Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The emergence and performance of the Chinese merger market and the impact of partner location
    Dolfsma, Wilfred ; McCarthy, Killian - \ 2018
    Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies 16 (2018)1. - ISSN 1476-5284 - p. 39 - 58.
    Anglo-Saxon system - China - confucian system - Continental European system - corporate governance - culture - institutions - Mergers and acquisitions - performance

    Chinese acquirers spent $38 million on mergers and acquisitions in 1990, and $666.1 billion on mergers and acquisitions in 2016. As the Chinese merger market has grown, so too has the literature on its performance. Little is known, however, about with whom Chinese firms can best do business. We aim to fill this gap. We suggest that because the liabilities of distance, foreignness, and outsideness complicate acquisition performance, targets in countries and regions which add fewer of these liabilities will outperform those that add more. We plot the overseas expansion of Chinese acquirers, and compare the performance of Chinese acquisitions, within the Greater China region, within the Confucian cultural sphere, and between Asian and the West. In each case, we predict that increasing cultural distance decreases performance. Then, because the Continental European governance system is institutionally more familiar to the Chinese system than it is to the Anglo-Saxon system, we consider the Chinese experience in each of these two systems. Our results largely support our hypotheses built on the partner location performance hierarchy argument, but we also point to the limits of the generalizability of existing literature in understanding the Chinese market.

    ‘When breaking you make your soul dance’ Utopian aspirations and subjective transformation in breakdance
    Bode Bakker, Maritza ; Nuijten, Monique - \ 2018
    Identities 25 (2018)2. - ISSN 1070-289X - p. 210 - 227.
    body - Breakdance - culture - resistance - utopia - youth
    This article is based on a study of the Naturalz crew, a ‘breaking’ or breakdancing group in Quito, Ecuador. Breaking is commonly analysed as a subculture of resistance. We analyse two–often neglected–dimensions of this resistance: the significance of utopian aspirations and the role of the body in subjective transformation. We argue that participants enact utopian values in breaking, for instance by affirming the value of street life and people from the streets. Furthermore, we see that breaking leads to subjective transformation among its young practitioners and that the body plays a central role in this change of subject position. It is interesting that girls use breaking to rebel against dominant images of ideal womanhood, resulting in changes in gendered subjectivity. Hence, from disempowered, marginalised young people, breakers turn into determined agents with physical strength and emotional resilience.
    State of the nation address and tourism priorities in Ghana—a contextual analysis
    Adu-Ampong, Emmanuel Akwasi - \ 2017
    Tourism Planning and Development 14 (2017)1. - ISSN 2156-8316 - p. 135 - 138.
    culture - Ghana - policy statements - tourism development - tourism policy

    Tourism development tends to be seen as a largely private sector driven activity. However, especially in developing countries the state continues to wield considerable power in the governance and policy arena of tourism. Thus the priority given to the tourism sector through state policies and the statements of government officials is considered as key in shaping tourism development. This paper offers a brief analysis of the level of priority given to the tourism sector in Ghana through a contextual analysis of the President's yearly state of the nation address given between 2010 and 2014. The findings show that while overall national [tourism] development plans are important, the policy speeches of government officials provide a glimpse into the immediate policy concerns of the state regarding tourism development. In some instances there are inconsistencies between policy objectives in national development plans and government's policy speeches. This research therefore highlights the importance of assessing policy speeches in addition to the analysis of existing tourism development plans.

    Beleefbare natuur: van recreatieve infrastructuur naar bioculturele diversiteit.
    Wiersum, K.F. ; Elands, B.H.M. - \ 2016
    Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 2016 (2016)feb. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 14 - 17.
    natuur - landschapsbeleving - perceptie - recreatie - biodiversiteit - culturele psychologie - ecosysteemdiensten - natuurwaarde - cultuur - bosbeheer - nature - landscape experience - perception - recreation - biodiversity - cultural psychology - ecosystem services - natural value - culture - forest administration
    Traditioneel richt de aandacht van het bosbeheer voor een beleefbare natuur zich op de ontwikkeling van de recreatieve infrastructuur. Tegenwoordig krijgen ook andere vormen van samenleven met natuur aandacht. Deze ontwikkeling wordt weerspiegeld in het nieuwe begrip “bioculturele diversiteit”.
    An integrated ecosystem approach for assessing the potential role of cultivated bivalve shells as part of the carbon trading system
    Filgueira, R. ; Byron, C.J. ; Comeau, L.A. ; Jansen, H.M. ; Smaal, A.C. - \ 2015
    Marine Ecology Progress Series 518 (2015). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 281 - 287.
    mussel mytilus-edulis - coastal embayment - carrying-capacity - light limitation - oyster reefs - aquaculture - culture - dynamics - growth - farms
    The role of bivalve mariculture in the CO2 cycle has been commonly evaluated as the balance between respiration, shell calcium carbonate sequestration and CO2 release during biogenic calcification. However, this approach neglects the ecosystem implications of cultivating bivalves at high densities, e.g. the impact on phytoplankton dynamics and benthic-pelagic coupling, which can significantly contribute to the CO2 cycle. Therefore, an ecosystem approach that accounts for the trophic interactions of bivalve aquaculture, including dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon cycling, is needed to provide a rigorous assessment of the role of bivalve mariculture in the CO2 cycle. On the other hand, the discussion about the inclusion of shells of cultured bivalves into the carbon trading system should be framed within the context of ecosystem goods and services. Humans culture bivalves with the aim of producing food, not sequestering CO2 in their shells, therefore the main ecosystem good provided by bivalve aquaculture is meat production, and shells should be considered as by-products of this human activity. This reasoning provides justification for dividing up respired CO2 between meat and shell when constructing a specific bivalve CO2 budget for potential use of bivalve shells in the carbon trading system. Thus, an integrated ecosystem approach, as well as an understanding of the ecosystems goods and services of bivalve aquaculture, are 2 essential requisites for providing a reliable assessment of the role of bivalve shells in the CO2 cycle.
    Cows Desiring to Be Milked? Milking Robots and the Co-Evolution of Ethics and Technology on Dutch Dairy Farms
    Driessen, C.P.G. ; Heutinck, L.F.M. - \ 2015
    Agriculture and Human Values 32 (2015)1. - ISSN 0889-048X - p. 3 - 20.
    automatic milking - animal-welfare - behavior - system - culture - health - cattle
    Ethical concerns regarding agricultural practices can be found to co-evolve with technological developments. This paper aims to create an understanding of ethics that is helpful in debating technological innovation by studying such a co-evolution process in detail: the development and adoption of the milking robot. Over the last decade an increasing number of milking robots, or automatic milking systems (AMS), has been adopted, especially in the Netherlands and a few other Western European countries. The appraisal of this new technology in ethical terms has appeared to be a complicated matter. Compared to using a conventional milking parlor, the use of an AMS entails in several respects a different practice of dairy farming, the ethical implications and evaluation of which are not self-evident but are themselves part of a dynamic process. It has become clear that with its use, the entire practice of dairy farming has been reorganized around this new device. With a robot, cows must voluntarily present themselves to be milked, whereby an ethical norm of (individual) freedom for cows can be seen to emerge together with this new technology. But adopting a robot also implies changes in what is considered to be a good farmer and an appropriate relation between farmer and cow. Through interviews, attending “farmers’ network” meetings in the Netherlands, and studying professional literature and dedicated dairy farming web forums, this paper traces the way that ethical concerns are a dynamic part of this process of rearranging a variety of elements of the practice of dairy farming.
    Work and Masculinity in Katanga's Artisanal Mines
    Cuvelier, J.G.R. - \ 2014
    Afrika Spectrum 49 (2014)2. - ISSN 0002-0397 - p. 3 - 26.
    conflict sierra-leone - mining town - african - gold - men - diamonds - tanzania - identity - culture - economy
    This article, based on 16 months of anthropological fieldwork between 2005 and 2012, examines the relationship between work and masculinity among ardsanal miners, or creuseurs, in Katanga, the southeastern province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It argues that men's involvement in ardsanal mining should be considered not only as an economic survival strategy but also as an attempt to experiment with new ways of being a man in a context of economic crisis and changing gender relations. Furthermore, the article criticizes the tendency to downplay or underestimate the complexity and diversity of processes of masculine identity construction in Africa's ardsanal-mining areas. In order to do justice to the intricacy of these processes, the article proposes using concepts and insights from the field of masculinity studies and distinguishing between a levelling and a differentiating trend in artisanal miners' masculinity practices.
    Application of the Taguchi method in poultry science: estimation of the in vitro optimum intrinsic phytase activity of rye, wheat and barley
    Sedghi, M. ; Golian, A. ; Esmaeilipour, O. ; Krimpen, M.M. van - \ 2014
    British Poultry Science 55 (2014)2. - ISSN 0007-1668 - p. 246 - 252.
    experimental-design - optimization - stability - culture - time - ph
    1. In poultry investigations, the main interest is often to study the effects of many factors simultaneously. Two or three level factorial designs are the most commonly used for this type of investigation. However, it is often too costly to perform when number of factors increase. So a fractional factorial design, which is a subset or a fraction of a full factorial design, is an alternative. The Taguchi method has been proposed for simplifying and standardising fractional factorial designs. 2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the applicability of the Taguchi method to optimise in vitro intrinsic phytase activity (IPA) of rye, wheat and barley under different culture conditions. 3. In order to have a solid base for judging the suitability of the Taguchi method, the results of the Taguchi method were compared with those of an experiment that was conducted as a 34 full factorial arrangement with three feed ingredients (rye, wheat and barley), three temperatures (20 degrees C, 38 degrees C and 55 degrees C), three pH values (3.0, 5.5 and 8.0) and three incubation times (30, 60 and 120 min), with two replicates per treatment. 4. After data collection, a Taguchi L 9 (3(4)) orthogonal array was used to estimate the effects of different factors on the IPA, based on a subset of only 9 instead of 81 treatments. The data were analysed with both Taguchi and full factorial methods and the main effects and the optimal combinations of these 4 factors were obtained for each method. 5. The results indicated that according to both the full factorial experimental design and the Taguchi method, the optimal culture conditions were obtained with the following combination: rye, pH = 3, temperature = 20 degrees C and time of incubation = 30 min. The comparison between the Taguchi and full factorial results showed that the Taguchi method is a sufficient and resource saving alternative to the full factorial design in poultry science.
    Dans met mij : een vierkante kilometer in Dreischor
    Alterra - Centrum Landschap, ; Loo, S. van der; Zaken, D. van der - \ 2014
    films - wijnbouw - cultuur - landbouwbedrijven - plattelandsbevolking - landgebruik - mensen - menselijk gedrag - platteland - boeren - zeeuwse eilanden - levensgeschiedenis - films - viticulture - culture - farms - rural population - land use - people - human behaviour - rural areas - farmers - zeeuwse eilanden - life history
    De film gaat over één willekeurige vierkante kilometer in Dreischor, waar de makers ruim een jaar hebben gefilmd en de verhalen van een aantal mensen hebben gevolgd. De documentaire is onderdeel van een groter project onder de titel 'Venster op de wereld' waarbij ook een boek verschijnt, waarin onder andere een aantal wetenschappers zich over de kilometer hebben gebogen. Het project is een initiatief van Joop Schaminée en Anton Stortelder, Alterra Wageningen UR
    Glucose Gradients Influence Zonal Matrix Deposition in 3D Cartilage Constructs
    Spitters, T.W. ; Mota, C.M.D. ; Uzoechi, S.C. ; Slowinska, B. ; Martens, D.E. ; Moroni, L. ; Karperien, M. - \ 2014
    Tissue Engineering. Part A 20 (2014)23-24. - ISSN 1937-3341 - p. 3270 - 3278.
    tissue-engineered cartilage - seeded alginate constructs - articular chondrocytes - oxygen-consumption - gene-expression - culture - hypoxia - differentiation - osteoarthritis - mitochondria
    Reproducing the native collagen structure and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) distribution in tissue-engineered cartilage constructs is still a challenge. Articular cartilage has a specific nutrient supply and mechanical environment due to its location and function in the body. Efforts to simulate this native environment have been reported through the use of bioreactor systems. However, few of these devices take into account the existence of gradients over cartilage as a consequence of the nutrient supply by diffusion. We hypothesized that culturing chondrocytes in an environment, in which gradients of nutrients can be mimicked, would induce zonal differentiation. Indeed, we show that glucose gradients facilitating a concentration distribution as low as physiological glucose levels enhanced a zonal chondrogenic capacity similar to the one found in native cartilage. Furthermore, we found that the glucose consumption rates of cultured chondrocytes were higher under physiological glucose concentrations and that GAG production rates were highest in 5mM glucose. From these findings, we concluded that this condition is better suited for matrix deposition compared to 20mM glucose standard used in a chondrocyte culture system. Reconsidering the culture conditions in cartilage tissue engineering strategies can lead to cartilaginous constructs that have better mechanical and structural properties, thus holding the potential of further enhancing integration with the host tissue.
    Venster op km² Dreischor
    Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Stortelder, A.H.F. ; Parramore, J. - \ 2014
    Hilversum : Fontaine Uitgevers - ISBN 9789059565753 - 179
    platteland - geschiedenis - natuur - cultuur - landschap - zeeuwse eilanden - zeeland - rural areas - history - nature - culture - landscape
    Het project Venster op deWereld, waarin wetenschappers een vierkante kilometer bij Dreischor van alle kanten belichten, is inmiddels een eind op streek. Het leidt tot boek, documentaire en kunst. Hydrologen, landbouweconomen, ornithologen, meteorologen, bramendeskundigen, historici, archeologen, cultureel antropologen en andere deskundigen buigen zich over de vierkante kilometer, maar daarnaast worden de verhalen opgetekend van mensen die in het gebied wonen of werken, zoals de spruitentelers Gilles Klompe en Frans van der Linde, molenaar Bart van der Spek, René Perkins van de houtzagerij, Ria Geluk van museum Goemanszorg, vlaskenner Rinus Quist en Johan van de Velde van de wijnhoeve.
    Use of an Interculturally Enriched Collaboration Script in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in Higher Education
    Popov, V. ; Biemans, H.J.A. ; Kuznetsov, A.N. ; Mulder, M. - \ 2014
    Technology, Pedagogy and Education 23 (2014)3. - ISSN 1475-939X - p. 349 - 374.
    environment - behaviors - cognition - students - outcomes - culture - dyads - teams - cscl
    In this exploratory study, the authors introduced an interculturally enriched collaboration script (IECS) for working in culturally diverse groups within a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment and then assessed student online collaborative behaviour, learning performance and experiences. The question was if and how these variables differed for the groups that used an IECS versus groups that used a general collaboration script (CS) that did not include intercultural elements. Using a web conferencing tool, 47 students from a university in Ukraine and a university in the Netherlands worked together in groups to develop project plans on an environmental problem. The groups in the IECS condition showed a higher frequency of so-called contributing behaviour but a lower frequency of planning behaviour, seeking input and social interaction than the groups in the CS condition. The IECS groups also produced better project plans than the CS groups. Future study using a similar experimental set-up but with larger samples is recommended to see if the present results can be replicated.
    Denitrification on internal carbon sources in RAS is limited by fibers in fecal waste of rainbow trout
    Meriac, A. ; Eding, E.H. ; Kamstra, A. ; Busscher, J.P. ; Schrama, J.W. ; Verreth, J.A.J. - \ 2014
    Aquaculture 434 (2014). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 264 - 271.
    recirculating aquaculture systems - single-sludge denitrification - acid-insoluble ash - nitrate removal - digestibility - feed - fish - effluents - digestion - culture
    Denitrification on internal carbon sources offers the advantage to control nitrate levels in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) by using the fecal carbon produced within the husbandry system. However, it is not clear to which extent fecal carbon can be utilized by the microbial community within a denitrification reactor. Especially fibers can hamper the bioavailability of carbon in fecal waste. Therefore, this study investigated the nitrogen removal capacity of a denitrification reactor using fecal waste with a high fiber content as the only carbon source in RAS. Furthermore, we investigated to which extent fibers were utilized as a carbon source within the reactor. Four identical small-scale RAS (V = 460 L) were stocked with 25 rainbow trout of ~ 110 g, and operated at a water exchange rate of ~ 200 L/kg of feed DM. Two RAS served as controls without denitrification and two RAS were upgraded with an upflow sludge blanket denitrification reactor (V = 10.5 L). During the six weeks of experiment, we determined COD (chemical oxygen demand, measure for organic carbon) and N balances for all systems and analyzed the composition of the collected solids. The denitrification reactors were able to remove 19 g N/kg of feed DM, or 48% of the metabolic nitrogen waste produced by the fish. Based on the COD balances, 44% of the supplied fecal COD was degraded in the reactor. Hemicellulose and cellulose degradability was ~ 50%, accounting for 45% to the total degraded COD. Under steady state conditions, 4.4 g of biodegradable COD needed to be oxidized to reduce 1 g of nitrogen, indicating respiratory COD losses of approximately 50%. This experiment successfully demonstrated that denitrification on internal carbon sources using a high fiber diet could remove half of the nitrogen waste produced by the fish. Although fibers limited carbon bioavailability, half of the cellulose and hemicellulose present in the fecal waste was utilized in the denitrification reactor.
    Paradoxale modernisering : Ede, 1945-1995: groot geworden, herkenbaar gebleven
    Bloembergen-Lukkes, J.R. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pim Kooij, co-promotor(en): Anton Schuurman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571433 - 365
    geschiedenis - modernisering - politiek - economie - demografie - cultuur - onderwijs - migratie - ruimtelijke ordening - sociologie van vrijetijdsbesteding - lokale geschiedenis - veluwe - nederland - history - modernization - politics - economics - demography - culture - education - migration - physical planning - sociology of leisure - local history - veluwe - netherlands


    Paradoxical Modernization

    Ede, 1945-1995: Grew big, remained recognizable

    After the Second World War, like many other municipalities in the Netherlands and elsewhere in the Western World, Ede experienced a period of rapid economic and population growth, of mobility, increase in scale, urbanization, better education, professionalization, individualization and democratization. Developments that may be summarized in the word modernization. I wondered if modernization is an exogenous process and did it more or less just happen, or is it a planned process or something in between. I decided that the best way to answer these questions was not to study the modernization process on a national level, but on a local level. There I hoped to find the answer on the question what possibilities people have to define their own community.

    I choose the municipality of Ede as my case study for the next reasons. After 1945, the Ede municipal executive opted for growth: economic, population and employment growth. In 1962, the municipal executive formulated a goal to welcome its 100,000 resident by the year 2000, which represented a doubling of the population since the end of the war. Ede was to be transformed into the city of Ede. This milestone of 100,000 inhabitants was reached as early as 1996, 60,000 of whom lived in Ede town. In order to achieve this goal, action was needed on several fronts. The rapid growth achieved was not the result of a policy plan handed down by central government. Ede was not one of the designated development areas. Ede was not regarded as an underdeveloped area requiring a top- down targeted approach for accelerated industrialization and modernization. On the other hand, in 1945, Ede was still clearly a rural community and the town centre clearly showed characteristics of a village society. So the rapid growth meant changes in different policy sectors.

    Ede easily attracted new residents and employment opportunities as a result of its strategic location in the middle of the Netherlands, its good infrastructure and sufficient space. What it did need, however, was the development of housing estates and industrial estates including the necessary infrastructure and the development and expansion of, for example, education facilities and leisure amenities. In a predominantly Protestant community, this raised questions about the persuasion of these types of amenities and led to debates on, if actually desirable, the type of socio-cultural policy most appropriate for local government. Rapid expansion of a community may be perceived as a threat to the characteristics of that society. This question made Ede an extra interesting subject for research. In the case of Ede it was justifiable to assume that tensions would have arisen between the rural and urban ambitions and between Christian and secular developments. The municipal authority is involved in the developments and decision-making process relating to all the elements of the public domain, which is why it was chosen as the focus for this research.

    The policy decisions required in the different areas to facilitate growth are by their nature intertwined. The construction of housing estates and business premises conflict with the interests of the agricultural sector and nature conservation. The arrival of new residents can change the social, political and religious composition of the population, resulting in consequences for how society is organized and for the future local political constellation and vice versa. Every decision must take what has occurred in other areas into account and will, in turn, have consequences for adjacent domains. For these reasons a choice was made for modernization as theoretical concept. Chapter one contains a historiographical discussion of this concept and an elaboration of how this concept has been applied to this research. In line with Schuyt and Taverne, I have chosen not to provide modernization in advance with a specific interpretation by adding ‘controlled’, ‘contested’ or ‘reflexive’. For the research, four policy areas have been selected for further investigation: spatial planning, education, guest workers/migrants and leisure facilities. As an introduction to the chapters on the developments in Ede, chapter two contains a broad outline of the national developments in which the local developments took place. Subsequently, in chapter three I discuss the way in which the modernization process was made visible in the composition of the municipal executive, including its chairpersons over a period of fifty years. Politicians not only partly determine which choices are made in the modernization process, but are also subject to this process themselves both at party and individual level. In this sense, through its decisions the political establishment in no small way contributes to determining its own future and, in turn, the composition of the municipal council and executive. The choices for more or

    less growth, for public-authority or private-authority schools , for providing public amenities or not, et cetera influence who will choose Ede as a place of residence and work. In this way, secularization manifests itself in changes in the population composition and the demand for specific amenities, as well as at the level of the political composition of the municipal council and the individual councillors. As a result of the population growth, by 1966 the newcomers held the majority of the seats on the council. However, the original population of Ede managed to control the executive positions for much longer. Democratization, individualization and secularization led to an increase in the number of political parties represented on the council and enhanced pluralism. Compared to politics at national level, both women’s emancipation and the professionalization of councillors clearly had a delayed start. As was the case at national level the larger parties lost ground, although the SGP (Reformed Political Party) formed an exception in Ede.

    The main theme of chapter four is spatial planning. Ede has profited considerably from the migration of residents and employment opportunities from the Randstad. Ede’s central location put it in a strategic position to benefit from national developments on spatial planning. The size of the municipality ̶ Ede being one of the largest in the Netherlands ̶ , the good infrastructure and the presence of the Veluwe National Park made Ede a popular place of residence and business. This remained the case even after, from the start of the 1960s, the provincial and national governments tried to curb the drift to Ede. As a result of its many qualities, Ede was able to achieve its growth ambitions and disregard the limiting measures imposed by higher government levels. In relation to nature conservation, Ede stayed more in line because the municipal executive regarded the Veluwe National Park as one of the attractive aspects of living in Ede. In respect to agriculture, the municipal executive chose for, on the one hand, an uncompromising policy to develop housing and business premises at the expense of farmland, while, on the other hand, applying a non-interference policy for the agricultural sector and business operations. Both small farmers and the strong growth in intensive animal husbandry could count on an accommodating local government. It was the national government which, as a result of the high levels of environmental pollution, designated the Gelderland Valley as a Spatial Planning and Environment area (ensuring spatial planning was combined with the environmental aspects). This, in turn, forced the municipal authority to impose regulatory measures on the agricultural sector in its spatial planning policies.

    The policy choices in relation to the educational facilities are discussed in chapter five. What is conspicuous here is the clear commitment on the part of the Christian political parties to maintain the Christian character of the education. In the 1950s, this commitment could also count on the support of the Christian councillors representing the PvdA (Labour Party). It was not until the early 1960s that all the PvdA councillors supported the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy) in its struggle

    to increase the number of public-authority schools. In the meantime, Protestant Ede had managed, under the leadership of the ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) aldermen, to establish broad, and partly above municipality level, private-authority denominational schools. In achieving this, the ARP (Anti- Revolutionary Party) politicians were able to make use of their extensive network, which included national politicians. It was only in the early 1980s that secular Ede achieved a long-cherished goal with the opening of a public-authority neutral secondary school. The presence of a broad range of Protestant-Christian educational facilities is one of the explanations why Ede’s expansion did not lead to a drop, in percentage terms, of the Orthodox-Christian share of the vote. These parties were, however, practically always kept outside the coalition. Nevertheless, they managed to profit from the educational policies implemented by the coalition parties CHU (Christian Historical Union) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party), and later by the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal). These parties were not, however, rewarded for this policy as they were confronted with continuous and steady losses at the polls. Illustrative of this development was also the establishment in the 1970s of a number of Protestant Reformed primary schools and the establishment of a Protestant-Christian School Advisory Service in 1984. The long-term opposition to a more secular organization of society was also expressed in the opposition until the start of the 1970s to abolishing the dismissal of married teachers.

    Ede’s growth did not only bring an influx of new residents from the rest of the Netherlands to the Veluwe. The shortage of unskilled workers, which continued to increase during the 1960s in the Netherlands, also resulted in the arrival of guest workers in Ede. Chapter six discusses the attitude of the political establishment towards this population group, whose stay was initially expected to be only temporary. It quickly became apparent that their unfamiliarity with our country, language, customs and laws in combination with their low wages and, for the most part, low level of education gave rise to a need for social assistance and specific facilities. The municipal executive did not, however, make use of the possibility to participate in the Migrant Workers’ Assistance Foundation that was established in Gelderland in the 1960s and in which the municipal executives of Apeldoorn and Arnhem participated. The Ede municipal executive maintained the view, as did other places in the Netherlands, that the

    reception of this population group and the facilitating or provision of specific facilities was not the task of government —and most certainly not in the area of religion. In relation to this last point, the constitutional separation of church and state was invariably used as argumentation. Although, in practice in the Netherlands, and this includes Ede, up to that point had not been so strictly adhered to as was preached in Ede. It was only at the end of the 1970s that the first careful steps were taken to arrange for the required facilities. The municipal executive disregarded an official report in 1977 by Ede’s own Sociographical Department, in which migrant workers were considered one of the minority groups in the Netherlands and in which specific mention was made of the role of government in the origination of the problems confronting this population group. The decision of the national government in 1984 to transfer policy on minorities to local government forced the municipal executive to set down its own policy. When social unrest occurred surrounding the desire of and initiatives by the Moroccan and Turkish communities for their own place of prayer, the municipal executive slowly changed its attitude from a wait-and-see approach into an active approach in which a reasonably acceptable solution was sought in consultation with all the parties involved. The strong position of the SGP (Reformed Political Party) in local politics could present an explanation for the fact that in this period the extreme right in Ede, in contrast to national level, never achieved the electoral threshold.

    Growth also places demands on leisure facilities. In the previous topics, especially in relation to the educational facilities and the facilities for migrant workers, there was an ongoing discussion in the background about how big the role of government should be in society. In confessional circles, but also within the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy), an ideological preference prevailed for small government, meaning, where possible, the initiative should be left to the community or the individual respectively. Government spending on leisure activities was particularly sensitive in the Protestant-Christian parties. The SGP (Reformed Political Party), on principal, held the opinion that the government should not spend public money on these types of activities. The development of sport fields/sport halls and the accommodation of sports clubs could, however, count on the support of the majority of the council and certainly also of the municipal executive. In the 1950s and 1960s the aldermen of the PvdA (Labour Party), VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) were great sport enthusiasts. Subsidies for cultural activities were more sensitive as theatre and opera had been a taboo for a long time within segments of the Protestant- Christian parties and, particularly, within the SGP (Reformed Political Party). If it was, nevertheless, decided to provide funding to support organizations or initiatives, then it was chosen for a strong involvement by the municipality, for example through ownership and tenures. This was an attempt by the municipal executive to exercise more control over the operations and the use of subsidies. At the same time, the municipal executive had a preference for the commercial use of, for example, a swimming pool or a theatre because this presented the possibility of keeping the public funding to a minimum. Particularly this involvement in a commercial organization gave rise, once again, to criticism within the council and within the community because commercialism with the help of public money was considered inappropriate for government and unfair competition. Ultimately, in the middle of the 1980s, the municipal executive distanced itself from the commercial operations by awarding a fixed subsidy amount based on agreements relating to the services provided to the community.

    Reflecting on the fifty year period researched, two cut-off points can be established in the modernization process in Ede. The first period runs from 1945 to 1966 and is characterized by growth and tradition. The prevailing philosophy was that despite the choice for growth the Protestant-Christian character of the municipality should and could be maintained. This is illustrated in the development of a broad and above municipal level provision of private-authority Protestant-Christian educational facilities, in the commitment to non-interference in the agricultural sector including keeping the peasants, and in the conservative policy on developing cultural activities for the leisure sector.

    However, the growth did strengthened aspects such as secularization, professionalization, geographical and social mobility, individualization and democratization: the modernization process continually resulted in changes in society and in the population composition and was not solely restricted to what was desirable or planned.

    The second period runs to 1978 and can be characterized with the terms: change and debate.

    The municipal policy was examined more critically. For example, the city-forming plans were considered undesirable both by the original population and the newcomers. Maintaining the smallness and a more rural character proved to be attractive aspects for Ede. At the same time, the demand for a more pluralistic and broader provision of social and cultural activities increased. In this second period, the non-interference policy in relation to agricultural developments except in the case that agricultural lands were required for housing and business premises, encountered opposition when the negative effects of the continuous expansion in the intensive animal husbandry for the ecology and

    environment became more apparent. In addition, the arrival of migrant workers and with them Islam

    into this predominantly Protestant-Christian community became more problematic during this period. As a consequence of unemployment and family reunification, more pressure was put on the municipal authorities for assistance and the need for a place of prayer for the Muslim community strengthened.

    The societal and economic changes led to a more pluralistic political landscape. The six parties were confronted with increasing competition from new political parties, including the Boerenpartij (Farmers’ Party) which was the first to profit from the discontent. Only the SGP

    (Reformed Political Party) managed to hold onto its share of the vote. The third period is characterized by the development of a new political situation and the search for a new political balance. The municipal executive was forced by the national government to curb the intensive animal husbandry.

    The ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) had to part with the education portfolio and, finally, Ede got a public-authority neutral secondary school, the Pallas Athene. It was a long journey, but the Muslim community also received its own place of prayer. At a time when societal opposition to the building of a mosque appeared to favour the national extreme-right political parties and movements, the municipal executive opted to work with the Muslim groups to find a solution acceptable to all parties. The municipality distanced itself from the business operations in how it financed organizations such as swimming pools, the theatre and events such as the Week of the Heather.

    What are the answers to my questions I posed in the beginning: is modernization at the local level more of less an exogenous process, can it be planned, or have local politicians enough opportunities to make a difference? When compared to the national developments it holds true for Ede that the 1950s was certainly a dynamic period, but it is also true to say that a Protestant-Christian community such as Ede required more time to shape its growth ambition so that old and new, conservative and progressive, and religious and secular could achieve a new balance and compromise. The changes were neither imposed from outside nor according to plan. The paradoxical outcome of the modernization process is that it has led to the further convergence of the local with the national developments, but it has at the same time ensured the survival of local characteristics.

    Partially, these are characteristics that have consciously been or were able to be preserved by politicians, such as the predominantly Protestant-Christian education facilities and a conservative policy towards the socio-cultural domain. This policy has not, per definition, turned out favourably for the supporting political parties. It was the SGP (Reformed Political Party) and not the governing parties CHU (Christian Historical Union) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) (and later the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal) that managed to hold onto its voters, even though the Protestant-Christian character of the municipality was the reason why a segment of the newcomers chose for Ede. Their votes did not strengthen the confessional parties at the centre of the political spectrum; it was precisely the orthodox element that benefitted, which was illustrated by the arrival of the RPF (Reformed Political Federation/GPV (Reformed Political Union). Other characteristic elements are independent of the local political policy and have ensured that Ede has become and remains a desirable place of residence and business. Its central location on the Veluwe, the good infrastructure, and the size of the municipality stimulated and made growth possible. Ede was a municipality with adequate facilities and the amenities it lacked could be found in the nearby Randstad and Arnhem.

    The Veluwe National Park also forms a large, green and tranquil back garden.

    Modernization was not imposed upon Ede, contrary to what Van Deursen notes in the case of Katwijk. Even so no controlled modernization for Ede, as Van Vegchel describes for Emmen. Like Zwemer states for Zeeland, local politics in Ede has been able to make a difference within the national developments and governmental guidelines. The national government only intervened and imposed their policy at the moment local political choices led to negative effects beyond the municipal boundaries. In accordance with the findings of Schuyt and Taverne the development in Ede was not the result of a ‘grand design’, not even of local politicians. Ede shows quite nice the paradox of modernization. Despite the creation of uniformity in the ongoing process of national integration and globalization, the paradox is that contradictory movements are possible that contribute to ensuring that the unique character of the area can be preserved, even if this characterization is also subject to change.

    Flood Disaster Subcultures in the Netherlands: the Parishes of Borgharen and Itteren
    Engel, K.E. ; Frerks, G. ; Velotti, L. ; Warner, J.F. ; Weijs, B. - \ 2014
    Natural Hazards 73 (2014)2. - ISSN 0921-030X - p. 859 - 882.
    community resilience - risk - rethinking - culture
    The Netherlands knows a persistent threat of flooding. To adapt to this dangerous reality, the Dutch have cultivated what disaster research literature has labeled ‘disaster subcultures’ or a set of cultural (tangible and intangible) tools to deal with the recurrent hazard. While there is abundant attention for the way the Dutch ‘coastal’ and ‘low-lying’ communities deal with the recurrent threat of (coastal) flooding, less is known about the way the Dutch ‘high-lands’ deal with the yearly threat of (fluvial) flooding. This article presents the findings of an explorative research endeavor (2011–2013) aimed at discerning if the disaster subculture concept has contemporary relevance in the Netherlands, particularly with respect to flooding, and if so, whether applying this lens would reveal more about the nature of existing disaster subcultures. Because less is known about the Dutch ‘high-lands,’ we chose to look into the existence and attributes of disaster subcultures in the parishes Borgharen and Itteren, which experience a systematic threat of flooding. Our findings suggest that the disaster subculture lens is valuable as it enables the empirical appreciation of disaster subcultures, even in a small country like the Netherlands, and it unveiled elements of these neighboring parishes’ flood reality that otherwise might have gone unnoticed and that seem central to understanding these two parishes’ levels of vulnerability and resilience. It is our contention that the concept ‘disaster subculture’ makes a greater understanding possible of the cultural context from which vulnerability and resilience to specific and recurrent threats emerge.
    Growth of Tetraselmis suecica in a tubular photobioreactor on wastewater from a fish farm
    Michels, M.H.A. ; Vaskoska, R.S. ; Vermuë, M.H. ; Wijffels, R.H. - \ 2014
    Water Research 65 (2014). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 290 - 296.
    n-p - microalgae - phytoplankton - culture - biomass - energy - mariculture - aquaculture - phosphorus - bivalves
    This study shows the feasibility of an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture approach where wastewater from the fish farms is used to produce feed for juvenile shellfish at high productivity and constant quality.
    Exile, camps, and camels: recovery and adaptation of subsistence practices and ethnobiological knowledge among Sahrawi refugees
    Volpato, G. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Patricia Howard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570818 - 274
    bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - vluchtelingen - verplaatsing - inheemse kennis - sociale relaties - cultuur - milieu - nomadisme - pastoralisme - etnobotanie - antropologie - westelijke sahara - algerije - subsistence - livelihood strategies - refugees - displacement - indigenous knowledge - social relations - culture - environment - nomadism - pastoralism - ethnobotany - anthropology - western sahara - algeria
    The study of how people adapt to social and environmental change is central to current theoretical understandings of human-nature relationships. There are recurrent cases in human history in which entire populations have been uprooted from the environments in which they live, where it becomes exceedingly difficult for them to maintain their ways of life including their modes of subsistence, social and ecological relations, knowledge, and culture. The ways in which such people exercise their collective and individual agency to recover and adapt their relations with nature and with each other must be addressed as the planet rapidly changes, given current prognoses about the emergence of environmental refugee populations on a massive scale. Refugees who have been forced to live in camps for long periods present important case studies of human agency and adaptation under such conditions. Refugee camps are places where people must engage with whatever limited resources are available, and where people confront major complex problems when attempting to establish new relations with their camp environments and maintain or revive relations with their homelands. If they succeed, refugees can partly free themselves from dependence on food aid and take their lives back into their own hands. The general objective of the study was to advance the understanding of humannature relationships in contexts of forced displacement and encampment by investigating the ways people living in refugee camps struggle to recover preexile subsistence practices and associated knowledge, while in the process adapting to new environmental conditions and social relations arising from their experience as refugees. It also sought to provide a preliminary theoretical framework for studying the human ecology and ethnobiology of refugees living in camps. Fieldwork was conducted among Sahrawi refugees in western Algeria, and involved collecting data on Sahrawi refugees’ agency toward the recovery and adaptation of traditional subsistence and other related material and cultural practices, as well as to understand associated changes in their ecological and social relations, and culture. Five case studies were selected: a general study of camel husbandry, culture and livelihoods, an ethnobiological study of traditional medicinal remedies and cosmetics, an ethnomedicinal study of the conceptualization of illness and change in related health beliefs, an ethnobotanical and cultural domain study of camel forage plants, and an ethnomycological and commodity study of desert truffles.
    Sulfide response analysis for sulfide control using a pS electrode in sulfate reducing bioreactors
    Villa Gomez, D.K. ; Cassidy, J. ; Keesman, K.J. ; Sampaio, R.M. ; Lens, P.N.L. - \ 2014
    Water Research 50 (2014). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 48 - 58.
    afvalwaterbehandeling - bioreactoren - sulfiden - waste water treatment - bioreactors - sulfides - anaerobic-digestion process - acid-mine drainage - waste-water treatment - stirred-tank reactor - zns precipitation - hydrogen-sulfide - control design - reduction - bacteria - culture
    Step changes in the organic loading rate (OLR) through variations in the influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin) concentration or in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at constant COD/SO4 2- ratio (0.67) were applied to create sulfide responses for the design of a sulfide control in sulfate reducing bioreactors. The sulfide was measured using a sulfide ion selective electrode (pS) and the values obtained were used to calculate proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller parameters.
    Step changes in the organic loading rate (OLR) through variations in the influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin) concentration or in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at constant COD/SO42- ratio (0.67) were applied to create sulfide responses for the design of a sulfide control in sulfate reducing bioreactors. The sulfide was measured using a sulfide ion selective electrode (pS) and the values obtained were used to calculate proportional-integral -derivative (PID) controller parameters. The experiments were performed in an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with automated operation using the LabVIEW software version 2009 (R). A rapid response and high sulfide increment was obtained through a stepwise increase in the CODin, concentration, while a stepwise decrease to the HRT exhibited a slower response with smaller sulfide increment. Irrespective of the way the OLR was decreased, the PS response showed a time-varying behavior due to sulfide accumulation (HRT change) or utilization of substrate sources that were not accounted for (CODin change). The pS electrode response, however, showed to be informative for applications in sulfate reducing bioreactors. Nevertheless, the recorded pS values need to be corrected for pH variations and high sulfide concentrations (>200 mg/L). (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Modelling and evaluation of productivity and economic feasibility of a combined production of tomato and algae in Dutch greenhouses
    Slager, B. ; Sapounas, A. ; Henten, E.J. van; Hemming, S. - \ 2014
    Biosystems Engineering 122 (2014). - ISSN 1537-5110 - p. 149 - 162.
    tubular photobioreactors - porphyridium-cruentum - solar irradiance - light - culture - growth - temperature - management - scenario - nutrient
    Combination of production of algae and tomato increases efficient use of available resources of greenhouse enterprises, such as controlled environment, water and nutrients, carbon dioxide, greenhouse space and infrastructure and knowledge. No information is available, however, about the potential productivity and related costs of a combined tomato and algae production in Dutch greenhouses. The objective was to determine the algae productivity in tubular photobioreactors (PBRs) and the economic feasibility of combined production of tomato and algae in Dutch greenhouses. A model was developed to predict greenhouse climate from outside climate, to predict tomato and algae biomass production and to analyse scenarios of different locations and dimensions of tubular PBR in the greenhouse with regard to algae productivity and cost price of algae production. The results show that algal productivity is low if PBRs are installed under a tomato crop due to limited light levels. Areal algal productivity was calculated to be 5–6.5 kg DM m-2 if PBRs are installed in a separate greenhouse compartment next to tomato. In this case the minimum cost prices of algae production was calculated to be €11 kg-1 DM algae, which give perspectives for the future. The proposed model is important because it gives insight into the feasibility of algae and tomato production in Dutch greenhouses. This novel model approach and the scenario results provide better knowledge about the potential productivity and related costs and returns of algae production in greenhouses.
    Alle buren zijn gelijk!
    Pompe, Vincent - \ 2014
    animal welfare - culture - religion - values - animal ethics
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