study emerging sustainable food market since any increase in the level of sustainable food consumption requires both providers and consumers to change their strategies and behaviour in a more sustainable direction. Providers possess the power to influence the level of consumption of sustainable food products by offering green foods to consumers. They play a powerful role in creating and expanding green market, because they can also influence and lead other actors, such as farmers and producers, in the supply chain.
In Bangkok, there are two main channels that distribute sustainable foods: 1) specialized shops and 2) supermarkets.The specialized shops constitute the niche market while the supermarkets form the mainstream market. The specialized shops and the supermarkets differ in their views on sustainable food, their existing market shares, management systems and the connections they have with their suppliers and customers. Consequently, they develop their strategy to introduce and promote sustainable food in Bangkok in different ways.
The specialized shops form the “Green Market Network” to work together and empower individual shop owners. The major tasks of the network are to procure sufficient and reliable sources of sustainable food for the individual shops, to improve their businesses by learning from each other’s experiences and to expand the market for their products. Their main task is to locate reliable suppliers to supply real sustainable food to the shops in the network. The specialized shops are not so focused on certification but, instead rely on trust: going to the farms and seeing the way of production with their own eyes. Then, they are confident about the products they sell and can pass this trust onto their customers. This trust in sustainable food is primarily generated by personal interactions. The specialized shops communicate with consumers in an informal and friendly way, talking directly to the consumers in the shop and organizing activities with the consumers. The specialized shops regard themselves and their organization as well-defined and well-established. They believe that they do what they have to do energetically and do not compare themselves to the mainstream retailers. They do not feel that they are behind the supermarkets which are offering modern, imported, certified, sustainable, food. They are self-confident about their own way of realizing (green) growth. Instead of growing in terms of quantity, the specialized shops would rather follow the ‘small, specialized and beautiful’ concept and develop their network. This analysis of the present position and strategies of the specialized shops suggests that they will continue to play a role in providing sustainable food but are likely to remain niche market actors for the foreseeable future.
Unlike the specialized shops, the supermarkets see themselves as actors operating in a global business system characterized by increased competition for green business. The sustainability policy generally comes from management at the head office and is passed down to the action level in the chain stores. For a multinational supermarket, like Carrefour, the sustainability policy is established at the head office in the mother country and developed for its outlets all around the world. Due to their formal management strategies, the supermarkets are more removed from their consumers and communicate with them in more indirect ways. The supermarkets tend to use standard certification and labels as important information strategies to inform their consumers and give them confidence about green offers. Although national regulations for sustainable food in Thailand are not well developed, the supermarkets do not wait for help from the government. They develop their own quality signs or a symbol of reliance to inform their customers and to give consumers trust in sustainable food. The supermarkets are aware of the global tendencies towards more green preferences and how these are influencing consumers in Bangkok. They realize that, in the near future, consumers will probably buy more sustainable food from their supermarkets. In an effort to guarantee market shares, we can expect supermarkets in Bangkok to contribute to the on-going growth of sustainable food provision. This is especially true of the multinational and upscale supermarkets.
Following on from the focus group discussion result, it was assumed that there were three types of consumers in Bangkok: i) specialized shop customers who always bought food in green stores, ii) high-end supermarket customers who always bought their food in upscale supermarkets, and iii) discount store customers who always bought their food in discount stores. The survey found many shared characteristics between the three groups. First, they were modern consumers who shopped at modern retailers such as specialized shops and supermarkets. Secondly, the education level and income of these three types of consumers were quite similar: all of them can be categorized as middle class. Thirdly, their eating habits were similar in terms of eating traditional Thai food both at home and outside.
As stated before, this study assumed that there were three groups of consumers. It is obvious that the customers of specialized shops differed from the other two groups in terms of their awareness, knowledge, and their perspectives on providers’ strategies. They were more concerned about the safety of food and looked for information in the shop as well as at the products for certification standards and information on the package. Their knowledge about sustainable food was distinctly higher than that of the other two groups. Moreover, they realized the health benefits of sustainable food and understood the reason for paying extra for safer food. This study did not find any clear distinctions between the customers of high-end supermarkets and those of discount stores. They were rather similar in terms of their consumption of sustainable food and both had limited knowledge about sustainable food. They can both therefore be categorized as conventional consumers. This survey leads us to the conclusion that, in terms of sustainable food consumption, there are two groups of consumers in Bangkok: green consumers and conventional ones.
The results from this research indicate that the specialized shops in Bangkok already perform well in presenting a green profile and selling green products to a specific group of consumers. However, if the overall consumption of sustainable food in Bangkok is to increase, conventional consumers need to engage in shopping for sustainable food. The supermarkets can play an important role in offering green food products to these consumers. At the moment, the assortment and proportion of sustainable food available in the supermarkets is still limited. In addition, the available sustainable food assortments do not match the eating habits of most consumers. All the groups of consumers in the survey usually eat Thai food, which normally consists of rice and side dishes. However, many sustainable food items currently available in the supermarket cannot be considered as basic Thai foods. These western sustainable foods do not fit the eating habits of most consumers in Bangkok and this does not give most consumers in Bangkok much opportunity to go green.
The final conclusion of this thesis suggested ways in which supermarkets can improve their green provisioning and make this more visible to consumers. Firstly, supermarkets can present themselves as a ‘green’ company by engaging in sustainable practices such as using energy saving light bulbs, recycling waste and offering a wider variety of sustainable food products in their outlets. These sustainable performances should be clearly displayed to the consumers to create the image of a green company. This green image can in turn be used by the supermarkets as a selling point, because consumers will be aware that they are buying food from a green company. Secondly, sustainable food products must be placed in a prominent position. However, a separate product shelf does not work very well by itself. Information, provided through some form of information bar, should be available directly beside the shelf. If a supermarket offers certified sustainable food, the meaning of each certification must be shown to help consumers distinguish the level of sustainability and make the choice that fits their preferences. Thirdly, since consumers in Bangkok consider sustainability to mean the same as health and safety, the information given to them must be focused on the health benefits of sustainable food. For example, it should communicate a story about the production process behind sustainable food, which does not allow the use of pesticides and chemical substances and is therefore safe for human health. Lastly, most consumers in Bangkok normally eat Thai food. Therefore, the supermarkets should offer more sustainable Thai food assortments, such as rice, various vegetables, meat and sauces, that fit Thai eating habits. Since many consumers in Bangkok do not cook, the supermarkets could also offer pre-prepared, ready-to-eat sustainable food. If sustainable food is offered in ways that fit Thai consumers’ lifestyle and habits they will buy more sustainable food and the level of sustainable food consumption will increase.
FOVEA - Food Valley Eating Advisor
Gorselink, M. - \ 2010
Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research
gezondheidsbevordering - voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - voeding en gezondheid - health promotion - food consumption - consumption patterns - nutrition and health
The governments of the countries in the Western World are currently spending large amounts of money in campaigns promoting a healthier lifestyle. In spite of all this money, the effectiveness of these campaigns is rather low, and it is postulated that the effectiveness of the message will be larger when it is personalized. The incentive for the start of the FOVEA is to develop a system for personalized feedback to stimulate a healthier behavior.
De consumptie van dierlijke producten : ontwikkelingen, invloedsfactoren, actoren en interventies
Beekman, V. ; Pronk, A. ; Smet, A. de - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 192) - 59
dierlijke producten - consumptie - voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - interventie - beleid inzake voedsel - marktanalyse - animal products - consumption - food consumption - consumption patterns - intervention - food policy - market analysis
LEI Wageningen UR heeft in opdracht van het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) met behulp van kwantitatief onderzoek onderzocht hoe de consumptie van dierlijke producten zich in Europese landen in de afgelopen decennia heeft ontwikkeld. Daarnaast zijn met behulp van kwalitatief onderzoek mogelijke interventies geïdentificeerd gericht op het beïnvloeden van de consumptie van dierlijke producten. Dit onderzoek biedt een basis voor de verdere uitwerking en uitvoering van door publieke en private actoren te nemen maatregelen gericht op verandering of vermindering van de consumptie van dierlijke producten.
Personalized nutrition advice : an everyday-life perspective
Bouwman, L.I. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum; Gerrit Jan Hiddink, co-promotor(en): Maria Koelen; Hedwig te Molder. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853633 - 144
voeding - voedingsmiddelen - consumptiepatronen - ziektepreventie - voedingsinformatie - communicatie - gezondheid - menselijk gedrag - voeding en gezondheid - nutrition - foods - consumption patterns - disease prevention - nutrition information - communication - health - human behaviour - nutrition and health
This thesis presents societal preconditions for Personalized Nutrition Advice (PNA) that result from an everyday-life perspective on this innovative approach. Generally, PNA is regarded as promising, because it provides users with highly specific information on individual health risks and benefits of eating habits and the desirable changes, which may induce a high sense of personal relevance. Rapid developments in interactive computer technology (ICT) and nutrigenomics science are the innovative drivers in this area. Although indicated as promising, the limited impact of personalized advice on eating practices up to now, signals a mismatch with consumers’ everyday life. In our studies, we found that the pursuance of nutrition advices assumes that consumers have a focal concern on health, which is not always the case. Consumers value uncomplicatedness and convenience of healthful eating and the flexibility to eat for pleasure as well. More flexible advice would therefore better match with consumers’ complicated everyday life, in which health is just one of several ambitions, including social ones.
A change of eating practices requires the alteration of other practices besides those directly related to the food choice chain. Advice should provide for consumers’ ability to organize healthful eating within existing chains of social practices, including discursive ones. In everyday-life, consumers have to persist in their intentions to eat healthfully vis-a-vis relevant others. In our study, consumers presented themselves as being uncomplicated, to avoid the image of health freakiness. Based on the finding that being someone who makes great effort in relation to healthful eating is a disfavored image, we conclude that for structural change, the healthy choice should become a ‘practically and socially easy choice’. We propose that PNA can contribute to this goal by using an ‘Action Approach’. The basic idea of this approach is that, besides being well-informed and motivated, consumers need to become actively involved in eating for health. By this, we mean that they are able to practically and socially organize their eating practices in order to ensure health benefits. This would involve the stimulation of a process of critical reflection on the uncomplicatedness of healthful eating and the integration of advice on the practical and social organization of changing eating practices towards health. Consumers themselves should become co-designers of this advice, as they are experts on everyday-life problems and solutions which occur when they try to pursue their healthful eating intentions.
The integration of a diversity of expertise on social, ethical and practical requirements in early stages of the development process of innovative PNA is essential. Yet, our study showed that actors in diverse societal sectors were reluctant to engage in the development process of ICT and gene-based PNA. Their evidence-based working practices required that first, scientific support on the effectiveness should become available. Based on their expertise on public needs and wants, they called for a request to slow down the innovation process on behalf of the public. Current working life also does not allow for much change in roles and responsibilities, which may be needed to integrate the innovation in working practices of societal actors. In our qualitative study amongst general practitioners (GPs), we found that participants hold rather critical views on nutrition advice, and certainly on the innovative drivers. A lack of robustness, a low match with patients’ needs and equivocalness of nutritional studies were perceived as blocking GPs involvement.
The social acceptability of PNA requires a participatory process. But an invitation to join the innovation process does not of necessity elicit pro-active involvement. This requires the stimulation of a critical reflection process on the meaning of ‘evidence’ from the perspectives of concerned actors and the consequences for the innovation processes. Such an exercise should aim at finding solutions, as to overcome the block about involvement. It should also target reflection on the meaning of expertise, keeping in mind the required increasing role of consumers in the design of PNA.
In sum, we conclude that the alignment of PNA with societal preconditions is possible if the development process evolves as a participatory process, in which all societal actors are convinced about the valuable contribution their experience and expertise offers to this search for new ways to effectively promote healthful eating.
Milieueffecten van Nederlandse consumptie van eiwitrijke producten : gevolgen van vervanging van dierlijke eiwitten anno 2008
Blonk, H. ; Kool, A. ; Luske, B. ; Waart, S. de; Pierick, E. ten - \ 2008
Gouda : Blonk Milieu Advies - 153
voedselconsumptie - vleeswaren - eiwitrijke voedingsmiddelen - eiwitproducten - dierlijke eiwitten - melkproducten - vleesvervangers - milieueffect - broeikasgassen - consumptiepatronen - food consumption - meat products - protein foods - protein products - animal proteins - milk products - meat alternates - environmental impact - greenhouse gases - consumption patterns
In 2008 heeft Blonk Milieu Advies in samenwerking met de vegetariërsbond en het LEI een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de milieueffecten van een verschuiving van consumptie van dierlijke naar plantaardige eiwitten in de Nederlandse voeding. Daarbij is vooral de focus gelegd op het broeikaseffect en het ruimtebeslag en de mogelijke biodiversiteitseffecten daarvan. Daarnaast is er meer kwalitatief aandacht besteed aan andere effecten zoals dierenwelzijn en de effecten van een consumptiestop van dierlijke producten op de productiekolom van dierlijke producten in Nederland
|De beleving van vlees
Sijtsema, S.J. ; Wolf, C.W.G. ; Dagevos, H. - \ 2008
Meat & Meal Management 8 (2008)2. - ISSN 1572-073X - p. 28 - 29.
bedrijven - consumentenonderzoeken - vleeswaren - consumptiepatronen - emoties - perceptie - besluitvorming - bedrijfsmanagement - belevingswaarde - businesses - consumer surveys - meat products - consumption patterns - emotions - perception - decision making - business management - experiential value
Eten is emotie wordt vaak gezegd. Wat houdt dit in voor vlees? Onderzoeksinstituut LEI (onderdeel van Wageningen UR) deed onderzoek naar de beleving van consumenten als emotionele wezens. Welke associaties en wensen leven en waar kun je als producent of retailer op inspringen?
De G8 van de voedingswereld: inzicht in trends biedt mogelijkheden voor producent
Dagevos, H. - \ 2007
VoedingsMagazine 20 (2007)5. - ISSN 0922-8012 - p. 4 - 6.
voedselconsumptie - tendensen - consumptiepatronen - consumentenvoorkeuren - voedselvoorkeuren - consumentengedrag - food consumption - trends - consumption patterns - consumer preferences - food preferences - consumer behaviour
Acht voedingstrends zijn als leidend aan te duiden: gevarieerd, gewoonte, gemak, gezond, genot, goedkoop, groepsverbondenheid en geweten; de G8. Deze trends worden algemeen gesignaleerd en zijn door alle professionals in de voedingswereld naar de eigen praktijk te vertalen
The consumer and the perception of food safety
Koelen, M.A. ; Lijklema, S. - \ 2006
In: Our food, our health. Healthy diet and safe food in the Netherlands / van Kreijl, C.F., Knaap, A.G.A.C., van Raaij, J.M.A., Bilthoven : RIVM; National Institute for Public Health and Environment - ISBN 9789069601359 - p. 248 - 255.
voedingsmiddelen - dieet - gezondheid - voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - voedselveiligheid - overheidsbeleid - consumentengedrag - voedselsupplementen - functionele voedingsmiddelen - nederland - foods - diet - health - food consumption - consumption patterns - food safety - government policy - consumer behaviour - food supplements - functional foods - netherlands
Food in the Netherlands is safer than ever before, but the Dutch eat too much and the wrong types of food. This causes a substantial health loss and shortens life-expectancy with on average 2 years. These are some important conclusions from a report that was originally written in Dutch, entitled "Ons eten gemeten"".
Food for talk: discursive identities, food choice and eating practices
Sneijder, P.W.J. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum; Hedwig te Molder. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044024 - 220
voedingsgewoonten - ethiek - morele waarden - psychologie - consumptiepatronen - internet - communicatie - analyse - sociale interactie - eetstoornissen - moraal - verantwoordelijkheid - identiteit - feeding habits - consumption patterns - appetite disorders - ethics - moral values - psychology - social interaction - internet - communication - analysis - moral - responsibility - identity
This thesis focuses on the construction and use of identities in food interaction. Insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis are drawn upon to examine the interactional functions of identities in online food talk.Discursive psychology (DP) explores how psychological themes, such as identity, are handled and managed in discourse, by participants themselves. The main principle of this approach is that talk is action-oriented. Rather than assuming a cognitive basis for identity, a discursive study focuses on identity as a means of achieving particular interactional goals, such as accounting for food choice.In this respect, the DP perspective marks a shift away from current approaches in anthropology, sociology and social psychology, which largely ignore the notion that identities are part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and deployed for different interactional purposes.The project is spread across three research settings, namely online interaction on veganism, food pleasure and obesity. The main criterion for selecting these cases was their relationship to recent dominant trends in current food choice, namely ethical considerations, hedonism and weight concerns. These 'motives' are also likely resources for identity-related activities.Chapter 2In this chapter we draw on a corpus of online discussions on veganism in order to explore the relationship between food choice, eating practices and identity work. A discursive psychological analysis focuses on action, rhetoric and construction. The analyst studies how speakers react to one other and show interpretations of previous turns. The analyst also considers potential alternative versions of descriptions, in order to demonstrate which version of reality is being undermined or countered. The analysis in this chapter demonstrates that participants draw on specific discursive devices to (1) define vegan meals as ordinary and easy to prepare and (2) construct methods of preventing vitamin deficiency, such as taking supplements, as routine procedures. In 'doing being ordinary', participants systematically resist the notion that being a vegan is complicated - in other words, that it is both difficult to compose a meal and to protect your health. In this way, participants protect veganism as an ideology. More generally, it is argued that identities and their category-bound features are part and parcel of participants' highly flexible negotiation packages rather than cognitive predictors of their behaviour.Chapter 3In this chapter we apply methods developed by conversation analysis and discursive psychology in order to examine how participants manage rules, facts and accountability in a specific ideological area. In particular, we focus on how participants in online discussions on veganism manage the problem posed by alleged health risks such as vitamin deficiency. We show how speakers systematically attribute responsibility for possible deficiencies to individual recipients rather than to veganism.The analysis focuses on a conditional formulation that participants use in response to the recurrent question about supposed health problems in a vegan diet (for example, if you eat a varied diet, there shouldn't be any problems). By using this formulation, participants blur whether they attribute responsibility or predict the absence of health problems. The blurring of logic and morality is used to implicitly ascribe responsibility for potential, assumed shortcomings in the lifestyle (such as calcium deficiency) to the individual. This implicit attribution allows participants to protect veganism as an ideology. Chapter 4Chapter 4 draws on insights from discursive psychology to demonstrate how members of an online forum on food pleasure handle the hedonic appreciation of food in everyday interaction. The analysis focuses on how participants work up and establish their identities as 'gourmets'. A dominant tool in performing this identity work is the discursive construction of independent access to knowledge of and experience with food items, in order to compete with or resist the epistemic superiority of a preceding evaluation. Participants formulate their judgments in such a way that they are independent of or even superior to evaluations of the same dish in previous turns. The construction of independent access to and knowledge of culinary items is important in the interactional achievement of an identity as a gourmet who not only likes good food, but who knows what good food is . Contrary to sensory approaches to food choice, this study portrays the enjoyment of food as an achievement that comes into being through interaction. We discuss the wider implications of this study for the relationship between food, identity and taste.Chapter 5Weight management is a problematic activity, involving issues of accountability and control. In this chapter, we focus on how people discursively manage these issues in an online support group. A discursive psychological approach is used to highlight some of the practices employed by participants to handle their dieting failures, like overeating or binging, in terms of blame and accountability. We focus on the way in which participants describe lapses in dieting while at the same time heading off 'mind explanations' such as a lack of control of one's eating practices, which would raise delicate issues regarding the narrator's personal identity. It is shown how participants work up a disinterested account of their lapse by presenting a detailed factual account of what happened and how they feel, while not spelling out what these 'facts' mean. Furthermore, their accounts display the lapse as a one-off incident or choice in an ongoing process. The one-off event itself is scripted up as recognizable and logical in a chain of events, thereby inviting the recipient to dismiss a possible explanation in terms of the speaker's psychological make-up.Rather than treating attribution as a cognitive process, the study shows how attributions can be studied as situated productions that perform identity-implicative work through managing accountability and blame.Chapter 6In chapter 6, we provide an overview of the main observations in this study and formulate recommendations for future research. The study as a whole shows that identity construction is active and ongoing. This thesis has shown how identities were constructed to manage inferential implications of food choice. Such implications, for example 'complicatedness' in the case of veganism, 'abnormality' for obesity and 'subjectivity' for food pleasure, are managed by formulating rhetorical alternatives - ordinariness, normality and objectivity respectively. The relevance of rhetorical alternatives in everyday talk shows that identities are not fixed, but are flexible and negotiable. This implies that groups of consumers cannot be addressed as if they have only one identity, imposed from the outside. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of knowledge claims and accountability in identity work. We also discuss findings relating to the specifics of using online data compared to conversational data. Future research may draw attention to identity construction in face-to-face food conversations and in food interaction in other domains than the three examined in this study.
Naar een nieuw Nederlands voedingspeilingsysteem
Ocke, M.C. ; Hulshof, K.F.A.M. ; Bakker, M.I. ; Stafleu, A. ; Streppel, M.T. - \ 2005
Bilthoven : RIVM (RIVM Rapport 350050001)
voedselconsumptie - consumptiepatronen - consumentengedrag - voedingsgewoonten - voedingsonderzoek - optimalisatiemethoden - onderzoeksprojecten - leeftijdsgroepen - nederland - food consumption - consumption patterns - consumer behaviour - feeding habits - nutrition research - optimization methods - research projects - age groups - netherlands
Dit rapport omvat een advies over de invulling van een nieuw voedingspeilingsysteem. De basis wordt gevormd door een (semi)continue gegevensverzameling onder de algemene bevolking van 4-69 jaar. Daarnaast worden aanvullende onderzoeken bij specifieke doelgroepen, naar specifieke producten, naar voedingsstatus en/of naar determinanten van voedselconsumptie aanbevolen. Een dergelijk nieuw systeem is essentieel voor een adequaat toekomstig beleid op het gebied van voeding en voedselveiligheid. De voedselconsumptiemethode voor de basisgegevensverzameling zal bestaan uit twee niet-aaneengesloten 24-uursvoedingsnavragen aangevuld met een schriftelijke vragenlijst; de deelnemers zullen geworven worden uit een consumentenpanel. Voor jonge kinderen, allochtonen, zwangere en lacterende vrouwen en (geinstitutioneerde) ouderen of voor specifieke belangrijke producten zijn aparte - aanvullende - voedselconsumptiepeilingen nodig. Om tijdtrendanalyses met het verleden mogelijk te maken wordt aanbevolen een ijkingsstudie uit te voeren. Bovendien is het belangrijk om inzicht in de validiteit van de voedselconsumptie-gegevens te krijgen. Wanneer uit de voedselconsumptiepeilingen indicaties van knelpunten in de voeding naar voren komen, kan gericht vervolgonderzoek naar bijvoorbeeld voedingsstatus of determinanten van voedingsgedrag belangrijk zijn. Geadviseerd wordt om ook dit vervolgonderzoek integraal onderdeel te laten uitmaken van het voedingspeilingsysteem. Het voorgestelde toekomstige voedingspeilingsysteem heeft een breed draagvlak. De hierboven beschreven opzet en inhoud van het systeem wordt onderschreven door vele ter zake kundigen.