Genome-scale metabolic model for Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and its application to the analysis of flavor formation
Flahaut, N.A.L. ; Wiersma, A. ; Bunt, B. van der; Martens, D.E. ; Schaap, P.J. ; Sijtsma, L. ; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P. ; Vos, W.M. de - \ 2013
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 97 (2013)19. - ISSN 0175-7598 - p. 8729 - 8739.
amino-acid catabolism - streptococcus-lactis - cremoris mg1363 - steady-state - bacteria - growth - reconstruction - networks - systems - cheese
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 is a paradigm strain for lactococci used in industrial dairy fermentations. However, despite of its importance for process development, no genome-scale metabolic model has been reported thus far. Moreover, current models for other lactococci only focus on growth and sugar degradation. A metabolic model that includes nitrogen metabolism and flavor-forming pathways is instrumental for the understanding and designing new industrial applications of these lactic acid bacteria. A genome-scale, constraint-based model of the metabolism and transport in L. lactis MG1363, accounting for 518 genes, 754 reactions, and 650 metabolites, was developed and experimentally validated. Fifty-nine reactions are directly or indirectly involved in flavor formation. Flux Balance Analysis and Flux Variability Analysis were used to investigate flux distributions within the whole metabolic network. Anaerobic carbon-limited continuous cultures were used for estimating the energetic parameters. A thorough model-driven analysis showing a highly flexible nitrogen metabolism, e.g., branched-chain amino acid catabolism which coupled with the redox balance, is pivotal for the prediction of the formation of different flavor compounds. Furthermore, the model predicted the formation of volatile sulfur compounds as a result of the fermentation. These products were subsequently identified in the experimental fermentations carried out. Thus, the genome-scale metabolic model couples the carbon and nitrogen metabolism in L. lactis MG1363 with complete known catabolic pathways leading to flavor formation. The model provided valuable insights into the metabolic networks underlying flavor formation and has the potential to contribute to new developments in dairy industries and cheese-flavor research.