Metabolomics in melon: A new opportunity for aroma analysis
Allwood, J.W. ; Cheung, W.W.L. ; Xu, Y. ; Mumm, R. ; Vos, C.H. de; Deborde, C. ; Biais, B. ; Maucourt, M. ; Berger, Y. ; Schaffer, A. ; Rolin, D. ; Moing, A. ; Hall, R.D. ; Goodacre, R. - \ 2014
Phytochemistry 99 (2014). - ISSN 0031-9422 - p. 61 - 72.
charentais cantaloupe melons - volatile organic-compounds - oxidase antisense gene - cucumis-melo - gas-chromatography - flavor compounds - cv makdimon - fruit - constituents - sulfur
Cucumis melo fruit is highly valued for its sweet and refreshing flesh, however the flavour and value are also highly influenced by aroma as dictated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A simple and robust method of sampling VOCs on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been developed. Contrasting cultivars of C. melo subspecies melo were investigated at commercial maturity: three cultivars of var. Cantalupensis group Charentais (cv. Cézanne, Escrito, and Dalton) known to exhibit differences in ripening behaviour and shelf-life, as well as one cultivar of var. Cantalupensis group Ha’Ogan (cv. Noy Yisre’el) and one non-climacteric cultivar of var. Inodorus (cv. Tam Dew). The melon cultivar selection was based upon fruits exhibiting clear differences (cv. Noy Yisre’el and Tam Dew) and similarities (cv. Cézanne, Escrito, and Dalton) in flavour. In total, 58 VOCs were detected by thermal desorption (TD)-GC–MS which permitted the discrimination of each cultivar via Principal component analysis (PCA). PCA indicated a reduction in VOCs in the non-climacteric cv. Tam Dew compared to the four Cantalupensis cultivars. Within the group Charentais melons, the differences between the short, mid and long shelf-life cultivars were considerable. 1H NMR analysis led to the quantification of 12 core amino acids, their levels were 3–10-fold greater in the Charentais melons, although they were reduced in the highly fragrant cv. Cézanne, indicating their role as VOC precursors. This study along with comparisons to more traditional labour intensive solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC–MS VOC profiling data has indicated that the high-throughput PDMS method is of great potential for the assessment of melon aroma and quality.
Metabolomic and elemental profiling of melon fruit quality as affected by genotype and environment
Bernillon, S. ; Biais, B. ; Deborde, C. ; Maucort, M. ; Cabasson, C. ; Gibon, Y. ; Hansen, T. ; Husted, S. ; Vos, R.C.H. de; Mumm, R. ; Jonker, H. ; Ward, J.L. ; Miller, S.J. ; Baker, J.M. ; Burger, J. ; Tadmor, Y. ; Beale, M.H. ; Schjoerring, J.K. ; Schaffer, A. ; Rolin, D. ; Hall, R.D. ; Moing, A. - \ 2013
Metabolomics 9 (2013)1. - ISSN 1573-3882 - p. 57 - 77.
cucumis-melo - tomato fruit - chemical-composition - functional genomics - plant metabolomics - mass-spectrometry - aroma volatiles - nitrate ratio - grape berry - amino-acid
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a global crop in terms of economic importance and nutritional quality. The aim of this study was to explore the variability in metabolite and elemental composition of several commercial varieties of melon in various environmental conditions. Volatile and non-volatile metabolites as well as mineral elements were profiled in the flesh of mature fruit, employing a range of complementary analytical technologies. More than 1,000 metabolite signatures and 19 mineral elements were determined. Data analyses revealed variations related to factors such as variety, growing season, contrasting agricultural management practices (greenhouse vs. field with or without fruit thinning) and planting date. Two hundred and ninety-one analytes discriminated two contrasting varieties, one from the var. inodorous group and the other from the var. cantaloupensis group. Two hundred and eighty analytes discriminated a short shelf-life from a mid-shelf-life variety within the var. cantaloupensis group. Three hundred and twenty-seven analytes discriminated two seasons, and two hundred and fifty-two analytes discriminated two contrasting agricultural management practices. The affected compound families greatly depended on the factor studied. The compositional variability of identified or partially identified compounds was used to study metabolite and mineral element co-regulation using correlation networks. The results confirm that metabolome and mineral element profiling are useful diagnostic tools to characterize the quality of fruits cultivated under commercial conditions. They can also provide knowledge on fruit metabolism and the mechanisms of plant response to environmental modifications, thereby paving the way for metabolomics-guided improvement of cultural practices for better fruit quality.
Extensive metabolic cross-talk in melon fruit revealed by spatial and developmental combinatorial metabolomics
Moing, A. ; Aharoni, A. ; Biais, B. ; Rogachev, I. ; Meir, S. ; Brodsky, L. ; Allwood, J.W. ; Erban, A. ; Dunn, W.B. ; Kay, S. ; Koning, S. ; Vos, C.H. de; Jonker, H.H. ; Mumm, R. ; Deborde, C. ; Maucourt, M. ; Bernillon, S. ; Gibon, Y. ; Hansen, T.H. ; Husted, S. ; Goodacre, R. ; Kopka, J. ; Schjoerring, J.K. ; Rolin, D. ; Hall, R.D. - \ 2011
New Phytologist 190 (2011)3. - ISSN 0028-646X - p. 683 - 696.
mass-spectrometry data - cucumis-melo - gas-chromatography - network analysis - aroma volatiles - gene-expression - tomato - plants - l. - identification
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the small intestinal mucosa. The causative agents have been identified as gluten proteins from wheat, barley and rye, and the only available treatment for CD patients is a lifelong gluten-free diet. Non-gluten containing cereals would be a valuable contribution to the gluten-free diet. In this respect, oats are a good choice. However, commercial lots of oat flakes and flour frequently are contaminated with wheat, barley and rye, and two studies have reported that some peptides derived from the gluten-like avenin storage proteins of oat can trigger an immune response in some CD patients. In the present study we have initiated the investigation whether all oat varieties contain similar amounts of potentially harmful sequences by biochemical and immunological methods. We confirm that commercial oat preparations are contaminated with other cereals that contain gluten or gluten-like proteins. Moreover, our results demonstrate that contamination-free oat varieties differ in their capacity to stimulate an avenin-sensitive gamma-gliadin specific T cell line derived from a patient with CD, indicative for differences in the two known avenin epitopes among oat varieties, implying that selection and breeding of completely safe oat varieties for all CD patients may be a realistic possibility.
Inter-laboratory reproducibility of fast gas chromatography-electron impact-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-EI-TOF/MS) based plant metabolomics
Allwood, J.W. ; Erban, A. ; Koning, S. ; Dun, W.B. ; Luedemann, A. ; Lommen, A. ; Kay, L. ; Löscher, R. ; Kopka, J. ; Goodacre, R. - \ 2009
Metabolomics 5 (2009)4. - ISSN 1573-3882 - p. 479 - 496.
minimum reporting standards - independent component analysis - liquid-chromatography - chemical-analysis - cucumis-melo - transcriptomics - toxicogenomics - hepatotoxicity - identification - metabolites
The application of gas chromatography¿mass spectrometry (GC¿MS) to the `global¿ analysis of metabolites in complex samples (i.e. metabolomics) has now become routine. The generation of these data-rich profiles demands new strategies in data mining and standardisation of experimental and reporting aspects across laboratories. As part of the META-PHOR project¿s (METAbolomics for Plants Health and OutReach: http://www.meta-phor.eu/) priorities towards robust technology development, a GC¿MS ring experiment based upon three complex matrices (melon, broccoli and rice) was launched. All sample preparation, data processing, multivariate analyses and comparisons of major metabolite features followed standardised protocols, identical models of GC (Agilent 6890N) and TOF/MS (Leco Pegasus III) were also employed. In addition comprehensive GC×GC¿TOF/MS was compared with 1 dimensional GC¿TOF/MS. Comparisons of the paired data from the various laboratories were made with a single data processing and analysis method providing an unbiased assessment of analytical method variants and inter-laboratory reproducibility. A range of processing and statistical methods were also assessed with a single exemplary dataset revealing near equal performance between them. Further investigations of long-term reproducibility are required, though the future generation of global and valid metabolomics databases offers much promise
Location of resistance factors in the leaves of potato and wild tuber-bearing Solanum species to aphyd Myzus persica
Alvarez, A.E. ; Tjallingii, W.F. ; Garzo, E. ; Vleeshouwers, V. ; Dicke, M. ; Vosman, B. - \ 2006
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 121 (2006)2. - ISSN 0013-8703 - p. 145 - 157.
green peach aphid - glandular trichomes - feeding-behavior - insect resistance - cabbage aphid - cucumis-melo - berthaultii - penetration - leafhopper - salivation
Analysis of electrically recorded feeding behaviour of aphids was combined with colony-development tests to search for sources of resistance to Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) in tuber-bearing Solanum species (Solanaceae), aiming at a reduction of potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) transmission. Twenty genotypes, originating from 14 gene bank accessions, representing 13 wild tuber-bearing Solanum spp., three Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) cultivars, and one S. tuberosum breeding line, were selected. Colony-development tests were carried out in no-choice experiments by placing adult aphids on plants of each genotype and counting numbers of nymphs and adults on young plants after 8 and 15 days, and on flowering plants after 14 and 30 days. Large differences were observed among genotypes: some developed small colonies and others developed large ones. Also, in a few genotypes, resistance in mature plants was different for leaves of different ages; young leaves were resistant to aphids whereas old senescent leaves were susceptible. The electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG system) technique was used to study aphid feeding behaviour on each Solanum genotype for 6 h. Electrical penetration graph (EPG) results also showed large differences among the genotypes, indicating resistance at the leaf surface and at three different levels of plant tissue (epidermis, mesophyll, and phloem). Therefore, it was concluded that different mechanisms of resistance to M. persicae exist among the genotypes analysed. EPGs recorded from aphids on Solanum berthaultii Hawkes and Solanum tarijense Hawkes with and without glandular trichomes showed that strong surface resistance can bias EPG parameters associated with resistance located in deeper tissues. Experimental evidence is presented that the resistance to aphids in the genotypes with glandular trichomes strongly depends on these morphological structures