Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The impact of UTZ certification of cocoa in the Ivory Coast 2008 to 2013
    Ingram, V.J. ; Waarts, Y.R. ; Vugt, S.M. van; Ge, L. ; Wegener, L. ; Puister-Jansen, L.F. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR - 16
    ivoorkust - afrika - certificering - cacao - theobroma cacao - cacaoproducten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - cote d'ivoire - africa - certification - cocoa - theobroma cacao - cocoa products - sustainability
    In 2008, various value chain partners in Ivory Coast adopted the UTZ Code of Conduct and became UTZ certified to enhance sustainability in the cocoa supply chain. As part of the certification programme, cooperatives and are receiving training on farm management organisational capacity building. This brochure paints a picture of the situation on farms by mid-2013. It provides information about how the UTZ Certified cocoa programme in Ivory Coast is helping farmers to increase their knowledge and use good agricultural practices (GAPs) in line with the UTZ Certified Code of Conduct. The lessons learned from these results will be used to improve the quality of the programme.
    Impact of UTZ Certification of cocoa in Ivory Coast. Assessment framework and baseline
    Ingram, V.J. ; Waarts, Y.R. ; Ge, L. ; Vugt, S.M. van; Wegner, Lucia ; Puister-Jansen, L.F. - \ 2014
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2014-010) - ISBN 9789086156764 - 174
    cacao - ivoorkust - duurzame ontwikkeling - theobroma cacao - kwaliteit voor voedselverwerking - houdbaarheid (kwaliteit) - opslagkwaliteit - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - certificering - cocoa - cote d'ivoire - sustainable development - theobroma cacao - food processing quality - keeping quality - storage quality - farm comparisons - certification
    Since 2008 UTZ Certified has implemented a programme in Ivory Coast to enhance sustainability in the cocoa supply chain through the implementation of the UTZ Code of Conduct. The programme has supported farmers to become organised into cooperatives, receiving training on farm management and organisational capacity building, and become certified. Starting off with four cooperatives, two traders and Solidaridad as partners, it has grown into a large scale programme. By June 2012 86 cooperatives were certified, 44,624 farmers reached, and 128,582 tons of certified cocoa had been produced from an estimated farm area of 219,100 hectares. Eight traders and the Sustainable Trade Initiative (IDH) are now partners, who are implementing certification as part of broader activities to support cocoa farmers, their cooperatives and communities. As of June 2013, a further 103 cooperatives were in the process of certification. This report serves two purposes: it provides a baseline of farm-level situation as of mid-2013, which can be used to measure changes in indicators in future impact assessments. It also provides an initial assessment of impacts by comparing different groups of cocoa farmers. It provides information about the inclusiveness of the UTZ Certified cocoa programme in Ivory Coast. It evaluates how certification and related activities have affected farmers’ knowledge and implementation of good agricultural practices, social and environmental issues in line with the UTZ Certified Code of Conduct and assesses the added value of certification. Lessons learned are drawn from the results, feeding recommendations to improve the quality and effectiveness of the programme.
    Socio-economic impacts and determinants of parasitic weed infestation in rainfed rice systems of sub-Saharan Africa
    N'cho, A.S. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Monique Mourits; J. Rodenburg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571266 - 160
    rijst - agrarische productiesystemen - gewasproductie - onkruiden - parasitaire onkruiden - striga hermonthica - striga asiatica - controle - onkruidbestrijding - regenafhankelijke landbouw - economische impact - sociale factoren - besluitvorming - boeren - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - benin - ivoorkust - tanzania - rice - agricultural production systems - crop production - weeds - parasitic weeds - striga hermonthica - striga asiatica - control - weed control - rainfed agriculture - economic impact - social factors - decision making - farmers - africa south of sahara - benin - cote d'ivoire - tanzania

    Keywords: rice; weed; weed management practices, adoption, impact, parasitic weeds; Rhamphicarpa fistulosa; Striga asiatica; Striga hermonthica, double hurdle model; multivariate probit, productivity, stochastic frontier analysis, data envelopment analysis, directional distance function, sub-Saharan Africa, Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Tanzania.

    Socio-economic impacts and determinants of parasitic weed infestation in

    rainfed rice systems of sub-Saharan Africa

    Simon A. N’cho

    Abstract

    Rice is an important strategic crop for food security in sub-Saharan Africa. However, its production is constrained by many biotic and abiotic stress. In rainfed rice systems, weeds and particularly parasitic weeds are among the most damaging constraints. The objective of this thesis was to identify factors affecting infestation of rice farms by parasitic weeds and to assess the economic and social impact of parasitic weeds on primary producers of rainfed rice systems in order to provide guidance for decision-making for rice farmers and policymakers aiming at developing strategies for coping with parasitic weeds. To achieve this objective, we first explored biophysical characters of the rice growing environment, farmers’ management practices, and socio-economic characteristics that affect the infestation of rice fields by parasitic weeds (PWs) and farmers’ ability to cope with the problem. A double hurdle model was used to analyses simultaneously the likelihood of occurrence and the severity of infestation of the PW. The findings suggest that farmers can cope with the PW as long as they are aware of the problem provided they have a good access and management capacity of production resources. Next, we examined weed management practices (WMPs) currently available to farmers and how PW infestation affect their choices for specific combinations of WMPs using a multivariate probit model. Findings indicate that farmers are more likely to adopt improved weed management practices or combined more WMPs when their fields are infested by PWs. Species-specific and country-specific approaches and technologies are require to address the PW problem. Then, we assessed the impact of parasitic weeds infestation on farmers’ productivity and examined how this problem and managerial factors prevent farmers from achieving optimal technical efficiency levels using a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). PWs induce productivity losses ranging from 21% to 50%. Farmers seem to cope with PW through learning from experiencing PW problem. Finally, we estimated weeding labour inefficiencies using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with directional input distance function and a single truncated bootstrap regression to identify sources of inefficiencies. Results suggest that, farmers can save substantial (58% – 69%) weeding labour without reducing rice production. No evidence was found that the currently used manual weeding modalities were able to manage parasitic weeds efficiently. The main finding of this thesis is that in sub-Saharan Africa, PWs infestation has a negative impact on rainfed rice systems’ productivity and the use of production resources. However, these impacts can be reduced if farmers have a good access to production resources and manage them efficiently.

    Gender, AIDS and food security : culture and vulnerability in rural Côte d'Ivoire
    Maiga, M.M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser; Anke Niehof. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857891 - 199
    acquired immune deficiency syndrome - voedselzekerheid - cultuur - plattelandsvrouwen - sociologie - vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - plattelandsbevolking - sociale economie - verwantschap - relaties - ivoorkust - afrika - geslacht (gender) - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - food security - culture - rural women - sociology - female labour - rural population - socioeconomics - kinship - relationships - cote d'ivoire - africa - gender - livelihood strategies
    Efficacy of micro-financing women's activities in Côte d'Ivoire : evidence from rural areas and HIV/AIDS-affected women
    Binaté Fofana, N. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides; Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Johan van Ophem. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854289 - 209
    development studies - women - rural women - hiv infections - human immunodeficiency viruses - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - public health - socioeconomics - rural areas - empowerment - finance - credit - cooperative credit - cote d'ivoire - west africa - developing countries - microfinance - ontwikkelingsstudies - vrouwen - plattelandsvrouwen - hiv-infecties - humaan immunodeficiëntievirussen - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - volksgezondheid - sociale economie - platteland - empowerment - financiën - krediet - coöperatief krediet - ivoorkust - west-afrika - ontwikkelingslanden - microfinanciering
    This thesis deals with the effectiveness and the capability of microfinance institutions in enhancing women’s livelihood and empowerment, and mitigating the effects of HIV and AIDS on affected women and their households in Côte d’Ivoire. This study was carried out within the framework of the AWLAE (African Women Leaders in Agriculture and Environment) Project. The AWLAE project addresses the theme of the role of women in food systems and effects of HIV and AIDS on rural livelihoods.

    Microfinance has been recognized as a significant means of economic development in developing countries, especially in Africa where most of the economies are based on agriculture. Microfinance as a credit institution is seen as one of the relevant tools that can provide small loans for poor people especially women who have no access to formal banks. Therefore MFIs have attracted more attention from governments, NGOs, researchers and civil servants since the microcredit summit in 1997 and the nomination of the year 2005 as the International Year of Microcredit by the United Nations General Assembly.

    Studies have shown that the effects of MFIs on women’s activities differ between countries and between regions within countries according to factors including the environment, and the socio-demographic characteristics of the beneficiaries. This heterogeneity renders the effects of MFIs inconclusive and explains the necessity and the relevance to conduct this empirical study in Côte d’Ivoire.

    The objective of this study is to gain insight into women’s needs in terms of support for economic activities and empowerment in rural areas and the way in which MFIs address these needs. Specifically, the study aims at assessing whether microfinance services provided for women in Côte d’Ivoire fit their needs in terms of improving their incomes, productivity, decision-making power, human and social capital. Special attention is paid to HIV-affected women. To achieve these objectives, the study tends to respond to four main research questions: 1) What are women’s needs for credit in rural areas? 2) How do women have access to MFI credit in rural areas? 3) What are the effects of participation in microfinance programs on women’s practical and strategic gender needs? 4) What is the relationship between microfinance programs and women coping with HIV/AIDS? These research questions lead to the formulation of hypotheses that are confirmed or rejected.

    This study uses both a theoretical and empirical approach that represents the interaction of women’s livelihood, microfinance and HIV and AIDS. The empirical analysis consists of an in-depth analysis of microfinance institutions and a survey analysis applied to cross-sectional data collected from 440 women in the Abengourou region located in the Central Eastern part of Côte d’Ivoire. The sample was divided into four categories of women as follows: Non-HIV affected women with and without MFI credit; HIV-affected women with and without credit.

    This study gives a descriptive analysis of the study country, and the response of the state to promote the microfinance sector and to mitigate the effects of HIV and AIDS on the individual, household and communities in Côte d’Ivoire. Women in the Abengourou region are basically involved in agriculture from which they earn their livelihood and the opportunity to produce food for household consumption. The type of activities carried by women depends on their access to credit. Those who have no access to MFI loans were mainly engaged in farm activities while women with access to credit were mainly traders. They were also able to undertake both agricultural and trade activities. From these results, it appears that women in rural areas need MFI credit for trade purposes and to a lesser extent for agricultural activities.

    This study found a significant relation between savings and credit, meaning that access to MFI credit was fundamentally conditioned on the provision of savings from the borrowers that most of the rural population did not have. MFIs use savings as collateral to prevent defaults. In addition, MFI membership and the type of activity are also important to obtain MFI credit. Furthermore, access to MFI credit depends on factors linked to the characteristics of female borrowers including, marital status, wealth status of the household, ethnicity and the empowerment of women, and trade activity. These determinants positively affect the probability of obtaining MFI credit in rural areas. The study reveals that MFIs prefer to finance trade activity rather than agricultural activity as the latter is seen as risky and associated with unpredictable income.

    The use of the propensity score matching method led to the following results. MFIs are found to be effective in enhancing a set of variables including income, the level of farm production, human and social capital. MFI credit has enhanced women’s decision-making power within the households too. However, women’s access and use of MFI credit in rural areas did not significantly increase the value of women’s assets but it did significantly enhance the value of household assets. This result on the value of women’s assets did not confirm the findings of several studies which indicated that the provision of credit enables women to build up and improve the value of their assets (Rahman, 2004; Mayoux, 1999, Van Maanen, 2004). The result also suggested that female borrowers were more likely to use their income earned not to build their own assets, but to contribute to the improvement of the household standard of living. Doing so enables these women to achieve more power in fulfilling their practical and strategic gender needs within the household as indicated by the findings of this study.

    The effectiveness of MFIs in providing loans for women in rural areas is measured by the loan repayment which is an important indicator for MFI practitioners. It gives insight into the capability of the credit institution to insure its sustainability and to increase its outreach. From our analysis, loan repayment among female borrowers generally was not successful as some borrowers had difficulties to pay back their MFI loan. The non-repayment is mainly explained by the diversion of loans from investment purposes, which has to do with the lack of women’s control over loans. For MFIs, the diversion of loans can endanger their functioning and sustainability and therefore their effectiveness in rural areas. However, this study found the low repayment performance of female borrowers to be contradictory to the positive effect of MFI credit on women’s income and the positive return on investment they achieved. Hence, this study suggests that in addition to the diversion of loans, non-repayment might be linked to other factors especially the unwillingness of the borrowers to repay their loan.

    The analysis of the interaction between HIV/AIDS, women’s livelihood and MFIs reveals on the one hand that HIV and AIDS negatively affects both human and physical capital of households through morbidity and mortality. The morbidity of affected women results in a direct negative impact on their livelihood activities and an indirect effect on their income and loan repayment. HIV/AIDS has an impact on the morbidity of household members that leads to the loss of family labour, which is difficult to replace due to lack of resources. In addition, the morbidity results in a drop in the level of education as children are forced to stay at home due to illness. On the other hand, the negative effects of HIV and AIDS on female borrowers entail an indirect effect on MFIs through the incapability of affected borrowers to generate more money and inability to payback their loans. This result essentially has to do with the diversion of loans to meet medical expenditures and the process of the provision of loans that appears to be flawed. In line with this deficiency, the functioning and the effectiveness of MFIs to support and extend their outreach among HIV-affected individuals or households are threatened.

    This study contributes to the existing findings about the socio-economic role of MFIs to support women generating their livelihood. It gives empirical findings in the case of rural areas in Côte d’Ivoire. Such study was not done since the implementation of microfinance institutions in the Abengourou region. The study reveals that the activities carried by women can be influenced by their need to have access to MFIs. This means that women will choose to undertake a particular activity to fit the preferences of microfinance institutions. Another important contribution of this study is to empirically link women’s empowerment to their access to MFI credit. The study reveals that women’s empowerment regarding the demand for and the use of credit make them more reliable and give them more opportunity to obtain MFI credit. With regard to HIV, this study highlights the diversity and the specificity of the way HIV-affected individuals are financially supported by credit institutions.

    To conclude, the study provides some policy recommendations and interventions in order to make MFIs more effective in offering financial services to individuals and households in general and women in particular in rural areas. Specifically we recommend the provision of loans taking into account the needs of borrowers with respect to the special nature of their activities to be financed. MFIs need subsidies from the state or other potential donors to reinforce the capacity building of MFI credit officers through training and to support the transaction costs linked to the provision of small loans. Doing so will help them to better understand and serve the rural population living in an environment which seems to be complex. The study also recommends further study to be conducted in order to explore the long-run effects of MFI credit in rural Côte d’Ivoire.

    Chain governance, sector policies and economic sustainability in cocoa; A comparative analysis of Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, and Ecuador
    Ton, G. ; Hagelaar, J.L.F. ; Laven, A. ; Vellema, S. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen International (Markets, chains and sustainable development 12) - ISBN 9789085854005 - 40
    economische ontwikkeling - economisch beleid - overheidsbeleid - kettingen - cacao - economische analyse - ghana - ivoorkust - ecuador - duurzame ontwikkeling - economic development - economic policy - government policy - chains - cocoa - economic analysis - ghana - cote d'ivoire - ecuador - sustainable development
    Agrarische handel van België met ontwikkelingslanden; Toets op duurzaamheid
    Meijerink, G.W. ; Roza, P. ; Berkum, S. van - \ 2008
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 1, Internationaal beleid ) - 137
    agrarische economie - agrarische handel - ontwikkelingslanden - ecologie - sociologie - bananen - cacao - koffie - sojabonen - thee - brazilië - costa rica - ivoorkust - tanzania - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - sociale economie - belgië - internationale handel - liberalisering van de handel - handelsrelaties - economische aspecten - agricultural economics - agricultural trade - developing countries - ecology - sociology - bananas - cocoa - coffee - soyabeans - tea - brazil - costa rica - cote d'ivoire - tanzania - sustainability - socioeconomics - belgium - international trade - trade liberalization - trade relations - economic aspects
    Deze studie voor het Vlaamse ministerie van Landbouw en Visserij belicht de economische, sociale en ecologische gevolgen van agrarische handel van België met ontwikkelingslanden. Het onderzoek spitst zich toe op een vijftal producten (banaan, cacao, koffie, soja en thee) en vier ontwikkelingslanden (Brazilië, Costa Rica, Ivoorkust en Tanzania). Het oordeel over de mate van duurzaamheid wordt gebaseerd op de vier landenstudies, uitgevoerd door lokale onderzoekers, waarbij een beperkt aantal indicatoren is meegenomen. Naar voren komt dat met name de twee Latijns Amerikaanse landen negatieve ecologische gevolgen van handel (in soja en banaan) ondervinden, en dat in de Afrikaanse landen de negatieve sociaal-economische aspecten de meeste aandacht vragen. This study for the Flemish Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries sheds light on the economic, social and ecological effects of Belgium's agricultural trade with developing countries. The study focuses on five products (bananas, cocoa, coffee, soya and tea) and four developing countries (Brazil, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire and Tanzania). The assessment of the level of sustainability is based on the four country studies, conducted by local researchers, and taking into account a limited number of indicators. It emerges that the two Latin American countries experience negative ecological effects of trade (in soya and bananas), and that in the African countries the negative social-economic aspects require most attention.
    The Ivorian pineapple : social action within the international pineapple commodity network
    Willems, S. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045076 - 192
    rurale sociologie - plattelandsontwikkeling - ananassen - basisproducten - globalisering - goederenmarkten - landbouwproducten - ivoorkust - netwerken - actieonderzoek - sociale relaties - ketenmanagement - rural sociology - rural development - pineapples - commodities - globalization - commodity markets - agricultural products - cote d'ivoire - networks - action research - social relations - supply chain management

    Today, a significant part of the agricultural commodities that we find at markets in the West are cultivated in developing countries. Many of these products are shipped around the world, passing through a complex network of actors involved in production, distribution and marketing activities. Who are the actors involved in these processes? What shapes their realities? And, in turn, how do they respond to and act upon factors related to the part they play within increasing globalized commodity networks? These questions have 1ed me to analyse the social context in which.local actors in the fresh produce sector operate.

    The focus of this thesis is on what I refer to as the 'field of social action' of actors involved in global commodity networks. This field of sociaI action may be defined as the 'social space' in which actors operate and which consequently constitutes the basis for their actions, practices, relationships, struggles and local knowledge. This study aims to explore the contemporary life of actors who act local, within their own 'reality', though as part of the global pineapple domain. The research focuses on the fresh pineapple sector in Ivory Coast. The central objective of this thesis is to analyse how local actors in the Ivorian pineapple sector respond to globalization trends and developments according to their own 'reality' (i.e. their life-worlds and local knowledge) and how they internalize these trends and developments in their actions, practices and relationships.

    The qualitative field study which forms the basis of this thesis was conducted in the humid tropical south of Ivory Coast, from early 1998 to late 1999. The empirical data derived from this field study was further updated on the basis of more recent sources, and additional information was acquired during a brief visit to Ivory Coast in 2003. Extensive interviews heId with actors in the commodity network - producers, landlords, export organizations, traders, local vendors, the sector-wide producers' and exporters' organization OCAB, the quality control agent Veritas, European importers and others - together with meetings and training sessions for producers that 1 attended, and observations in the field have resulted in the portrait of the fresh pineapple sector as presented in this thesis.

    In terms of theoretical orientation, an actor-oriented perspective has been used to capture the specific situations and circumstances in which different local actors manoeuvre. The personal stories and experiences presented in this study seek to enhance our understanding of how different actors engage with and shape global commodity networks at the local level (in Ivory Coast). This helps us to understand the way these actors experience global processes and seek to create room for manoeuvre within an increasingly demanding global pineapple sector.

    A number of key elements of the globalization of agriculture have, in my opinion, shaped today's field of social action for actors operating within the fresh produce sector. These key elements include the expansion of production territories and de-territorializing of products, technological developments, such as in the transportation and communication sectors and the increasing demand for production capacity. Furthermore, in particular in recent times, we may identify a trend towards fully coordinated supply chain activities and the related consolidation of companies, driven by cost reduction benefits (economics of sca!c) and a desire for control over all activities in the supply chain (mainly from a food safety and quality perspective), as well as increased market orientation and consumer awareness. This study analyses how the Ivorian pineapple sector has dealt with these key elements in the globalization of agriculture.

    The thesis describes how, during the early colonial period, French colonizers introduced the pineapple to Ivory Coast as a commercial enterprise for the home market. The introduction of pineapple was paralled by the emergency of a large-scale plantation economy of various other commodities. This development consequently generated a flow of labour; migrants from other parts of ivory Coast and from neighbouring countries were attracted to the southern region of lvory Coast in search of employment. The arrival of these newcomers, and a subsequent pressure on land, transformed village organization, with a new pattern of social relations emerging from power struggles for local control over land.

    Since colonial times, the Ivorian pineapple sector has been organized through a sector-encompassing institutional framework. This administrative, production and distribution system 1ed to a dominance of the Ivorian fresh pineapple in European markets, peaking at a 95% market share in the mid 1980s. Until the early 1990s, the Ivorian pineapple sector did not face serious competition within Europe. However, this situation changed when transnational corporations such as Dole and Del Monte penetrated the market, resulting in a severe loss of market share. Over the past 15 years, the Ivorian pineapple sector has initiated a number of activities to re-win their position in European markets, under the guidance of the overall producer and export organization, OCAB. This study presents the actions and struggles of the various actors involved in these efforts, in order to keep competing in the 'Big League'. It furthermore shows how the role of OCAB and other actors has changed over time, and how OCAB has evolved into a powerful mechanism for the coordination and control of activities in the Ivorian pineapple sector.

    In this powerful institutional framework, the large number of small-scale producers who dominate the Ivorian pineapple sector, cultivate pineapples for far-away markets in the 'Pays des Blanches'. Despite the lack of a direct link with consumers, these producers have generated ideas about the behaviour and preferences of these consumers, which has 1ed to particular ways of acting and established practices in the pineapple fields. The study demonstrates that such practices arc often based upon their observation of local consumer behaviour. A number of such interpretations, which may bc held to be attributes of local actors' versions of the 'truth' about far-away pineapple markets, arc described in this thesis; analyses of the actions and practices of producers therefore provides an understanding of their life-worlds and local knowledge.

    The study uses global commodity networks associated with the production, distribution and consumption of lvorian pineapples as B window for analysing the discourses of the global fresh produce domain. These discourses constitute an important 'mode of ordering' within the commodity network, representing trends and developments that 1ead to changes in the organizational framework and the network of the fresh fruit itself. Within the context of the Ivorian pineapple sector, the way in which such ordering takes place depends not simply on a number of key actors, but on the totality of actors' actions and realities within the pineapple network. The struggles. negotiations and discourses of these actors, as well as their interrelationships, dependencies and power positions, determine the eventual outcome of such ordering. Such processes and relations between actors arc inherently dynamic in nature, and follow trends and developments which trigger important changes and reposition people, organizations and commodities. This process of constant re-ordering assumes the characteristic of an uncertain process which will never remain the same forever.

    It is through the analysis of local actors' actions, responses and related realities that insights have been obtained that will prove to bc valuable for understanding the field of social action of local actors involved in the Ivorian pineapple network. It is therefore hoped that this study will add an important dimension to our critica! understanding and appraisal of more 'rational' perspectives on globalization of agriculturc. The insights gained through this study has provided important understanding of the ways in which ordering processes in globalized commodity networks take place, and how actions and practices of actors within such networks are socially constructed.

    Floristic diversity of closed forests in Cote d'Ivoire
    Kouame, F.N. ; Kouadio, K.E. ; Kouassi, K. ; Poorter, L. - \ 2004
    In: Biodiversity of West African Forests. An Ecological Atlas of Woody Plant Species / Poorter, L., Bongers, F., Kouame, F.N., Hawthorne, W.D., Oxon : CABI - ISBN 9780851997346 - p. 53 - 60.
    bosecologie - bosbomen - biodiversiteit - cartografie - ivoorkust - forest ecology - forest trees - biodiversity - mapping - cote d'ivoire
    Domestication paysanne des arbres fruitiers forestiers : cas de Coula edulis Bail, Olacaceae, et de Tieghemella heckelii Pierre ex A. Chev., Sapotaceae, autour du Parc National de Taï, Côte d'Ivoire
    Bonnéhin, L. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A.A. Oldeman; R.S.A.R. van Rompaey. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789051130409 - 140
    tieghemella heckelii - olacaceae - bosbestanden - domesticatie - plantenvermeerdering - bosbomen - teelt - agroforestry - biodiversiteit - bosecologie - ivoorkust - nieuwe cultuurgewassen - tieghemella heckelii - olacaceae - forest resources - domestication - propagation - forest trees - cultivation - agroforestry - biodiversity - forest ecology - cote d'ivoire - new crops

    In Côte d'Ivoire agriculture has confined the forest to national parks and state forests. Forest species are disappearing from the rural landscape and the products of these species get ever rarer. Thus, the rural population goes out collecting these products in national parks and state forests, the access to which is legally is forbidden. This situation leads to numerous conflicts that threaten the long term conservation of these last forest relics. How to ensure this long term conservation and sustainable management of national parks and state forests, or simply of biodiversity in Côte d'Ivoire?

    Maintaining local forest species in the rural landscape may contribute to biodiversity conservation. The path to follow is, that farmers themselves domesticate the forest species they are interested in.

    Domestication is a process in several steps one being to bring into cultivation the wild plants. For this study, the following questions were raised :

    • Which are the forest species that farmers around Taï National Park want to domesticate and for what reasons?
    • Are these species apt to be domesticated and is their propagation easy on the farm?
    • How do the farmers conceive the domestication and which socio-cultural and economic factors determine their decisions?
    • How do the forest species perform as to growth and development during on-farm domestication?

    To answer these questions, a number of enquiries, direct and participative observations and experiments on farms in the Taï region were undertaken.

    After a participative analysis of local useful forest species in the rural environment, two fruit tree species have been selected, with the agreement of the farmers, to become the subject of this study. They are Makoré ( Tieghemella heckelii, Pierre ex A.Chev., Sapotaceae) and Attia ( Coula edulis Baill., Olacaceae). Farmers found problems in obtaining seeds or seedlings of those for biological, ecological or phenological reasons, and this justified our choice. Biology, ecology and socioeconomic aspects of both species have been described.

    On-farm propagation of the species in both vegetative and generative way, using simple techniques available to farmers was experimentally done

    Both types of propagation were successful with Makoré:

    • Germination was rapid and abundant; germination levels up to 90% were reached four weeks after sowing in the tree nursery. These seedlings started branching after two months and measured between 25 and 68 cm high after 4 to 5 months in the nursery;
    • layered branches developed roots after eight weeks;
    • 73% of cuttings developed roots in a sandy substrate and 41% on a sawdust substrate. No effect could be found of rooting hormone treatment;
    • Plants reproduce AUBREVILLE's model, which is the basic architectural model of the species by vegetative propagation.

    With Attia:

    • germination was very slow; the germination strategy of the species is of the Durian type and seems to be suicidal, without success and negatively selective in tropical rain forest; germination levels attain 44 to 75% depending on the length of observation in the nursery. Seedlings branch in a sequential sylleptic way.
    • the vegetative propagation of the species is not autonomous.

    Domestication is a very complex process that involves biological, ecological and economic aspects of the species under study as well as the socio-economic situation of the participating farmer. After having treated biological and economical aspects of the species the socio-economic situation of farmers that showed interest in domestication during the study was analysed. Domestication over time from protoculture to the actual cultivation of Makoré in the Taï region was discussed. Protoculture consists of caring for trees issued from natural regeneration and was practised until 1969. At that time forest resources were still abundant and planting trees was a taboo for the farmers. Between 1969 and 1989 the first timid steps were set towards really cultivating forest fruit trees. Farmers secretly planted local forest fruit trees. From 1990 on there has been a certain dynamism to start cultivating these trees, especially Makoré. Makoré seed oil was the primary motivation for domesticating Makoré for 79% of the farmers (N=49), 21% planting them for their seeds and their timber. Three quarters of Makoré farmers were men. Makoré is mainly planted intimately mixed with tree cash crops to optimize the labour factor. Land tenure and land and tree property rights did not seem to hamper domestication. Due to the very long germination period of Attia, it has not been possible to obtain enough seedlings to study the farmers' response to domestication. But the farmers' attitude towards propagation of this species has changed: they have seen germinated C. edulis seeds and they know now that generative propagation is possible.

    Growth and development of Makoré seedlings on the farm were analysed in relation to the cultural system in which Makoré was introduced, and to light and mycorrhizae levels. Growth of Makoré seedlings was found to be positively correlated with the quantity of available light. The species is thus clearly a non-pioneer, but tolerant to full sunlight. In the cultural system 'fallow with Chromolaena odorata after rice culture', Makoré seedlings and saplings found the best ecological conditions during the first stages of development. All soils on which Makoré grew in the Taï region, contained mycorrhizal spores, the closed forest soils most of them. However, no correlation was found between spore density and seedling growth rate.

    All the results were taken together in order to formulate the perspective of domestication by farmers of local forest fruit tree species. In general the cultural blockage against planting indigenous tree species has been dissolved amongst the farmers of the Taï region. The process of domestication thus has started to the west of Taï National Park. Thanks to this process agroforestry systems allowing the conservation or restoration of forest biodiversity in the rural landscape are now being developed in the region. The extension of the agroforestry techniques used by the farmers in this study is advised.

    Introduction de la bionomie dans la gestion des forets tropicales denses humides
    Vooren, A.P. - \ 1999
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A.A. Oldeman; J.L. Guillaumet. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058081148 - 220
    regenbossen - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosecologie - tropen - ivoorkust - rain forests - forest management - forest ecology - tropics - cote d'ivoire

    - INTRODUCTION OF BIONOMICS IN TROPICAL RAIN FOREST MANAGEMENT -

    Conservation of tropical rain forests as renewable resources is governed by the bionomics of the forest ecosystem. Bionomics are here used as the set of conditions that govern the development and existence of an organism, species or biological system in a changing environment. These "life rules" should be considered to represent thresholds to the kinds of use that can be made of natural biological systems without endangering the further existence of its composite species.

    Studies of the thresholds in sustainable use of tropical rain forest have been conducted in the Ivory Coast. An undisturbed relict of the West-African rain forest belt, preserved in Taï National Park, provides possibilities to study natural processes of forest dynamics and diversity. The main focus was on occurring variations in forest composition, matrix and architecture along slopes in the undulating landscape. Further studies were made of forest dynamics through the occurring patterns in tree mortality and the conspicuous ageing and die-back features of canopy trees. Data on forest composition and dynamics were collected in two forest plots, one of 7 hectares established in 1977, covering a gentle slope in the middle of a watershed of a first order tributary of the Cavally River, and another of 10 hectares, established in 1981, on a steeper slope near the border of the same basin.

    A more detailed study is reported on the ageing and die-back processes that occur in two characteristic canopy tree species. Crown development sequences were therefore established for the species Piptadeniastrum africanum and Pycnanthus angolensis. The die-back patterns in individual tree crowns are discussed in relation to possible changes in their physiological state. Large-scale aerial photographs of these two tree species were made and showed the possibilities for reconnaissance of the described ageing features in aerial surveys. In the end conclusion is stated what the possibilities are for the introduction of a bionomical approach in conservation oriented management of tropical rain forests as restrictively used, low yielding timber resources. Therefore, the principal rules that have appeared in the reported studies on forest composition, architecture and dynamics are summarised and the possibilities are discussed of the reconnaissance of senescent trees in aerial surveys and by field observations.

    Spatial variability of data from uniformity trials as a function of scale.
    Hoosbeek, M.R. ; Epinat, V. ; Stein, A. ; Stomph, T.J. ; Ridder, N. de; Hartkamp, D. - \ 1996
    In: Models in action / Stein, A., Penning de Vries, F.W.T., Schotman, P.J., - p. 43 - 48.
    ivoorkust - landgebruik - ruimtelijke ordening - oogsttoename - oogstverliezen - opbrengsten - zonering - geostatistiek - cote d'ivoire - land use - physical planning - yield increases - yield losses - yields - zoning - geostatistics
    Nutrients in food crop cultivation in southwest Côte d'Ivoire.
    Reuler, H. van - \ 1996
    Meststoffen : Dutch/English annual on fertilizers and fertilization (1996). - ISSN 0169-2267 - p. 81 - 88.
    akkerbouw - ivoorkust - extensieve landbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - kunstmeststoffen - veldgewassen - innovaties - mest - plantenvoeding - zwerflandbouw - arable farming - cote d'ivoire - extensive farming - farm management - fertilizers - field crops - innovations - manures - plant nutrition - shifting cultivation
    The influence of soil P, pH and texture on the uptake of P from soil and fertilizer by upland rice in the shifting cultivation of S.W. Côte d'Ivoire.
    Reuler, H. van; Janssen, B.H. - \ 1996
    Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 44 (1996). - ISSN 0028-2928 - p. 249 - 261.
    soil - phosphorus - liquids - absorption - roots - rotations - rice - oryza sativa - cote d'ivoire
    At six sites in 1987, and two sites in 1988 in the Tai region of south-west Cote d'Ivoire, long-term field trials were started to study the supply of nutrients from the soil and the response of food crops to fertilizers. The results for P during the first season after removal of the primary or secondary forest vegetation in experiments with rice are described. P rates were 0 or 50 kg/ha in 1987, and 0, 12.5, 25 or 50 kg in 1988. The application of 50 kg P increased grain yield by 0.5-1.0 t/ha at five of the six sites in 1987. In 1988, a similar response could be obtained with lower rates of 12.5 or 25 kg P ha. At all sites, P application increased P uptake significantly, but the recovery of fertilizer P decreased with increasing P application rates. The soil P supply was best described by an equation including P-Dabin (a modified P-Olsen method), total P and pH. The recovery of fertilizer P could best be described by equations including silt plus clay content, P-Dabin, and/or total P. Since some soils had a high gravel content, soil analytical data, referring to the fine earth)
    Nutrient management over extended cropping periods in the shifting cultivation system of south-west Cote d'Ivoire
    Reuler, H. van - \ 1996
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): A. van Diest; B.H. Janssen. - S.l. : Reuler - ISBN 9789054854869 - 189
    bodemvruchtbaarheid - zwerflandbouw - plantenvoeding - kunstmeststoffen - mest - extensieve landbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - innovaties - ivoorkust - soil fertility - shifting cultivation - plant nutrition - fertilizers - manures - extensive farming - farm management - innovations - cote d'ivoire

    Intensification of food crop production in shifting cultivation systems can contribute to protection of tropical forest. For such an intensification knowledge of soil fertility and its dynamics is essential. It was tested whether intensification could be achieved by extending the cropping period in on-farm field trials with controlled management. These trials were conducted on locations along catenas ranging from the crest to the fringe of the valley bottom. On the (moderately) well drained soils P proved to be the yield-limiting nutrient. In extended cropping systems with alternately rice and maize, applications of N, P and K were not sufficient to maintain the yield level obtained in the first season after clearing. Yield decline was much less pronounced for maize than for rice. In the eighth season after clearing yields of over 4 ton of maize per ha were still obtained. Data on the efficiency of utilization of absorbed P indicate that factors other than P deficiency caused the yield decline. A probable cause is deterioration of soil physical properties. Fertilizer recommendations (N,P,K) are formulated for the well drained soils of the upper/middle slopes and for the moderately well drained soils of the lower slope.
    The integrated transect method as a tool for land use characterisation, with special reference to inland valley agro-ecosystems in West Africa.
    Duivenbooden, N. van; Windmeijer, P.N. ; Andriesse, W. ; Fresco, L.O. - \ 1996
    Landscape and Urban Planning 34 (1996). - ISSN 0169-2046 - p. 143 - 160.
    ruimtelijke ordening - landgebruik - zonering - ecologie - gewassen - landbouw - fenologie - acclimatisatie - ivoorkust - physical planning - land use - zoning - ecology - crops - agriculture - phenology - acclimatization - cote d'ivoire
    This article contributes to the development of a general applicable method to characterise landscapes by presenting a technique to obtain data on actual land use by means of transect surveys and farmer interviews. This technique is developed as an alternative to existing ones which generate data on land use mainly as a by-product. As part of a multiscale agro-ecological characterisation methodology, the Integrated Transect Method (ITM) generates data at the semi-detailed level, and bridges gaps between disciplines, scales, and agro-ecological zones. The method is illustrated using bio-physical results from inland valley agro-ecosystems in two agro-ecological zones in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. So-called ‘agro-ecosystem diagrams’ offered scope for easy presentation of collected information. Additionally, various quantified land and land use characteristics were used to scale up data from the level of the transect, via inland valleys and valley systems to the level of the agro-ecological subunit. Application of ITM showed that this technique can be used effectively as a tool to analyse bio-physical differences in land use within landscapes and compare differences between them under different agro-ecological conditions. The required integration of bio-physical and socio-economic parameters, however, is the subject of further study
    Land use systems analysis as a tool in land use planning : with special reference to North and West African agro-ecosystems
    Duivenbooden, N. van - \ 1995
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): H. van Keulen; L.O. Fresco. - S.l. : Van Duivenbooden - ISBN 9789054853701 - 176
    ecologie - gewassen - landbouw - fenologie - acclimatisatie - ruimtelijke ordening - landgebruik - zonering - landevaluatie - grondvermogen - bodemgeschiktheid - noord-afrika - west-afrika - agro-ecosystemen - ecology - crops - agriculture - phenology - acclimatization - physical planning - land use - zoning - land evaluation - land capability - soil suitability - north africa - west africa - agroecosystems

    The various multidisciplinary projects presented in this thesis, in hindsight, all contributed to a new approach to land use planning. Hence, their results are placed in a holistic perspective via this approach. Part A presents a method for characterizing land use on the basis of transect surveys (Côte d'Ivoire; Chapter 2). In Chapter 3, an interactive multiple goal linear programming model is described as a method to quantify natural and human resources, and to analyse the relations between various crop and animal husbandry systems. In Part B, nutrient relations are examined with the aim of arriving at fertilizer recommendations for cereals through field experimentation (Senegal; Chapter 4), and literature review and simulation modelling (Chapter 5). Additionally, the effects of grazing on subshrubs in Egypt are examined by field experiments and simulation to quantify the availability of this feed resource (Chapter 6). Part C shows possible land use options, on the basis of a simulation model for managing integrated small ruminant - barley - subshrub systems (Egypt; Chapter 7), and a multiple goal linear programming model to examine the importance of fertilizer availability for self-sufficiency in food (Mali; Chapter 8). A synthesis (Chapter 9) presents 'Land Use Systems Analysis' after evaluating the current methods of land use planning. The importance of goals, scales, tools, and the time-path for attaining goals are discussed, and recommendations are made for the future application of land use systems analysis.

    The role of earthworms in the formation of sandy surface soils in a tropical forest in Ivory Coast.
    Nooren, C.A.M. ; Breemen, N. van; Stoorvogel, J.J. ; Jongmans, A.G. - \ 1995
    Geoderma 65 (1995). - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 135 - 148.
    chemische eigenschappen - ivoorkust - aardwormen - fysicochemische eigenschappen - zandgronden - bodemvorming - chemical properties - cote d'ivoire - earthworms - physicochemical properties - sandy soils - soil formation
    Chromolaena odorata fallow in food cropping systems : an agronomic assessment in South-West Ivory Coast
    Slaats, J. - \ 1995
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M. Wessel; B.H. Janssen. - Wageningen : Wageningen Agricultural University - ISBN 9789054854425 - 177
    rotaties - braak - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bedrijfssystemen - zea mays - maïs - voedingsstoffen - kunstmeststoffen - mest - ivoorkust - rotations - fallow - sustainability - farming systems - zea mays - maize - nutrients - fertilizers - manures - cote d'ivoire

    In tropical Africa, traditional shifting cultivation can no longer provide sufficient food for the rapidly increasing population, whereas it threatens the remaining forests. An alternative is a fallow system based on the shrub Chromolaena odorata. Food crop cultivation in rotation with this fallow type in Ivory Coast was analysed and options for efficient and sustainable land use were identified. Farmers obtained 1.8 t ha -1maize without external inputs in a three-year fallow-cropping cycle. After crop harvest the C.odorata fallow vegetation established rapidly and effectively smothered herbaceous weeds. Experiments showed that the poor nutrient availability in this fallow system limited maize yields. During the cropping period C . odorata in maize was controlled by one weeding in the first month, whereas radical weeding practices set back its re-establishment after cropping. Shorter fallow periods and particularly extended cropping periods impaired both maize yield and C. odorata reestablishment. The C . odorata fallow system will be important for future food production because of the easy establishment and control of the species. To sustain intensive land use, farmers' cultivation practices can be improved by increasing nutrient availability, introducing suitable additional crops and developing practices that hardly check C . odorata re-establishment.

    Gross inputs and outputs of nutrients in undisurbed forest, Tai Area, Cote d'Ivoire.
    Stoorvogel, J.J. - \ 1993
    Wageningen : Tropenbos Foundation (Tropenbos series 5) - ISBN 9789051130171 - 148
    ivoorkust - bosbouw - landschap - landschapsbescherming - nationale parken - bescherming - bodemchemie - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodemwater - tropische regenbossen - vegetatie - oerbossen - oude bossen - cote d'ivoire - forestry - landscape - landscape conservation - national parks - protection - soil chemistry - soil fertility - soil water - tropical rain forests - vegetation - virgin forests - old-growth forests
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