Setting international standards for the management of public health pesticides
Berg, H. van den; Yadav, R.S. ; Zaim, M. - \ 2015
PLOS Medicine 12 (2015)5. - ISSN 1549-1676 - 9 p.
vector-borne diseases - insecticide resistance - malaria control - countries - africa - risk
Recent developments have highlighted the urgency of sound management of public health pesticides in vector-borne–disease–endemic countries. Major shortcomings are evident in national-level management practices throughout the pesticide life cycle from production to disposal; these shortcomings will adversely affect the cost-effectiveness and increase the risks of pesticides used. A major thrust has occurred towards developing international standards for improvement of public health pesticide management and towards expanding WHO’s global network on pesticide evaluation. However, to face current and future challenges, such as insecticide resistance in malaria vectors, the global capacity for evaluation of new insecticide products and vector-control tools should be further enhanced. Another area requiring urgent attention is the actual adoption and implementation of the recommended standards, calling for support to strengthen policy, legislation, and capacity.
Economic trade-offs of biomass use in crop-livestock systems: Exploring more sustainable options in semi-arid Zimbabwe
Homann Kee, S. ; Valbuena Vargas, D.F. ; Masikati, P. ; Descheemaeker, K.K.E. ; Nyamangara, J. ; Claessens, L.F.G. ; Erenstein, O. ; Rooyen, A.F. van; Nkomboni, D. - \ 2015
Agricultural Systems 134 (2015). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 48 - 60.
conservation agriculture - smallholder farmers - intensification - productivity - challenges - strategies - countries - benefits - tropics - africa
In complex mixed crop-livestock systems with limited resources and biomass scarcity, crop residues play an important but increasingly contested role. This paper focuses on farming systems in the semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe, where biomass production is limited and farmers integrate crop and livestock activities. Conservation Agriculture (CA) is promoted to intensify crop production, emphasizing the retention of surface mulch with crop residues (CR). This paper quantifies the associated potential economic tradeoffs and profitability of using residues for soil amendment or as livestock feed, and explores alternative biomass production options. We draw on household surveys, stakeholder feedback, crop, livestock and economic modeling tools. We use the Trade-Off Analysis Model for Multi Dimensional Impact Assessment (TOA-MD) to compare different CR use scenarios at community level and for different farm types: particularly the current base system (cattle grazing of maize residues) and sustainable intensification alternatives based on a CA option (mulching using maize residues ± inorganic fertilizer) and a maize– mucuna (Mucuna pruriens) rotation. Our results indicate that a maize–mucuna rotation can reduce trade-offs between CR uses for feed and mulch, providing locally available organic soil enhancement, supplementary feed and a potential source of income. Conservation Agriculture without fertilizer application and at non-subsidized fertilizer prices is not financially viable; whereas with subsidized fertilizer it can benefit half the farm population. The poverty effects of all considered alternative biomass options are however limited; they do not raise income sufficiently to lift farmers out of poverty. Further research is needed to establish the competitiveness of alternative biomass enhancing technologies and the socio-economic processes that can facilitate sustainable intensification of mixed crop-livestock systems, particularly in semi-arid environments.
Feasibility analysis of wastewater and solid waste systems for application in Indonesia
Kerstens, S.M. ; Leusbrock, I. ; Zeeman, G. - \ 2015
Science of the Total Environment 530-531 (2015). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 53 - 65.
sustainable sanitation - phosphorus recovery - municipal sludge - west java - nitrogen - removal - management - disposal - suitability - countries
Indonesia is one of many developing countries with a backlog in achieving targets for the implementation of wastewater and solid waste collection, treatment and recovery systems. Therefore a technical and financial feasibility analysis of these systems was performed using Indonesia as an example. COD, BOD, nitrogen, phosphorus and pathogen removal efficiencies, energy requirements, sludge production, land use and resource recovery potential (phosphorus, energy, duckweed, compost, water) for on-site, community based and off-site wastewater systems were determined. Solid waste systems (conventional, centralized and decentralized resource recovery) were analyzed according to land requirement, compost and energy production and recovery of plastic and paper. In the financial analysis, investments, operational costs & benefits and Total Lifecycle Costs (TLC) of all investigated options were compared. Technical performance and TLC were used to guide system selection for implementation in different residential settings. An analysis was undertaken to determine the effect of price variations of recoverable resources and land prices on TLC. A 10-fold increase in land prices for land intensivewastewater systems resulted in a 5 times higher TLC,whereas a 4-fold increase in the recovered resource selling price resulted in maximum 1.3 times higher TLC. For solid waste, these impacts were reversed — land price and resource selling price variations resulted in a maximumdifference in TLC of 1.8 and 4 respectively. Technical and financial performance analysis can support decision makers in system selection and anticipate the impact of price variations on long-termoperation. The technical analysiswas based on published results of international research and the approach can be applied for other tropical, developing countries. All costs were converted to per capita unit costs and can be updated to assess other countries' estimated costs and benefits. Consequently, the approach can be used to guide wastewater and solid waste system planning in developing countries.
Assessing the Status of Food Safety Management Systems for Fresh Produce Production in East Africa: Evidence from Certified Green Bean Farms in Kenya and Noncertified Hot Pepper Farms in Uganda
Nanyunja, J. ; Jacxsens, L. ; Kirezieva, K.K. ; Kaaya, S. ; Uyttendaele, M. ; Luning, P.A. - \ 2015
Journal of Food Protection 78 (2015)6. - ISSN 0362-028X - p. 1081 - 1089.
processing companies - private standards - value chains - performance - quality - vegetables - countries - industry - fruits
The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a “basic level of control and assurance” activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an “average level of control and assurance,” providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector.
Assessment of the cross-national validity of an End-anchored 9-point hedonic product liking scale
Beuckelaer, A. de; Zeeman, M. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2015
Quality and quantity: international journal of methodology 49 (2015)3. - ISSN 0033-5177 - p. 1267 - 1286.
marketing standardization - response styles - performance - countries - consumers - american - japanese - extreme - bias
Abstract An end-anchored 9-point hedonic product liking (PL) scale is an easy-to-apply instrument to examine consumers’ PL. Because 9-point hedonic PL scales are also popular in cross-national research, strong demands are put on its cross-national equivalence, that is, the absence of cross-national scoring bias. The present study provides a procedure to identify the presence of cross-national scoring bias in the use of the end-anchored 9-point hedonic PL scale or any other rating scale to measure PL. The procedure is illustrated on experimental (illustrative) data from students in four European nations (i.e., Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, and Spain). It explores cross-national equivalence in terms of (1) mean PL scores, (2) variation in PL scores, and (3) the impact of cross-cultural scoring bias in statistical inference making. Data analyses revealed that cross-national scoring bias only affected the variability in participants’ PL scores, but not the level of their PL scores. However, cross-national scoring bias in variation in PL scores did exert a substantial influence on a statistical inference making of mean PL scores. In sum, this study (1) provides preliminary evidence that cross-national scoring bias may seriously hamper the validity of cross-national comparisons of PL scores; and (2) offers a new methodology allowing food researchers to assess the extent to which the amount of cross-national scoring bias in their PL data will result in invalid cross-national comparisons. Keywords Product liking – Cross-national (cross-cultural)measurement validity/bias – Cross-national scoring bias – End-anchored 9-point hedonic product liking scale
The policy and practice of sustainable biofuels: Between global frameworks and local heterogeneity. The case of food security in Mozambique
Schut, M. ; Florin, M.J. - \ 2015
Biomass and Bioenergy 72 (2015). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 123 - 135.
bio-energy - governance - ethanol - certification - countries - markets - trade
This study explores the relationship between different biofuel production systems, the context in which they operate, and the extent to which various types of frameworks and schemes are able to monitor and promote their sustainability. The paper refers to the European Union Renewable Energy Directive and two international certification schemes (Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels and NTA 8080/81) that can provide a ‘licence to sell’ biofuels on the EU market, and to the Mozambican policy framework for sustainable biofuels that provides a ‘licence to produce’ biomass for biofuels in Mozambique. Food security is used as a case study, and the food security impacts of two agro-industrial and two smallholder biofuel projects in Mozambique are described and analysed. The sustainability frameworks and schemes used in this study are able to address some, but not all, of the heterogeneity between and within different biofuel production systems. The emphasis is on monitoring agro-industrial projects while smallholder projects tend to slip through the net even when their negative impacts are evident. We conclude that globally applicable sustainability principles are useful, however, they should be operationalised at local or production system levels. This approach will support balancing between global frameworks and local heterogeneity.
The dictator effect: how long years in office affect economic development
Papaioannou, K.I. ; Zanden, J.L. van - \ 2015
Journal of Institutional Economics 11 (2015)1. - ISSN 1744-1374 - p. 111 - 139.
panel-data - measuring democracy - government size - cross-section - cause growth - institutions - power - democratization - instruments - countries
This paper contributes to the growing literature on the links between political regimes and economic development by studying the effects of years in office on economic development. The hypothesis is that dictators who stay in office for a long time period will find it increasingly difficult to carry out sound economic policies. We argue that such economic policies are the result of information asymmetries inherent to dictatorships (known as the ‘dictator dilemma’) and of changes in the personality of dictators (known as the ‘winner effect’). We call the combination of these two terms the ‘dictator effect’. We present evidence to suggest that long years in office impacts on economic growth (which is reduced), inflation (which increases) and the quality of institutions (which deteriorates). The negative effect of long years of tenure (i.e. the ‘dictator effect’) is particularly strong in young states and in Africa and the Near East.
Antibody response and risk factors for seropositvity in backyard poultry following mass vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease in Indonesia
McLaws, M. ; Priyono, W. ; Bett, B. ; Al-Qamar, S. ; Claassen, I.J.T.M. ; Widiastuti, T. ; Poole, J. ; Schoonman, L. ; Jost, C. ; Mariner, J. - \ 2015
Epidemiology and Infection 143 (2015)8. - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 1632 - 1642.
domestic poultry - h5n1 - ducks - surveillance - countries - efficacy - vaccines - vietnam - viruses - field
A large-scale mass vaccination campaign was carried out in Java, Indonesia in an attempt to control outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in backyard flocks and commercial smallholder poultry. Sero-monitoring was conducted in mass vaccination and control areas to assess the proportion of the target population with antibodies against HPAI and Newcastle disease (ND). There were four rounds of vaccination, and samples were collected after each round resulting in a total of 27 293 samples. Sampling was performed irrespective of vaccination status. In the mass vaccination areas, 20–45% of poultry sampled had a positive titre to H5 after each round of vaccination, compared to 2–3% in the control group. In the HPAI + ND vaccination group, 12–25% of the population had positive ND titres, compared to 5–13% in the areas without ND vaccination. The level of seropositivity varied by district, age of the bird, and species (ducks vs. chickens).
The impact of contracts on organic honey producers' incomes in southwestern Ethiopia
Girma, J. ; Gardebroek, C. - \ 2015
Forest Policy and Economics 50 (2015). - ISSN 1389-9341 - p. 259 - 268.
propensity score - countries - schemes - program - africa - bias
In southwestern Ethiopia honey is a non-timber forest product that provides income for many smallholders. Some of these beekeepers supply their honey under contract to a company that markets their organic honey internationally allowing them to access premium markets. Since both production and marketing depend crucially on the forest, both smallholders and the company have an interest in preserving the forest. An important question is whether smallholders also benefit economically from supplying under contract. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of participation in contract supply of organic honey to beekeepers' income levels in the Sheka zone in southwestern Ethiopia. Results indicate that contract supply improved quality of honey delivered, the prices beekeepers received, and total honey income per household. The findings illustrate the potential of contract supply of forest product for sustainable management of forests.
National prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension and prehypertension among Vietnamese adults
Ha, Do T.P. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Le, M.B. ; Kok, F.J. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2015
American Journal of Hypertension 28 (2015)1. - ISSN 0895-7061 - p. 89 - 97.
blood-pressure - double burden - population - awareness - health - prevention - nutrition - countries - consumption - strategies
BACKGROUND Hypertension has recently been identified as the leading risk factor for global mortality. This study aims to present the national prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension and, their determinants in Vietnamese adults. METHODS Nationally representative data were obtained from the National Adult Overweight Survey 2005. This one visit survey included 17,199 subjects aged 25–64 years, with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 20.7kg/m2. RESULTS The overall census-weighted JNC7 (the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) defined prevalence of hypertension was 20.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 19.4–22.1); the prevalence of prehypertension was 41.8% (95% CI = 40.4–43.1). Hypertension and prehypertension were more prevalent in men. Higher age, overweight, alcohol use (among men), and living in rural areas (among women) were independently associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension, whereas higher physical activity and education level were inversely associated. Age, BMI, and living in rural areas were independently associated with an increased prevalence of prehypertension. Among the hypertensives, 25.9% were aware of their hypertension, 12.2% were being treated, and 2.8% had their blood pressure under control; among the treated hypertensives, 32.4% had their blood pressure controlled.
The Importance of Order and Complements: A Mew Way to Understand the Dutch and German Health Insurance Reforms
Helderman, J.K. ; Stiller, S.J. - \ 2014
Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 39 (2014)4. - ISSN 0361-6878 - p. 811 - 840.
welfare-state - united-states - care reform - netherlands - efficiency - countries - dynamics
This article adds to recent theorizing on gradual institutional change by focusing on how institutional displacement occurs through sequential patterns of change. It argues that under certain conditions, reformist political actors may achieve systemic reform through sequences of incremental reforms. We illustrate our argument through a comparative analysis of systemic health care reforms in two Bismarckian health insurance systems, the Netherlands and Germany. These reforms involved further universalization of health care insurance combined with regulated competition to enhance efficiency. The analyses show that reformist actors anticipated institutional drift and that they employed layering and conversion over time to pave the way for institutional displacement. In the Netherlands, successive sequences complemented each other so that over time the former bifurcated insurance system could be replaced by a universal system: In Germany, successive sequences did not complement each other, and bifurcation is still in place.
The political economy of agricultural liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe: An empirical analysis
Klomp, J.G. - \ 2014
Food Policy 49 (2014). - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 332 - 346.
food policies - initial conditions - budget cycles - panel-data - reform - transition - protection - countries - insights - institutions
We examine the effect of upcoming elections and government ideology on agricultural liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe countries in the post-communist period. Our results suggest first that prices and markets liberalization and land market privatization are manipulated in pre-election periods to secure re-election by favouring farmers. Second, we find no evidence that reforms in the agro-process industry, rural finance or institutional environment are affected by upcoming elections. Third, we demonstrate that right-wing governments protect the interest of the agricultural sector more than left-wing governments by affecting the speed of price and market reforms, privatization in the agro-processing industry and land market privatization. Finally, we demonstrate that liberalization the agricultural sector is partly retarded by nationalistic governments. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mobilization of biomass for energy from boreal forests in Finland & Russia under present sustainable forest management certification and new sustainability requirements for solid biofuels
Sikkema, R. ; Faaij, A.P.C. ; Ranta, T. ; Heinimö, J. ; Gerasimov, Y.Y. ; Karjalainen, T. ; Nabuurs, G.J. - \ 2014
Biomass and Bioenergy 71 (2014). - ISSN 0961-9534 - p. 23 - 36.
environmental impacts - wood - bioenergy - resources - fuel - alternatives - procurement - potentials - countries - products
Forest biomass is one of the main contributors to the EU's renewable energy target of 20% gross final energy consumption in 2020 (Renewable Energy Directive). Following the RED, new sustainability principles are launched by the European energy sector, such as the Initiative Wood Pellet Buyers (IWPB or SBP). The aim of our study is the investigation of the quantitative impacts from IWPB's principles for forest biomass for energy only. We deploy a bottom up method that quantifies the supplies and the costs from log harvest until forest chip delivery at a domestic consumer. We have a reference situation with existing national (forest) legislation and voluntary certification schemes (scenario 1) and a future situation with additional criteria based on the IWPB principles (scenario 2). Two country studies were selected for our (2008) survey: one in Finland with nearly 100% certification and one in Leningrad province with a minor areal share of certification in scenario 1. The sustainable potential of forest resources for energy is about 54 Mm3 (385 PJ) in Finland and about 13.5 Mm3 (95 PJ) in Leningrad in scenario 1 without extra criteria. The potential volumes reduce considerably by maximum 43% respectively 39% after new criteria from the IWPB, like a minimum use of sawlogs, stumps and slash for energy, and by an increased area of protected forests (scenario 2A Maximum extra restrictions). In case sawlogs can be used, but instead ash recycling is applied after a maximum stump and slash recovery (scenario 2B Minimum extra restrictions), the potential supply is less reduced: 5% in Finland and 22% in Leningrad region. The estimated reference costs for forest chips are between €18 and €45 solid m-3 in Finland and between €7 and €33 solid m-3 in the Leningrad region. In scenario 2A, the costs will mainly increase by €7 m-3 for delimbing full trees (Finland), and maximum €0.3 m-3 for suggested improved forest management (Leningrad region). In scenario 2B, when ash recycling is applied, costs increase by about €0.3 to €1.6 m-3, depending on the rate of soil contamination. This is an increase of 2%, on top of the costs in scenario 2A.
Natura 2000 and climate change—Polarisation, uncertainty, and pragmatism in discourses on forest conservation and management in Europe
Koning, J. de; Winkel, G. ; Sotirov, M. ; Blondet, M. ; Borras, L. ; Ferranti, F. ; Geitzenauer, M. - \ 2014
Environmental Science & Policy 39 (2014). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 129 - 138.
change impacts - policy - biodiversity - network - implementation - perspectives - experiences - countries - areas - trees
European forests are a resource that is targeted by several EU environmental and land use policies as forests can be of critical importance to mitigate climate change. At the same time, they are central to the EU's biodiversity policy, and particular the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. Yet, the interlinkage between climate change and biodiversity policy is complex and discursively contested. In this paper, we assess how the debate on climate change adaptation affects forest conservation and management under Natura 2000. Drawing on the concept of argumentative discourse analysis, we present evidence from 213 qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders and practitioners that were conducted at both the European policy level and the local country level in 6 EU member states. Our results demonstrate that the nexus between climate change adaptation and forest conservation policy is conceptualised differently by different stakeholders and practioners at different levels. Three major discourses can be made out (pragmatic discourse, dynamics discourse, threat discourse), which are characterised by a set of partially overlapping story lines. These discourses are employed by four discourse coalitions (environmental, forest users’, expert, and grass root coalition). As a general rule, debates at the European level are more polarised and politicised, while the local debates on climate change and Natura 2000 remain rather vague and are less polarised. This seems to indicate that the link between climate change adaptation and forest conservation is mostly an issue for an abstract high-level policy debate. At this level, climate change is used to influence well-known policies, and to legitimise distinct interests that were already present before the climate change debate has emerged.
Domestic Water Consumption under Intermittent and Continuous Modes of Water Supply
Fan, L. ; Liu, G. ; Wang, F. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Geissen, V. - \ 2014
Water Resources Management 28 (2014). - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 853 - 865.
Although an extensive literature emphasizes the disadvantages of intermittent water supply, it remains prevalent in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding the effects of water supply time restrictions on domestic water use activities and patterns, especially for hygienic purposes, is important for the elaboration of the water supply. We studied the influence of intermittent and continuous water supply on water consumption and related activities in villages in the central region of the Wei River basin, China. Data were collected from a survey of 225 households in the sampled villages. Compared with a continuous water supply of 24 h d-1 (hours per day), adopting an intermittent water supply can reduce domestic water consumption. However, it presents risks in terms of hygiene behavior, particularly the frequency of face, hands, and feet washing, as well as water sharing among family members. Outdoor water consumption is more affected than indoor water consumption under slight supply restriction (=6 and¿1.5 and¿
Climate change and deforestation: the evolution of an intersecting policy domain
Buizer, I.M. ; Humphreys, D. ; Jong, W. de - \ 2014
Environmental Science & Policy 35 (2014). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 1 - 11.
forest governance - redd plus - land-use - biodiversity - emissions - countries - services - regime
Forests and climate change are increasingly dealt with as interconnected policy issues. Both the potential synergies and policy conflicts between forest conservation and restoration and climate change mitigation now receive sustained and high level attention from academic, policy analysis and practitioner communities across the globe. Arguably the most pronounced contemporary policy manifestation of this is the debate on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (or REDD+) by which governments and private investors from developed countries may compensate actors in tropical forest countries for reducing forest loss beneath an agreed baseline. Problems of climate–forest policies implementation and governance, however, can also be found in countries such as Canada, the USA, the UK and Australia. The future of instruments like REDD+ is uncertain with growing critiques on payment and performance-based mechanisms and unresolved issues of governance, government and accountability. This paper, and the special issue it introduces, illustrates that in the REDD+ debate many contentious issues have resurfaced from past debates. These issues include the participation and rights of local communities in forest policy and management; the relationship between internationally agreed payment and performance-based programmes and formal democratic decision-making processes and structures; the complexities of rights to carbon versus tenure rights; and the ways in which – in spite of the high expectations of both developing and developed countries to combat carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation through the REDD+ mechanism – effective climate-focused forestry policies are seldom found in most tropical forest-rich countries. REDD+ is now very much the dominant discourse at the forest–climate interface, and one with a primary focus on measurability to communicate carbon mitigation results across various levels. However, this serves to disperse and displace, rather than resolve, policy-making on non-carbon values.
Framing REDD+ in India: Carbonizing and centralizing Indian forest governance?
Vijge, M.J. ; Gupta, A. - \ 2014
Environmental Science & Policy 38 (2014). - ISSN 1462-9011 - p. 17 - 27.
This article analyzes the interaction of newly articulated climate governance goals with long-standing forest policies and practices in India. We focus on India's REDD+ (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and related forest activities) strategy, with a particular focus on the Green India Mission (GIM). The GIM calls for a doubling of the area for afforestation and reforestation in India in the next decade as a dominant climate mitigation strategy. We analyze how the GIM policy document frames carbon versus non-carbon benefits to be derived from forest-related activities; and how the GIM envisages division of authority (between national, regional and local levels) in its implementation. We are interested in assessing (a) whether the GIM promotes a “carbonization” of Indian forest governance, i.e. an increased focus on forest carbon at the expense of other ecosystem services; and (b) whether it promotes an increased centralization of forest governance in India through retaining or transferring authority and control over forest resources to national and state-level authorities, at the expense of local communities. We argue that the GIM frames the climate-forest interaction as an opportunity to synergistically enhance both carbon and non-carbon benefits to be derived from forests; while simultaneously promoting further decentralization of Indian forest governance. However, based on past experiences and developments to date, we conclude that without significant investments in community-based carbon and biodiversity monitoring, as well as institutionalized benefit-sharing mechanisms that reach down to the local level, the posited REDD+-induced move toward more holistic and decentralized Indian forest governance is unlikely to take place.
Natural Resources and Violent Conflict
Nillesen, E.E.M. ; Bulte, E.H. - \ 2014
Annual Review of Resource Economics 6 (2014)1. - ISSN 1941-1340 - p. 69 - 83.
civil-war - armed conflict - diamonds - curse - dataset - oil - determinants - information - dependence - countries
We discuss the literature on natural resources and violent conflict. The theoretical literature is rich and ambiguous, and the empirical literature is equally multi-faceted. Theory predicts that resource booms or discoveries may attenuate or accentuate the risk of conflict, depending on various factors. Regression analyses also produce mixed signals, and point to a plethora of mechanisms linking resources to conflict. The empirical literature is gradually evolving from cross-country conflict models to micro-level analyses, explaining variation in local intensity of conflict. This transition has resulted in more credible identification strategies, and an enhanced understanding of the complex relation between resources and conflict.
Reducing pesticide use and pesticide impact by productivity growth: the case of dutch arable farming
Skevas, T. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural Economics 65 (2014)1. - ISSN 0021-857X - p. 191 - 211.
dairy farms - efficiency measurement - technical efficiency - panel-data - subsidies - dea - agriculture - netherlands - spillovers - countries
This paper employs a dynamic Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to measure the composition of productivity growth of pesticides and the environmental impacts of pesticides. The application focuses on panel data of Dutch arable farms over the period 2003–07. A bootstrap regression model is used to explain farmers' performance, providing empirical evidence of the impact of producer-specific characteristics and environmental factors. The results show that Dutch arable farms have substantial inefficiency in the use of pesticides and high pesticide environmental inefficiency, and appear rather unconcerned about the environmental impacts of their current pesticide use decisions on next period's production environment.
Regional GHG reduction targets based on effort sharing: a comparison of studies
Höhne, N. ; Elzen, M.G.J. den; Escalante, D. - \ 2014
Climate Policy 14 (2014)1. - ISSN 1469-3062 - p. 122 - 147.
future commitments - emission allowances - sectoral approach - abatement costs - climate policy - greenhouse - differentiation - mitigation - triptych - countries
Over 40 studies that analyse future GHG emissions allowances or reduction targets for different regions based on a wide range of effort-sharing approaches and long-term concentration stabilization levels are compared. This updates previous work undertaken for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Regional reduction targets differ significantly for each effort-sharing approach. For example, in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 1990 region, new proposals that emphasize the equity principles of responsibility, capability, and need, and those based on equal cumulative per capita emissions (carbon budgets), lead to relatively stringent emissions reduction targets. In order to reach a low concentration stabilization level of 450 ppm CO2e, the allowances under all effort sharing approaches in OECD1990 for 2030 would be approximately half of the emissions of 2010 with a large range, roughly two-thirds in the Economies in Transition (EIT), roughly at the 2010 emissions level or slightly below in Asia, slightly above the 2010 level in the Middle East and Africa and well below the 2010 level in Latin America. For 2050, allowances in OECD1990 and EIT would be a fraction of today's emissions, approximately half of 2010 emission levels in Asia, and possibly less than half of the 2010 level in Latin America.