Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Höhler, Julia ; Kühl, Rainer - \ 2018
    Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics 89 (2018)4. - ISSN 1370-4788 - p. 697 - 712.
    cooperatives - D20 - D70 - L20 - member heterogeneity - organization - Q13

    Member heterogeneity is often seen as a disadvantage of cooperatives. Though, a comprehensive understanding of member heterogeneity, its dimensions and impacts on member interests, organizations and their performance is still missing. The following literature review is intended to summarize the existing literature on member heterogeneity with a focus on agricultural cooperatives in order to provide further areas of research. Different dimensions of heterogeneity are identified and ways of measuring their impact on cooperative organization are proposed.

    Predicting pension beneficiaries’ behaviour when offered a socially responsible and impact investment portfolio
    Apostolakis, George ; Dijk, Gert van; Blomme, Robert J. ; Kraanen, Frido ; Papadopoulos, Athanasios P. - \ 2018
    Journal of Sustainable Finance and Investment 8 (2018)3. - ISSN 2043-0795 - p. 213 - 241.
    confidence - cooperatives - Impact investment - pension funds - perceived consumer effectiveness - social responsible investment - SRI - sustainable investment - TPB

    In recent years, financial and demographic conditions, including low interest rates and volatile equity markets, have been testing the endurance of pension systems. Concern about the sustainability of pension systems has prompted discussion about introducing individual choices under the collective choice mandate. An ongoing discussion seeks to provide more freedom of choice and to shift towards a more individualized risk system within the collective mandate. This suggested individualization will increase operational costs but aims to keep pensions at current levels by shifting risk onto employees. Following the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), the objective of this paper is to examine pension beneficiaries’ intention to adopt a portfolio consisting of socially responsible and impact investments. We employ confirmatory factor and regression analyses to better understand pension beneficiaries’ attitudes, social norms, perceived consumer effectiveness, and intentions for such a choice. Responses from 637 respondents from a Dutch pension administrative organization were collected and identified as a valid sample. Consistent with the theory, the results of our analysis revealed that attitudes and social norms positively affected individuals’ intention to invest in this specific portfolio. Furthermore, we expand our model and incorporate perceived consumer effectiveness and consumer confidence as important factors influencing and moderating socially responsible behaviour, respectively. Our results imply that understanding the behavioural determinants affecting pension beneficiaries’ intentions can be an effective tool for increasing their involvement in pension affairs by making their own choices. Our findings yield policy recommendations for stimulating socially responsible investment behaviour in pension beneficiaries by examining the determinants of human behaviour.

    Stadium Coltan : artisanal mining, reforms and social change in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
    Wakenge, Claude Iguma - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): D.J.M. Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): K. Vlassenroot; J.G.R. Cuvelier. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434560 - 210
    mining - conflict - economic sociology - cooperatives - reconstruction - poverty - rural sociology - workers - feedstocks - minerals - congo democratic republic - central africa - mijnbouw - conflict - economische sociologie - coöperaties - reconstructie - armoede - rurale sociologie - werkers - industriële grondstoffen - mineralen - democratische republiek kongo - centraal-afrika

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the mining sector has the potential to play a pivotal role in post-conflict reconstruction (World Bank, 2008), and artisanal mining sustains the livelihoods of millions people in the country (PACT, 2010). However, in the last 15 years, minerals from this artisanal mining have been ill-reputed. Eastern DRC has often been characterised by chronic instability and violent conflicts (Autesserre, 2010; Stearns, 2011) because it is widely believed that minerals in this region have attracted the greed of national and foreign armed groups, who benefit from the mining business.

    Although this ‘greed hypothesis’ has been criticised for its inconsistent performance in explaining resource-related conflicts (Le Billon, 2010; Ross, 2006), various national and international reform initiatives have gained momentum (Verbruggen et al., 2011). These initiatives aim to make the Congolese artisanal mining sector more transparent and to prevent ‘conflict minerals’ from entering the international market. In 2014, 13 reform initiatives—10 focusing on 3T (tantalum, tin and tungsten) and three on gold—were operational in eastern DRC (Cuvelier et al. 2014: 5). The implicit assumptions are that mining reforms will fully ‘clean’ artisanal mining of violence and corruption and that this will contribute to sustaining people’s livelihoods (Garrett and Mitchell, 2009: 12).

    This study investigated initiatives intended to ‘formalise’ artisanal mining in DRC—in other words, they aimed to bring mining under state control. The study especially focuses on the effects of one among these initiatives—the ITRI Tin Supply Chain Initiative (iTSCi)—on two groups of actors: miners (creuseurs) and middlemen (négociants). This thesis thus presents a fine-grained case study of the iTSCi. Designed by the International Tin Research Institute in 2009, iTSCi provides a means of determining the origin of 3T and documenting the trading chain for these minerals by ‘tagging and bagging’ the loads of 3T near miners’ shafts (at postes d’achat/selling points or buying stations), at counting offices (comptoirs) and in mineral depots, before the minerals are exported through the international market.

    This is a qualitative study undertaken at three coltan mining sites of northern Katanga: Kahendwa, Kisengo and Mai-Baridi. Coltan has been extracted at these sites since 2007. From March 2013 to September 2014, data were collected using participant observation of people’s practices (extraction/sale of coltan and various types of interactions between trading houses, cooperatives, mineworkers (creuseurs) and middlemen (négociants), as well as detailed in-depth interviews with creuseurs, négociants and their households. Data were also collected from the staff of mining cooperatives, trading houses, state authorities and civil servants—predominantly of the Service d’Assistance et d’Encadrement du Small-Scale Mining (SAESSCAM) and the Division des Mines. The last group of informants were a group of clandestine coltan négociants (known as hiboux—literally, ‘owls’), who were followed in the study.

    The purpose of this research is to study the micro-dynamics of changes after the reforms following the implementation of iTSCi. The study thus provides insights into how iTSCi is concretely implemented and how it has altered the organisation of mining and the trade of coltan. The study also aims to examine how this organisation affected creuseurs and négociants. The main research question of this study is as follows:

    How have initiatives to reform artisanal mining (iTSCi in particular) affected institutional change, how does this relate to changes in patterns of coltan production and trade, how were creuseurs and négociants affected by these changes, and how did these groups respond in the coltan mining areas of Kahendwa, Kisengo and Mai Baridi (northern Katanga) from 2009 to 2014?

    Analytically, the study adopted three main theoretical perspectives. First, an actor-oriented approach was taken, building on the premise that individual actors have the agency, knowledge and experience to reflect upon their situation and to respond to changes in their surrounding context (Giddens, 1984). Although the examined mining reforms consist predominantly of ‘ready-made’ techniques such as iTSCi’s ‘tagging and bagging’, analysing reforms with an actor orientation helps to highlight people’s reactions and responses. This includes how reform policies are applied in institutions (e.g. mining cooperatives), how they interact, how they are assigned meaning and how they are negotiated by social actors (Christoplos and Hilhorst, 2009).

    Second, the study builds on the sociology of economic life, which holds that economic action is a form of social action that is socially ‘embedded’, meaning that it is linked with or dependent on actions and institutions (such as social networks) that are noneconomic in content, goals and processes (Granovetter, 2005). This perspective facilitates the analysis of the livelihoods of négociants, including mechanisms of smuggling minerals into and beyond the mining areas where iTSCi is in force.

    Third, this thesis introduced the original concept of ‘enclaves of regulations’. These enclaves refer to the mining areas where iTSCi or other reforms are in force. This thesis has shown that, although these ‘enclaves’ appear to be ‘closed’ and insulated from the environment in terms of the locally applied rules for the mining and trading of minerals (e.g. ‘tagging and bagging’), in reality, such closure is not complete. This thesis has demonstrated that it would therefore be more appropriate to consider these ‘enclaves’ as semi-autonomous fields with porous boundaries.

    Apart from the introduction and the concluding chapters, this thesis is composed of five chapters. Chapter 2 explores the evolution of the mineral sector in the Katanga province. It analyses the history of mining, the initiation of artisanal mining and how the ongoing reforms have been informed by this history. In this chapter, it is shown that there is a long history of the organisation of mining in the Katangese province. The reforms therefore did not enter into a stage of anarchy, or an institutional void, but they added a layer to already existing forms of organisation.

    Chapter 3 focuses on mining cooperatives as newly introduced institutions aimed at governing the artisanal mining sites. Through a single case study, the chapter analyses how these cooperatives —especially the Coopérative des Artisanaux Miniers du Congo, CDMC—were introduced into the mining areas and how they interacted and blended with pre-existing miners’ organisations. This chapter demonstrates that cooperatives have been an emergent—rather than durable—solution in terms of representing the interests of artisanal miners.

    In Chapter 4, I provide a different perspective on ‘conflict minerals’. I thus introduce the notion of ‘reform conflicts’ to emphasise that, although ongoing reforms aim to sever the supposed linkages between the artisanal mining business and violent conflicts, these reforms have become a driving force behind the emergence of new conflicts over property rights and access to minerals.

    Chapter 5 is about livelihoods. It analyses how the reforms have influenced the livelihoods and socioeconomic position of négociants. This chapter also explores what kind of opportunities the reforms have offered to this group of mineral brokers often considered powerful in the mineral supply chain and explains what kind of constraints the négociants have confronted and why they have opted to diversify their livelihood portfolios. The chapter has shown that the reforms have affected this group of mineral brokers in different ways. Some négociants were well off, whereas others have been excluded from the mineral commodity chain. These findings contradict the widespread opinion that négociants are always abusive brokers in the mineral production and commodity chain.

    Chapter 6 analyses the responses of creuseurs and négociants to iTSCi. Although the mining sites where iTSCi is in force appear to be ‘enclaves of regulations’, I explore the strategies of creuseurs and négociants to bypass iTSCi and the reforms, especially around the coltan trade. This chapter demonstrates that coltan smuggling is a deeply rooted practice. Despite the reforms, smuggling continues in different forms.

    All of the elements highlighted above suggest that mining reforms have undergone a major shift, from addressing the initial problems associated with ‘conflict minerals’ to creating or reinforcing various types of problems, such as the influence of ‘big men’ in the mining business, coltan smuggling and the emergence of new conflicts over accessing minerals. This means that reform initiatives such as iTSCi should be based on knowledge about the actual situation. Thus, understanding and addressing these new types of problems calls for a comprehensive approach at both local and broader levels.

    What if the trucks stop coming? : exploring the framing of local food by cooperative food retailers in New Mexico
    Constance, Cheron Z. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.S.C. Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): L.G. Horlings; L. Shaw. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431941 - 261
    food - agricultural products - cooperatives - cooperative farm enterprises - food products - new mexico - voedsel - landbouwproducten - coöperaties - coöperatieve landbouwbedrijven - voedselproducten - new mexico

    Proponents of local food cite a variety of economic and environmental advantages of short food supply chains. Consumer interest in local food has also offered a point of differentiation for many players in the food industry, including restaurants and grocery stores. Engaging with local food has significant challenges, however, and many production and distribution systems engender and support more diffuse food provisioning, not less. Though food can travel thousands of miles from its point of origin to consumption, many cooperative (co-op) grocery stores have long sold locally-produced food and have deep ties to their supplier communities. This thesis offers case studies of two co-ops in the natural and organic food sector and examines how they think about and work with local food. The theories of embeddedness (after Polanyi) and diverse economies (from Gibson-Graham) undergird the analyses of these co-ops’ involvement with local food and how the cooperative business model relates to it.

    Contribution analysis of a Bolivian innovation grant fund : mixing methods to verify relevance, efficiency and effectiveness
    Ton, Giel - \ 2017
    Journal of Development Effectiveness 9 (2017)1. - ISSN 1943-9342 - p. 120 - 143.
    Bolivia - contribution analysis - cooperatives - impact evaluation - matching grants

    We used contribution analysis to verify the key assumption in the intervention logic of an innovation fund in Bolivia directed to economic farmer organisations to develop value-added activities. We focussed the research on three sub-components of the intervention logic: relevance of the farmer groups for local economic development, effectiveness of the fund in strengthening these group, and efficiency of the grant allocation mechanism. We used a case-based comparative analysis to assess effectiveness: improved market access for members, strengthened organisational capacities and the capacity to pay organisational costs. We showed that the grants to already well-endowed organisations were particularly unsuccessful.

    Duurzaamheid, communicatie en veiligheid : verslag van de landelijke bijeenkomst 'Kenniskringen Visserij en duurzaamheid'
    Zaalmink, W. ; Smith, S.R. ; Steenbergen, J. ; Trapman, B.K. ; Valk, O.M.C. van der - \ 2015
    LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2015-160) - 25
    visserij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobrandstoffen - communicatie - familiebedrijven, landbouw - veiligheid - coöperaties - nederland - fisheries - sustainability - biofuels - communication - family farms - safety - cooperatives - netherlands
    Op 6 juni 2015 vond op Fort IJmuiden een landelijke bijeenkomst plaats van het project Kenniskringen Visserij. Het doel van deze dag was te komen tot een uitwisseling van kennisvragen over verschillende visserij gerelateerde thema’s. Het programma bestond uit een plenaire bijeenkomst en uit een aantal zogenoemde cafébijeenkomsten. Bij elke cafébijeenkomst was een relevante expert aanwezig, die de bijeenkomst inleidde. Hierna konden de aanwezigen vragen aan de expert en aan elkaar stellen. Dit verslag is een samenvatting van de uitspraken die door de deelnemers en experts op deze dag gedaan zijn rond de thema’s: 1. Duurzaamheid en de visser als onderzoeker (expert: Bas Haring, volksfilosoof) 2. Communicatie (expert: Marissa Tanis, GoMaris) 3. Fuel of the future (expert: Dirk Kronemeijer) 4. Veiligheid aan boord (expert: Cor Blonk) 5. Coöperaties (expert: Thomas Højrup)
    Measuring tensions and intentions : mixing methods in the impact evaluation of development support to farmer organisations
    Ton, G. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575738 - 295
    boerenorganisaties - coöperaties - ontwikkelingseconomie - ontwikkelingshulp - fondsgelden - landbouwproducten - ontwikkelingsprojecten - programma-evaluatie - farmers' associations - cooperatives - development economics - development aid - funding - agricultural products - development projects - program evaluation

    Development support must be able to prove its effectiveness. Impact evaluation is a way to generate this information. The thesis is about the design of these impact evaluations and how research methods can be combined to obtain credible evidence on effectiveness. It contrasts two approaches to impact evaluation design, ‘randomistas’ (Does it work?) and ‘realistas’ (For whom does it work, and under what conditions?), and distils seven principles for research design that create synergy between these two approaches. The thesis covers various development interventions. The main research concerns a Bolivian grant fund that supports investments in processing by farmer groups. To assess the effectiveness of this fund it was necessary to develop and test a new tool to measure organisational strength of these groups, called Tension Containment Capacity and apply a new method of data analysis, Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Interestingly, grants to the older, larger and stronger organisations proved particularly unsuccessful.

    Organising trade : a practice-oriented analysis of cooperatives and networks trading cereals in South Mali
    Mangnus, E.P.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574311 - 178
    coöperaties - voedselcoöperaties - graansoorten - handel - katoen - geschiedenis - platteland - landbouw - agrarische handel - mali - west-afrika - cooperatives - food cooperatives - cereals - trade - cotton - history - rural areas - agriculture - agricultural trade - mali - west africa


    Farmer organisations have become the centrepiece of pro-poor market development strategies in Africa. Assumed to facilitate scale, quality of produce and professionalism they are regarded as a solution for farmers that are hampered from economic opportunities. In Mali public as well as private actors encourage farmers to trade through one specific organisational form, namely cooperatives. Nevertheless, in reality the landscape is much more diverse. A wide array of organisations can be observed and the models stimulated by external actors do not always succeed in improving the position of farmers. Considering the gap in knowledge, this dissertation poses the following question:

    How and in what ways do people organise trading of cereals in South Mali?

    The central aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of organisation of food trade in rural markets, by examining how and in what ways people in South Mali organise trade in cereals and sesame. Trading includes the procurement of cereals or sesame, organisation of finance, information gathering, bargaining, the organisation of transport and selling.

    Organisation of trade has been studied from different angles. Studies taking a structural approach explain organisation as emerging from context. Studies that approach organisations from an instrumental perspective regard organisation as a means for efficiently solving a shared problem. Both strands provide insights for understanding organisational functioning and performance but leave open questions regarding how people organise to realise trading and why this results in organisational diversity. This thesis examines organising trade by adopting a practice-oriented approach, which has as entry point that organisation takes shape in the realization of everyday practice. Focus is on what people actually do to realise trading.

    Two case study organisations are central to the study. Both are typical for how trade in rural Mali is organised. The first is a cooperative engaged in the trading of sesame in Miena, South-East Mali. The second is a cereal trading network in N’golobougou, in the centre of South Mali. Both provide an example of people collaborating and coordinating to perform trading and as such are excellent cases for tracing the formation of organisational traits that explain performance and diversity in trading cereals in South Mali.

    Empirical Chapters

    Chapter 2 presents a historical overview of how the organisation of trade of cereals and cotton at farmer level developed in Mali on extensive literature research. It focuses on the efforts of the Malian state to organise rural society, how producers responded, and how the interaction between the two shaped organisation. The analysis starts in the 18th century, in which cotton and cereal trade was intertwined and likewise organised. From the colonial period onwards, organisation dynamics in food and export crops evolved distinctly. For both sectors the most important events and changes are detailed. The chapter found that the political economy at stake influences the set of organisational options people can choose from and that imposed models rarely get adopted in practice.

    Chapter 3 traces the emergence and development of the sesame cooperative in Miena. It builds on two strands of literature that emphasize the specific socio-historical context of an organisation. The first body highlights the resilience of existing relations and institutions by showing how these get reproduced in new organisations. The second body of literature claims that individuals involved in collective action have the capacity to influence which institutions get reproduced and which new ones get adopted, also called ‘blended’. To collect the data 35 in depth interviews with cooperative members, (ex) officials from the cotton company CMDT, local officers and NGO-workers active in the research location were collected over a period of three months. Time was spent at the weekly market, in village meetings and at peoples’ homes. Moreover 20 informal talks with villagers and traders on the market were afterwards noted down. Three distinct processes - the historical organisation of cotton farmers, the interaction between state and society and the local trade practices - are found to underlie the current functioning of the cooperative. This chapter shows how both the reproduction and blending happen purposively; in order to (continue) performance in trading.

    Chapter 4 addresses the question: How do traders in Mali perform collectively? Following the methodological orientation, labelled as technography, the chapter zooms in on the use of skills and know-how by a group of people coordinating the collection and trade of cereals. Data were collected through 24 in-depth interviews with traders and 37 semi-structured interviews with pisteurs and interviews with key resource persons. Moreover, trade practices were observed during 10 market days in a row. The analysis shows that the success of the traders’ network can be explained by: (i) the use of skills and know-how for adapting to changing economic, social and environmental contexts; (ii) the network’s ability to select capable people and distribute the many trading tasks; and (iii) the network’s effective governance, based on a strict code of conduct specific to each role. The chapter shows how rules steering the distribution of tasks and collaboration in the traders’ network emerge out of the daily practice of trading.

    Chapter 5 uses evidence from a network of cereal traders in the market of N’golobougou to examine how the characteristics of traders, their positions within different networks, and different kinds of relationships between traders influence performance in trading. 26 traders were extensively interviewed on the history, functioning and the size of their business. Semi-structured interviews focused on their relations in trading. A social network analysis (SNA) is applied to describe the positions of individual traders in the networks and the type of relations that link them. Qualitative analysis is used to understand the motivations underlying their position and collaboration. The findings demonstrate that trading is a complex and multifaceted activity. Within the network distinct networks have emerged to organise the collection of cereals, to arrange finance and to acquire information. Pre-existing social relations facilitate trading but do not guarantee individual success. Proven ability and reputation are equally important in cooperation and relate to the way powerful members of the network acquire a central position, which goes stepwise and takes time.


    Collaboration is crucial for trading under the circumstances of rural Mali. Both case studies highlight the role of key individuals who spotted opportunities and mobilised others to collaborate. Different trading activities require specific skills, know-how and tools and people tend to specialise. Most skills are acquired in practice; few of them can be taught by instruction. Accordingly to what is present in terms of capacities, people’s availability and know-how, and tools, groups will distribute tasks among their members.

    People also need to coordinate how skills, know-how and tools are distributed over time and space. Trading in South Mali requires bridging of long distances, adaptation to seasonality, securing finance and transport, and finding buyers. The temporal dimension of trading is visible in how traders adapt to seasonality and to how it is adjusted to people’s availability in time. Trading is also spatially situated. Poor infrastructure and long travel distances are characteristic of rural South Mali. Both the cooperative as well as the trading network therefore have a layered structure of actors close to the field, actors in the central village or market where the sesame or cereals are collected, and actors in the city to which the sesame or cereals are transported.

    People do not organise in a random constellation. The range of options they can choose from are importantly influenced by the institutions active in decision-making at village level, the relationship between state and rural communities, the social networks people operate in, and the historically developed rules and regulations in market transactions. Also, previous ways of organising play a role in today’s way of organising. The empirical analyses demonstrate that organising trade is ‘path dependent’. Nevertheless, people only reproduce those procedures, habits and actions that are deemed necessary to perform. They blend old and new ways of coordination and collaboration to allow the practice of trade to continue.

    The findings in this thesis show that collaboration does not rely on social relations only. Cooperating to achieve a practical end, i.e. to trade, is also skill and competence based. Organisational sustainability depends on how grouped or networked actors coordinate actions in response to changing circumstances and opportunities. Hence, organisational diversity can be understood from the fact that organisation emerges from a situated practice.


    Organisation in trade emerges gradually and adaptively from what is present in terms of skills, capacities, know-how and experience in trading. As this is situation specific it is essential to recognize the uniqueness of each organisational form and suggests reconsidering the one-size-fit-all approaches often promoted in development interventions. Imposed organisational structures may be enabling to some extent but they leave little room for exploring the range of possible ways to achieve trading. For understanding how people organise trade it is important to understand the way they perform the actual practice in the specific social and material circumstances. The empirical chapters argue in favour of tutor–apprentice relations between experienced actors and new members, leaving decision-making power and rule setting in the hands of the most experienced traders. Current development projects supporting links between farmers and buyers often aim to be ‘inclusive’ and ‘pro-poor’, meaning that they should be accessible to anyone. The field research shows that organisations in trade in Mali are very selective in membership to assure the group achieves its objectives. Governments and other development actors should be aware of the trade-offs between inclusive, democratic organisational models, and effectiveness and performance in trading.

    Meerwaarde voor vis
    Zaalmink, W. ; Verweij, M. - \ 2015
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI publicatie 2015-035 ) - 47
    visserij - nederland - belgië - denemarken - circuits - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - agro-industriële ketens - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - coöperaties - elektronische handel - winkels - consumenten - handel - fisheries - netherlands - belgium - denmark - circuits - sustainability - agro-industrial chains - farm results - cooperatives - electronic commerce - shops - consumers - trade
    Deze brochure beschrijft inspirerende voorbeelden van enkele niet-alledaagse afzetmogelijkheden van vis, Het doel is visserijondernemers te stimuleren tot het ontwikkelen van economisch en ecologisch rendabele visketens.
    Efficiency of European Dairy Processing Firms
    Soboh, R.A.M.E. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. ; Dijk, G. van - \ 2014
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 70-71 (2014). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 53 - 59.
    productive efficiency - cooperatives
    This paper compares the technical efficiency and production frontier of dairy processing cooperativesand investor owned firms in six major dairy producing European countries. Two parametric produc-tion frontiers are estimated, i.e. for cooperatives and investor owned firms separately, which are usedto evaluate the intra- and inter-type technical efficiency of each firm. The models are estimated usingaccountancy data from the AMADEUS data base over the years 1995-2005. Results show that dairy coop-eratives have a more productive technology, but are slightly less efficient than investor owned firmsduring this period. Differences in production technology and technical efficiency of the cooperativesacross countries reflect differences in local market conditions and characteristics of the companies. Bothcooperatives and investor owned firms are characterized by decreasing returns to scale. However, returnsto scale are on average much smaller for cooperatives, implying that the scale of operation of cooperativesis too large.© 2014
    Revitalisering van coöperatie Horticoop
    Griffioen, C. - \ 2014
    Coöperatie 2014 (2014)618. - ISSN 1389-7462 - p. 8 - 9.
    tuinbouw - coöperaties - innovaties - coöperatieve activiteiten - horticulture - cooperatives - innovations - cooperative activities
    Tuinbouwtoeleverancier Horticoop heeft revitalisering van de coöperatie prominent op de agenda staan. Wat was de aanleiding, en wat gaat er veranderen? Voorzitter Theo Ammerlaan en algemeen directeur Igo Janssen lichten het proces toe.
    Voor en door boeren? De opkomst van het coöperatiewezen in de Nederlandse landbouw vóór de Tweede Wereldoorlog
    Rommes, R.N.J. - \ 2013
    Hilversum : Verloren (Historische studies naar platteland, landschap en milieu (HSPLM) 2) - ISBN 9789087043193 - 320
    plattelandscoöperaties - landbouwcoöperaties - geschiedenis - landbouw - coöperaties - nederland - rural cooperatives - agricultural cooperatives - history - agriculture - cooperatives - netherlands
    De Nederlandse landbouw maakte na 1850 ingrijpende veranderingen door. De snelle ontwikkelingen maakten de boeren kwetsbaar. Ze reageerden daarop door zich aaneen te sluiten in landbouworganisaties, zoals coöperaties. Deze organisaties verrichtten voor boeren en tuinders aan- en verkopen, verwerkten producten en verleenden (financiële) diensten. Veel coöperaties namen al vrij snel een belangrijke positie in op de markten waarop ze optraden. Het bestaan van grote bedrijven als de Rabobank en Friesland Campina wijst nog heden op het succes van de coöperaties. Op basis van nieuw bronnenonderzoek brengt Ronald Rommes de feitelijke ontwikkeling van de oprichting van coöperaties in de landbouw in kaart en geeft daarmee antwoord op vragen als wanneer, waar, waarvoor en door wie de coöperaties werden opgericht. Tevens reconstrueert Rommes de algemene eigentijdse discussie over het nut van coöperaties in de Nederlandse landbouw.
    Analysis of collective performance in the Malian shea sector: from fields to markets
    Sidibe, A. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thomas Kuijper, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema; B. Te´me´; H. Yossi. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461738011 - 124
    vitellaria paradoxa - participatie - collectivisatie - prestatieniveau - vrouwen - coöperaties - landbouwcoöperaties - markten - mali - vitellaria paradoxa - participation - collectivization - performance - women - cooperatives - agricultural cooperatives - markets - mali

    Shea butter extracted from kernels can be found in cosmetic and food products. Organising women to make butter for international markets has been central to development strategies in the Malian shea sector. However, only a limited number of women are actually member of and benefit from such groups. Detailed study of cooperatives revealed that non-members played an important role, and a case study cooperative showed how their interests were accommodated by becoming less dependent on a single, international market and by re-arranging its linkages with traders. Hence, rather than pushing women into a pre-defined practice, the making of butter, this thesis shows the relevance of understanding how women with different social positions engage in the performance of collective tasks in fields and markets. I conclude that co-operation emerges in evolving practices rather than from formal organisational models.

    Naar een dorpscoöperatie in Nieuw-Dordrecht
    Aalvanger, A. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR 299) - ISBN 9789461731869 - 42
    drenthe - coöperatieve activiteiten - coöperaties - dorpen - plattelandsontwikkeling - plaatselijk bestuur - drenthe - cooperative activities - cooperatives - villages - rural development - local government
    Dit onderzoek gaat over het gezamenlijk ondernemen van activiteiten en initiatieven door de inwoners van Nieuw-Dordrecht en de rol die een dorpscoöperatie hierin kan spelen. Plaatselijk Belang Nieuw- Dordrecht is de belangenvertegenwoordiger van de inwoners van Nieuw-Dordrecht. Op initiatief van het Plaatselijk Belang worden sociale activiteiten ondernomen en wordt gewerkt aan de ruimtelijke inrichting van het dorp. Daarnaast is het Plaatselijk Belang aangemerkt als ‘Erkend Overlegpartner’ van het college van Burgemeester en Wethouders van de Gemeente Emmen. Het Plaatselijk Belang wil graag dat de inwoners van Nieuw-Dordrecht gezamenlijk aan de slag gaan met activiteiten die de sociale samenhang en leefbaarheid in het dorp vergroten. De organisatie denkt dat een dorpscoöperatie een goed middel kan zijn om dit te stimuleren. Het idee van een dorpscoöperatie is ontstaan tijdens het traject van Emmen Revisited voor het opstellen van het Dorpsprogramma. De coöperatie zou volgens het Plaatselijk Belang kunnen bijdragen aan het concretiseren en uitvoeren van de doelen en maatregelen uit dit programma. Bovendien zou het stimuleren van eigen initiatief door bewoners sociale en economische meerwaarde kunnen opleveren en hun zeggenschap over bestedingen en de uitvoering van werkzaamheden kunnen vergroten.
    Exploring green agricultural policy scenarios with a spatially explicit agent-based model
    Schouten, M.A.H. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Westerhof, E.J.G.M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 323) - 82
    gemeenschappelijk landbouwbeleid - besluitvorming - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - agrarisch natuurbeheer - coöperaties - boeren - natuurbeheer - samenwerking - cap - decision making - farm management - agri-environment schemes - cooperatives - farmers - nature management - cooperation
    This report presents an analysis of the impact of environmental cooperative decision-making for the European Commission’s legislative proposals for the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 2014-2020. The analysis is based on scenarios with a spatially explicit rural agent-based model (SERA) that explicitly models farmers, their socio-economic decision-making, their land use, and the landscape of which they are part. The first part of the analysis focuses on the effects of environmental cooperative collective decision-making for implementation of the ‘greening measure’ Ecological Focus Areas (EFAs). The second part of the analysis focuses on the interest of collective agri-environment measures. Results show that ways through which EFAs are allocated are crucial for effectiveness of cooperative approaches. Relying on simple market oriented governance structures will not by definition result in a better allocation of EFAs in a region. Results show that when the environmental cooperative is a key player in the designation and allocation of Pillar II agri-environment schemes, farmland biodiversity potentially increases because local expert knowledge on favorable ecological sites can be used for optimal allocation of the schemes
    Support for farmers' cooperatives
    LEI, - \ 2013
    cooperatives - cooperative activities - agricultural policy - rural development - agricultural politics - european union countries
    Support for Farmers' Cooperatives : synthetic summary
    Bijman, J. ; Iliopoulos, C. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Gijselinckx, C. ; Hagedorn, K. ; Hanisch, M. ; Hendrikse, G.W.J. ; Kühl, R. ; Ollila, P. ; Pyykkönen, P. ; Sangen, G. van der - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 3
    coöperaties - coöperatieve activiteiten - landen van de europese unie - cooperatives - cooperative activities - european union countries
    This report provides the overall conclusions of the full study. It was carried out by a European research consortium during 2011 and 2012. Data gathered in all 27 Member States have been presented and analysed in separate country reports. The data collected were also used in preparing eight sector reports, focusing on the role of cooperatives in each of these sectors. At the EU level a number of analyses were performed, studying aspects such as the institutional environment, internal governance, and the position of cooperatives in food supply chains.
    Support for Farmers' Cooperatives : executive summary
    Bijman, J. ; Iliopoulos, C. ; Poppe, K.J. ; Gijselinckx, C. ; Hagedorn, K. ; Hanisch, M. ; Hendrikse, G.W.J. ; Kühl, R. ; Ollila, P. ; Pyykkönen, P. ; Sangen, G. van der - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 8
    coöperaties - coöperatieve activiteiten - landen van de europese unie - cooperatives - cooperative activities - european union countries
    The imbalances in bargaining power between the contracting parties in the food supply chain have drawn much scholarly attention but have also been closely examined by policy makers. The European Commission is committed to facilitate the restructuring of the agricultural sector by encouraging the creation of voluntary agricultural producer organisations. DG Agriculture and Rural Development has launched a large study, “Support for Farmers' Cooperatives” (hereafter: SFC), to provide background knowledge that will help farmers organise themselves in cooperatives as a means to consolidate their market orientation and so generate a solid market income.
    Support for Farmers' Cooperatives : case study report hybrid structures in Belgium and The Netherlands
    Bont, C.J.A.M. de; Poppe, K.J. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 39
    coöperaties - coöperatieve activiteiten - landen van de europese unie - belgië - nederland - cooperatives - cooperative activities - european union countries - belgium - netherlands
    In order to foster the competitiveness of the food supply chain, the European Commission is committed to promote and facilitate the restructuring and consolidation of the agricultural sector by encouraging the creation of voluntary agricultural producer organisations. To support the policy making process DG Agriculture and Rural Development has launched a large study, “Support for Farmers’ Cooperatives (SFC)”, in order to provide insights on successful cooperatives and producer organisations as well as on effective support measures for these organisations. These insights can be used by farmers themselves, in setting up and strengthening their collective organisation, by the European Commission, and by national and regional authorities in their effort to encourage and support the creation of agricultural producer organisations in the EU.
    Support for Farmers' Cooperatives : case study report structure and strategy of wine cooperatives: comparing Veneto, Italy, to Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
    Bijman, J. ; Gijselinckx, C. ; Poppe, K.J. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 27
    coöperaties - coöperatieve activiteiten - fruit - groenten - nederland - belgië - cooperatives - cooperative activities - fruit - vegetables - netherlands - belgium
    The imbalances in bargaining power between the contracting parties in the food supply chain have drawn much attention, also from policy makers. The European Commission is committed to facilitate the restructuring of the sector by encouraging the creation of voluntary agricultural producer organisations. DG Agriculture and Rural Development has launched a large study, “Support for Farmers' Cooperatives”, that will provide the background knowledge that will help farmers organise themselves in cooperatives as a tool to consolidate their market orientation and so generate a solid market income. In addition to agricultural producer organisations and cooperatives, there is also an interest in associations of producer organisations, which are promoted in the fruit and vegetable sector and –if current policy proposals succeed – and in the milk sector.
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