Beleefbare natuur: van recreatieve infrastructuur naar bioculturele diversiteit.
Wiersum, K.F. ; Elands, B.H.M. - \ 2016
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 2016 (2016)feb. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 14 - 17.
natuur - landschapsbeleving - perceptie - recreatie - biodiversiteit - culturele psychologie - ecosysteemdiensten - natuurwaarde - cultuur - bosbeheer - nature - landscape experience - perception - recreation - biodiversity - cultural psychology - ecosystem services - natural value - culture - forest administration
Traditioneel richt de aandacht van het bosbeheer voor een beleefbare natuur zich op de ontwikkeling van de recreatieve infrastructuur. Tegenwoordig krijgen ook andere vormen van samenleven met natuur aandacht. Deze ontwikkeling wordt weerspiegeld in het nieuwe begrip “bioculturele diversiteit”.
Dans met mij : een vierkante kilometer in Dreischor
Alterra - Centrum Landschap, ; Loo, S. van der; Zaken, D. van der - \ 2014
films - wijnbouw - cultuur - landbouwbedrijven - plattelandsbevolking - landgebruik - mensen - menselijk gedrag - platteland - boeren - zeeuwse eilanden - levensgeschiedenis - films - viticulture - culture - farms - rural population - land use - people - human behaviour - rural areas - farmers - zeeuwse eilanden - life history
De film gaat over één willekeurige vierkante kilometer in Dreischor, waar de makers ruim een jaar hebben gefilmd en de verhalen van een aantal mensen hebben gevolgd. De documentaire is onderdeel van een groter project onder de titel 'Venster op de wereld' waarbij ook een boek verschijnt, waarin onder andere een aantal wetenschappers zich over de kilometer hebben gebogen. Het project is een initiatief van Joop Schaminée en Anton Stortelder, Alterra Wageningen UR
Venster op km² Dreischor
Schaminee, J.H.J. ; Stortelder, A.H.F. ; Parramore, J. - \ 2014
Hilversum : Fontaine Uitgevers - ISBN 9789059565753 - 179
platteland - geschiedenis - natuur - cultuur - landschap - zeeuwse eilanden - zeeland - rural areas - history - nature - culture - landscape
Het project Venster op deWereld, waarin wetenschappers een vierkante kilometer bij Dreischor van alle kanten belichten, is inmiddels een eind op streek. Het leidt tot boek, documentaire en kunst. Hydrologen, landbouweconomen, ornithologen, meteorologen, bramendeskundigen, historici, archeologen, cultureel antropologen en andere deskundigen buigen zich over de vierkante kilometer, maar daarnaast worden de verhalen opgetekend van mensen die in het gebied wonen of werken, zoals de spruitentelers Gilles Klompe en Frans van der Linde, molenaar Bart van der Spek, René Perkins van de houtzagerij, Ria Geluk van museum Goemanszorg, vlaskenner Rinus Quist en Johan van de Velde van de wijnhoeve.
Paradoxale modernisering : Ede, 1945-1995: groot geworden, herkenbaar gebleven
Bloembergen-Lukkes, J.R. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pim Kooij, co-promotor(en): Anton Schuurman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571433 - 365
geschiedenis - modernisering - politiek - economie - demografie - cultuur - onderwijs - migratie - ruimtelijke ordening - sociologie van vrijetijdsbesteding - lokale geschiedenis - veluwe - nederland - history - modernization - politics - economics - demography - culture - education - migration - physical planning - sociology of leisure - local history - veluwe - netherlands
Ede, 1945-1995: Grew big, remained recognizable
After the Second World War, like many other municipalities in the Netherlands and elsewhere in the Western World, Ede experienced a period of rapid economic and population growth, of mobility, increase in scale, urbanization, better education, professionalization, individualization and democratization. Developments that may be summarized in the word modernization. I wondered if modernization is an exogenous process and did it more or less just happen, or is it a planned process or something in between. I decided that the best way to answer these questions was not to study the modernization process on a national level, but on a local level. There I hoped to find the answer on the question what possibilities people have to define their own community.
I choose the municipality of Ede as my case study for the next reasons. After 1945, the Ede municipal executive opted for growth: economic, population and employment growth. In 1962, the municipal executive formulated a goal to welcome its 100,000 resident by the year 2000, which represented a doubling of the population since the end of the war. Ede was to be transformed into the city of Ede. This milestone of 100,000 inhabitants was reached as early as 1996, 60,000 of whom lived in Ede town. In order to achieve this goal, action was needed on several fronts. The rapid growth achieved was not the result of a policy plan handed down by central government. Ede was not one of the designated development areas. Ede was not regarded as an underdeveloped area requiring a top- down targeted approach for accelerated industrialization and modernization. On the other hand, in 1945, Ede was still clearly a rural community and the town centre clearly showed characteristics of a village society. So the rapid growth meant changes in different policy sectors.
Ede easily attracted new residents and employment opportunities as a result of its strategic location in the middle of the Netherlands, its good infrastructure and sufficient space. What it did need, however, was the development of housing estates and industrial estates including the necessary infrastructure and the development and expansion of, for example, education facilities and leisure amenities. In a predominantly Protestant community, this raised questions about the persuasion of these types of amenities and led to debates on, if actually desirable, the type of socio-cultural policy most appropriate for local government. Rapid expansion of a community may be perceived as a threat to the characteristics of that society. This question made Ede an extra interesting subject for research. In the case of Ede it was justifiable to assume that tensions would have arisen between the rural and urban ambitions and between Christian and secular developments. The municipal authority is involved in the developments and decision-making process relating to all the elements of the public domain, which is why it was chosen as the focus for this research.
The policy decisions required in the different areas to facilitate growth are by their nature intertwined. The construction of housing estates and business premises conflict with the interests of the agricultural sector and nature conservation. The arrival of new residents can change the social, political and religious composition of the population, resulting in consequences for how society is organized and for the future local political constellation and vice versa. Every decision must take what has occurred in other areas into account and will, in turn, have consequences for adjacent domains. For these reasons a choice was made for modernization as theoretical concept. Chapter one contains a historiographical discussion of this concept and an elaboration of how this concept has been applied to this research. In line with Schuyt and Taverne, I have chosen not to provide modernization in advance with a specific interpretation by adding ‘controlled’, ‘contested’ or ‘reflexive’. For the research, four policy areas have been selected for further investigation: spatial planning, education, guest workers/migrants and leisure facilities. As an introduction to the chapters on the developments in Ede, chapter two contains a broad outline of the national developments in which the local developments took place. Subsequently, in chapter three I discuss the way in which the modernization process was made visible in the composition of the municipal executive, including its chairpersons over a period of fifty years. Politicians not only partly determine which choices are made in the modernization process, but are also subject to this process themselves both at party and individual level. In this sense, through its decisions the political establishment in no small way contributes to determining its own future and, in turn, the composition of the municipal council and executive. The choices for more or
less growth, for public-authority or private-authority schools , for providing public amenities or not, et cetera influence who will choose Ede as a place of residence and work. In this way, secularization manifests itself in changes in the population composition and the demand for specific amenities, as well as at the level of the political composition of the municipal council and the individual councillors. As a result of the population growth, by 1966 the newcomers held the majority of the seats on the council. However, the original population of Ede managed to control the executive positions for much longer. Democratization, individualization and secularization led to an increase in the number of political parties represented on the council and enhanced pluralism. Compared to politics at national level, both women’s emancipation and the professionalization of councillors clearly had a delayed start. As was the case at national level the larger parties lost ground, although the SGP (Reformed Political Party) formed an exception in Ede.
The main theme of chapter four is spatial planning. Ede has profited considerably from the migration of residents and employment opportunities from the Randstad. Ede’s central location put it in a strategic position to benefit from national developments on spatial planning. The size of the municipality ̶ Ede being one of the largest in the Netherlands ̶ , the good infrastructure and the presence of the Veluwe National Park made Ede a popular place of residence and business. This remained the case even after, from the start of the 1960s, the provincial and national governments tried to curb the drift to Ede. As a result of its many qualities, Ede was able to achieve its growth ambitions and disregard the limiting measures imposed by higher government levels. In relation to nature conservation, Ede stayed more in line because the municipal executive regarded the Veluwe National Park as one of the attractive aspects of living in Ede. In respect to agriculture, the municipal executive chose for, on the one hand, an uncompromising policy to develop housing and business premises at the expense of farmland, while, on the other hand, applying a non-interference policy for the agricultural sector and business operations. Both small farmers and the strong growth in intensive animal husbandry could count on an accommodating local government. It was the national government which, as a result of the high levels of environmental pollution, designated the Gelderland Valley as a Spatial Planning and Environment area (ensuring spatial planning was combined with the environmental aspects). This, in turn, forced the municipal authority to impose regulatory measures on the agricultural sector in its spatial planning policies.
The policy choices in relation to the educational facilities are discussed in chapter five. What is conspicuous here is the clear commitment on the part of the Christian political parties to maintain the Christian character of the education. In the 1950s, this commitment could also count on the support of the Christian councillors representing the PvdA (Labour Party). It was not until the early 1960s that all the PvdA councillors supported the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy) in its struggle
to increase the number of public-authority schools. In the meantime, Protestant Ede had managed, under the leadership of the ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) aldermen, to establish broad, and partly above municipality level, private-authority denominational schools. In achieving this, the ARP (Anti- Revolutionary Party) politicians were able to make use of their extensive network, which included national politicians. It was only in the early 1980s that secular Ede achieved a long-cherished goal with the opening of a public-authority neutral secondary school. The presence of a broad range of Protestant-Christian educational facilities is one of the explanations why Ede’s expansion did not lead to a drop, in percentage terms, of the Orthodox-Christian share of the vote. These parties were, however, practically always kept outside the coalition. Nevertheless, they managed to profit from the educational policies implemented by the coalition parties CHU (Christian Historical Union) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party), and later by the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal). These parties were not, however, rewarded for this policy as they were confronted with continuous and steady losses at the polls. Illustrative of this development was also the establishment in the 1970s of a number of Protestant Reformed primary schools and the establishment of a Protestant-Christian School Advisory Service in 1984. The long-term opposition to a more secular organization of society was also expressed in the opposition until the start of the 1970s to abolishing the dismissal of married teachers.
Ede’s growth did not only bring an influx of new residents from the rest of the Netherlands to the Veluwe. The shortage of unskilled workers, which continued to increase during the 1960s in the Netherlands, also resulted in the arrival of guest workers in Ede. Chapter six discusses the attitude of the political establishment towards this population group, whose stay was initially expected to be only temporary. It quickly became apparent that their unfamiliarity with our country, language, customs and laws in combination with their low wages and, for the most part, low level of education gave rise to a need for social assistance and specific facilities. The municipal executive did not, however, make use of the possibility to participate in the Migrant Workers’ Assistance Foundation that was established in Gelderland in the 1960s and in which the municipal executives of Apeldoorn and Arnhem participated. The Ede municipal executive maintained the view, as did other places in the Netherlands, that the
reception of this population group and the facilitating or provision of specific facilities was not the task of government —and most certainly not in the area of religion. In relation to this last point, the constitutional separation of church and state was invariably used as argumentation. Although, in practice in the Netherlands, and this includes Ede, up to that point had not been so strictly adhered to as was preached in Ede. It was only at the end of the 1970s that the first careful steps were taken to arrange for the required facilities. The municipal executive disregarded an official report in 1977 by Ede’s own Sociographical Department, in which migrant workers were considered one of the minority groups in the Netherlands and in which specific mention was made of the role of government in the origination of the problems confronting this population group. The decision of the national government in 1984 to transfer policy on minorities to local government forced the municipal executive to set down its own policy. When social unrest occurred surrounding the desire of and initiatives by the Moroccan and Turkish communities for their own place of prayer, the municipal executive slowly changed its attitude from a wait-and-see approach into an active approach in which a reasonably acceptable solution was sought in consultation with all the parties involved. The strong position of the SGP (Reformed Political Party) in local politics could present an explanation for the fact that in this period the extreme right in Ede, in contrast to national level, never achieved the electoral threshold.
Growth also places demands on leisure facilities. In the previous topics, especially in relation to the educational facilities and the facilities for migrant workers, there was an ongoing discussion in the background about how big the role of government should be in society. In confessional circles, but also within the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy), an ideological preference prevailed for small government, meaning, where possible, the initiative should be left to the community or the individual respectively. Government spending on leisure activities was particularly sensitive in the Protestant-Christian parties. The SGP (Reformed Political Party), on principal, held the opinion that the government should not spend public money on these types of activities. The development of sport fields/sport halls and the accommodation of sports clubs could, however, count on the support of the majority of the council and certainly also of the municipal executive. In the 1950s and 1960s the aldermen of the PvdA (Labour Party), VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) were great sport enthusiasts. Subsidies for cultural activities were more sensitive as theatre and opera had been a taboo for a long time within segments of the Protestant- Christian parties and, particularly, within the SGP (Reformed Political Party). If it was, nevertheless, decided to provide funding to support organizations or initiatives, then it was chosen for a strong involvement by the municipality, for example through ownership and tenures. This was an attempt by the municipal executive to exercise more control over the operations and the use of subsidies. At the same time, the municipal executive had a preference for the commercial use of, for example, a swimming pool or a theatre because this presented the possibility of keeping the public funding to a minimum. Particularly this involvement in a commercial organization gave rise, once again, to criticism within the council and within the community because commercialism with the help of public money was considered inappropriate for government and unfair competition. Ultimately, in the middle of the 1980s, the municipal executive distanced itself from the commercial operations by awarding a fixed subsidy amount based on agreements relating to the services provided to the community.
Reflecting on the fifty year period researched, two cut-off points can be established in the modernization process in Ede. The first period runs from 1945 to 1966 and is characterized by growth and tradition. The prevailing philosophy was that despite the choice for growth the Protestant-Christian character of the municipality should and could be maintained. This is illustrated in the development of a broad and above municipal level provision of private-authority Protestant-Christian educational facilities, in the commitment to non-interference in the agricultural sector including keeping the peasants, and in the conservative policy on developing cultural activities for the leisure sector.
However, the growth did strengthened aspects such as secularization, professionalization, geographical and social mobility, individualization and democratization: the modernization process continually resulted in changes in society and in the population composition and was not solely restricted to what was desirable or planned.
The second period runs to 1978 and can be characterized with the terms: change and debate.
The municipal policy was examined more critically. For example, the city-forming plans were considered undesirable both by the original population and the newcomers. Maintaining the smallness and a more rural character proved to be attractive aspects for Ede. At the same time, the demand for a more pluralistic and broader provision of social and cultural activities increased. In this second period, the non-interference policy in relation to agricultural developments except in the case that agricultural lands were required for housing and business premises, encountered opposition when the negative effects of the continuous expansion in the intensive animal husbandry for the ecology and
environment became more apparent. In addition, the arrival of migrant workers and with them Islam
into this predominantly Protestant-Christian community became more problematic during this period. As a consequence of unemployment and family reunification, more pressure was put on the municipal authorities for assistance and the need for a place of prayer for the Muslim community strengthened.
The societal and economic changes led to a more pluralistic political landscape. The six parties were confronted with increasing competition from new political parties, including the Boerenpartij (Farmers’ Party) which was the first to profit from the discontent. Only the SGP
(Reformed Political Party) managed to hold onto its share of the vote. The third period is characterized by the development of a new political situation and the search for a new political balance. The municipal executive was forced by the national government to curb the intensive animal husbandry.
The ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) had to part with the education portfolio and, finally, Ede got a public-authority neutral secondary school, the Pallas Athene. It was a long journey, but the Muslim community also received its own place of prayer. At a time when societal opposition to the building of a mosque appeared to favour the national extreme-right political parties and movements, the municipal executive opted to work with the Muslim groups to find a solution acceptable to all parties. The municipality distanced itself from the business operations in how it financed organizations such as swimming pools, the theatre and events such as the Week of the Heather.
What are the answers to my questions I posed in the beginning: is modernization at the local level more of less an exogenous process, can it be planned, or have local politicians enough opportunities to make a difference? When compared to the national developments it holds true for Ede that the 1950s was certainly a dynamic period, but it is also true to say that a Protestant-Christian community such as Ede required more time to shape its growth ambition so that old and new, conservative and progressive, and religious and secular could achieve a new balance and compromise. The changes were neither imposed from outside nor according to plan. The paradoxical outcome of the modernization process is that it has led to the further convergence of the local with the national developments, but it has at the same time ensured the survival of local characteristics.
Partially, these are characteristics that have consciously been or were able to be preserved by politicians, such as the predominantly Protestant-Christian education facilities and a conservative policy towards the socio-cultural domain. This policy has not, per definition, turned out favourably for the supporting political parties. It was the SGP (Reformed Political Party) and not the governing parties CHU (Christian Historical Union) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) (and later the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal) that managed to hold onto its voters, even though the Protestant-Christian character of the municipality was the reason why a segment of the newcomers chose for Ede. Their votes did not strengthen the confessional parties at the centre of the political spectrum; it was precisely the orthodox element that benefitted, which was illustrated by the arrival of the RPF (Reformed Political Federation/GPV (Reformed Political Union). Other characteristic elements are independent of the local political policy and have ensured that Ede has become and remains a desirable place of residence and business. Its central location on the Veluwe, the good infrastructure, and the size of the municipality stimulated and made growth possible. Ede was a municipality with adequate facilities and the amenities it lacked could be found in the nearby Randstad and Arnhem.
The Veluwe National Park also forms a large, green and tranquil back garden.
Modernization was not imposed upon Ede, contrary to what Van Deursen notes in the case of Katwijk. Even so no controlled modernization for Ede, as Van Vegchel describes for Emmen. Like Zwemer states for Zeeland, local politics in Ede has been able to make a difference within the national developments and governmental guidelines. The national government only intervened and imposed their policy at the moment local political choices led to negative effects beyond the municipal boundaries. In accordance with the findings of Schuyt and Taverne the development in Ede was not the result of a ‘grand design’, not even of local politicians. Ede shows quite nice the paradox of modernization. Despite the creation of uniformity in the ongoing process of national integration and globalization, the paradox is that contradictory movements are possible that contribute to ensuring that the unique character of the area can be preserved, even if this characterization is also subject to change.
Exile, camps, and camels: recovery and adaptation of subsistence practices and ethnobiological knowledge among Sahrawi refugees
Volpato, G. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Patricia Howard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570818 - 274
bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - vluchtelingen - verplaatsing - inheemse kennis - sociale relaties - cultuur - milieu - nomadisme - pastoralisme - etnobotanie - antropologie - westelijke sahara - algerije - subsistence - livelihood strategies - refugees - displacement - indigenous knowledge - social relations - culture - environment - nomadism - pastoralism - ethnobotany - anthropology - western sahara - algeria
The study of how people adapt to social and environmental change is central to current theoretical understandings of human-nature relationships. There are recurrent cases in human history in which entire populations have been uprooted from the environments in which they live, where it becomes exceedingly difficult for them to maintain their ways of life including their modes of subsistence, social and ecological relations, knowledge, and culture. The ways in which such people exercise their collective and individual agency to recover and adapt their relations with nature and with each other must be addressed as the planet rapidly changes, given current prognoses about the emergence of environmental refugee populations on a massive scale. Refugees who have been forced to live in camps for long periods present important case studies of human agency and adaptation under such conditions. Refugee camps are places where people must engage with whatever limited resources are available, and where people confront major complex problems when attempting to establish new relations with their camp environments and maintain or revive relations with their homelands. If they succeed, refugees can partly free themselves from dependence on food aid and take their lives back into their own hands. The general objective of the study was to advance the understanding of humannature relationships in contexts of forced displacement and encampment by investigating the ways people living in refugee camps struggle to recover preexile subsistence practices and associated knowledge, while in the process adapting to new environmental conditions and social relations arising from their experience as refugees. It also sought to provide a preliminary theoretical framework for studying the human ecology and ethnobiology of refugees living in camps. Fieldwork was conducted among Sahrawi refugees in western Algeria, and involved collecting data on Sahrawi refugees’ agency toward the recovery and adaptation of traditional subsistence and other related material and cultural practices, as well as to understand associated changes in their ecological and social relations, and culture. Five case studies were selected: a general study of camel husbandry, culture and livelihoods, an ethnobiological study of traditional medicinal remedies and cosmetics, an ethnomedicinal study of the conceptualization of illness and change in related health beliefs, an ethnobotanical and cultural domain study of camel forage plants, and an ethnomycological and commodity study of desert truffles.
|Towards a European Legal Culture
Helleringer, G. ; Purnhagen, K. - \ 2014
Baden Baden : C.H. Beck Hart Nomos - ISBN 9783832971953 - 395
recht - wetgeving - harmonisatie - cultuur - europese unie - europa - law - legislation - harmonization - culture - european union - europe
European harmonization efforts - such as a European civil code, European constitutional treaties, European principles, and European fundamental rights - are frequently criticized for building on or creating a European legal culture that does not exist. In reality, what we have is European legal pluralism. Some have argued that the pluralistic structure of European law hinders the development of a community, which is a necessary requirement for a European legal culture. And, if there can be no common European legal culture, then there is no basis for harmonizing exercises. The contributors to this book explore whether, in fact, the contrary is true. Cultural pluralism might indeed be a distinctive feature of European legal culture. Diversity is not something that is in opposition to a European legal culture, but rather constitutes a new, different understanding of it. The book demonstrates in detail how such an approach - inter alia in the areas of private, corporate, administrative, and constitutional law - furthers the understanding of a developing European legal culture, how it offers theoretical and doctrinal insights, and how it adds critical perspective.
Scripting intercultural computer-supported collaborative learning in higher education
Popov, V. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Mulder, co-promotor(en): Harm Biemans; A.N. Kuznetsov. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736482 - 272
computerondersteund onderwijs - hoger onderwijs - leren - onderwijsmethoden - geprogrammeerd leren - studenten - interculturele communicatie - cultuur - samenwerking - computer assisted instruction - higher education - learning - teaching methods - programmed learning - students - intercultural communication - culture - cooperation
Introduction of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), specifically in an intercultural learning environment, creates both challenges and benefits. Among the challenges are the coordination of different attitudes, styles of communication, and patterns of behaving. Among the benefits are the sharing of culturally diverse knowledge, hands-on preparation for working in an international climate. Five empirical studies reported in this dissertation were conducted to identify and respond to the cultural issues influencing collaborative learning in both face-to-face and online modes of communication. The ultimate goal of the fives taken together was to develop an instructional script for fostering collaboration and bridging intercultural differences in culturally diverse groups engaged in CSCL. The total sample for the present research included over 500 students representing a total of 55 countries. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were undertaken in the studies. The findings of this dissertation suggest that the scripting approach can foster collaboration and bridge intercultural differences in culturally diverse groups working in a CSCL environment.
Naar gekleurde recreatie in het groen
Kloek, M.E. - \ 2013
recreatie - stadsomgeving - stedelijke samenleving - natuur - diversiteit - cultuur - recreation - urban environment - urban society - nature - diversity - culture
In de Nederlandse multiculturele samenleving wonen, werken en recreëren mensen met verschillende culturele achtergronden. Deze diversiteit aan culturen zie je echter minder goed terug wanneer je de Nederlandse natuur in gaat. Daar kom je Nederlanders van allochtone afkomst nauwelijks tegen. Vinden zij de Nederlandse natuur te saai, te wild, of niet interessant? In een artikel in Trouw en tijdens het symposium van de Heimans en Thijsse Stichting over 'De relatie tussen mens en natuur in een verstedelijkte omgeving', laat onderzoeker Marjolein Kloek zien welke ideeën over recreatie en natuur leven onder Chinese, Turkse en Nederlandse jongeren.
Livelihood strategies : gender and generational specificities of rural levilihoods in transition
Nizamedinkhodjayeva, N. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): P.P. Mollinga; Bettina Bock. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734501 - 166
strategieën voor levensonderhoud - platteland - overgangseconomieën - cultuur - sociologie - geslacht (gender) - vrouwen - besluitvorming - landbouwhuishoudens - oezbekistan - centraal-azië - livelihood strategies - rural areas - transition economies - culture - sociology - gender - women - decision making - agricultural households - uzbekistan - central asia
|Wat mooi betreft : over landschap en cultuur : 6x6 columns
Kerkstra, K. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Blauwdruk - ISBN 9789075271706 - 36
landschap - landschapsarchitectuur - cultuur - landscape - landscape architecture - culture
Wat mooi betreft is een verzameling columns van landschapsarchitect Klaas Kerkstra (1946-2012). Kerkstra was van 1991 tot en met 1995 columnist van Blauwe Kamer, tijdschrift voor landschapsarchitectuur en stedenbouw. Hij schreef in die jaren 31 columns. Dit boekje bevat er dan ook 36, door vijf bijdragen van vakgenoten. Het is een eerbetoon aan Klaas Kerkstra die onlangs na een kort ziekbed overleed.
|Recht en politiek in een tijd van globalisering
Pijnenburg, L.F.P. - \ 2011
Zoetermeer : Klement - ISBN 9789086870615 - 222
internationaal recht - recht - politiek - globalisering - filosofie - nationaal bewustzijn - naties (landen) - psychologie - cultuur - identiteit - culturele psychologie - mensenrechten - morele waarden - moraal - ethiek - europese unie - integratie - besluitvorming - wereld - international law - law - politics - globalization - philosophy - national consciousness - nations - psychology - culture - identity - cultural psychology - human rights - moral values - moral - ethics - european union - integration - decision making - world
Wat betekenen de sterk toegenomen migratie in de wereld en de gestage totstandkoming van een wereldmaatschappij voor de manier waarop we onszelf en de ander zien? Wat zijn de gevolgen van deze globalisering voor ons begrip van politiek en voor de vorming van nationale en culturele identiteiten? Op welke manier kunnen we onze idealen van vrede, vrijheid en rechtvaardigheid op een duurzame manier realiseren in een wereld waarin we steeds meer afhankelijk van elkaar worden? In de hier bijeengebrachte rechts- en politiek-filosofische opstellen verkent Habermas de mogelijkheden van de democratie voorbij de grenzen van de natiestaat, de politieke en morele uitdagingen waarvoor de Europese Unie zich gesteld ziet en de status van de mondiale mensenrechten. Hij ontwikkelt een gedetailleerd, veeldimensionaal model van transnationaal en supranationaal bestuur op basis van het kantiaanse kosmopolitisme en plaatst dit in de context van de negentiende- en twintigste-eeuwse ontwikkelingen op het gebied van het internationaal recht. Wat Europa betreft, bepleit Habermas een politiek van geleidelijke integratie waarbij de belangrijke beslissingen over de toekomst van Europa worden gelegd in de handen van de volken die er deel van uitmaken. Alleen door zich meer en meer te verenigen zal Europa, in nauwe samenwerking met de Verenigde Staten, mede gestalte kunnen geven aan een stabielere en evenwichtiger wereldorde.
|Cultural Emergency in Conflict and Disaster
Frerks, G.E. ; Klein Goldewijk, B. - \ 2011
Rotterdam : NAi-publishers - ISBN 9789056628178 - 480
cultuur - cultureel erfgoed - culturele waarden - identiteit - rampen - oorlog - erfgoed - culture - cultural heritage - cultural values - identity - disasters - war - heritage areas
All that we're wrecking is stones" was Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar's dismissal of the Taliban's destruction of the Buddhas of Bamyan, the largest standing statues of Buddha in the world. The intention of the fighters was not only the destruction of foreign idols, but breaking the soul of a culture. Cultural Emergency in Conflict and Disaster insists that culture is a necessity for national self-respect. International heritage specialists, relief workers and politicians discuss the importance of protecting cultural heritage that is threatened by war and calamity; and reports on projects in conflict zones are augmented by contributions on international administrative and legal aspects, as well as political and socio-cultural perspectives. The result is both an indictment of the senseless destruction of cultural heritage and an argument for culture as a priority in processes of restoration and reconstruction.
|Allemaal andersdenkenden: omgaan met cultuurverschillen
Hofstede, G. ; Hofstede, G.J. ; Minkov, M. - \ 2011
Amsterdam/Antwerpen : Uitgeverij Contact - ISBN 9789025419851 - 572
rassen (taxonomisch) - etnische groepen - psychologie - intercultureel onderzoek - cultuur - socialisatie - interraciale relaties - sociologie - cultuursociologie - communicatie - niet-verbale communicatie - groepen - organisaties - sociale interactie - sociale antropologie - races - ethnic groups - psychology - cross cultural studies - culture - socialization - race relations - sociology - cultural sociology - communication - nonverbal communication - groups - organizations - social interaction - social anthropology
Mensen uit andere landen denken, voelen en handelen anders dan wij hier gewend zijn. Ook landgenoten uit een andere streek of een andere sociale klasse gedragen zich vaak anders dan wij. In een open samenleving komt iedereen vaker met zulke andersdenkenden in aanraking dan vroeger. Voor die anderen zijn wij de andersdenkenden. Wat ons scheidt is de "cultuur" waarin we zijn opgegroeid, de met de paplepel ingegoten en daardoor vaak onbewuste waarden die maken dat wij "normaal" vinden wat anderen slecht vinden, en vies wat voor anderen schoon is. Allemaal andersdenkenden laat zien wat deze verschillen betekenen voor onze persoonlijkheid, onze gezondheid, ons gezinsleven, ons onderwijs, ons werk, onze overheid en voor de dingen waar we in geloven. Het gaat dieper in op de verschillende manieren waarop organisaties functioneren, zowel van land tot land als binnen een en hetzelfde land, en op wat er gebeurt als verschillende culturen elkaar ontmoeten.
Welkom in Rotterdam! : een studie naar interculturele ontmoetingen tussen 'oude' en 'nieuwe' Rotterdammers
Muijres, M.E.A. ; Aarts, M.N.C. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel Wageningen UR (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 273) - 64
bevolking - cultuur - diversiteit - etnische groepen - etniciteit - minderheden - sociale interactie - culturele integratie - sociale integratie - sociale participatie - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - interculturele communicatie - cultuursociologie - intercultureel onderzoek - rotterdam - zuid-holland - nederland - human population - culture - diversity - ethnic groups - ethnicity - minorities - social interaction - cultural integration - social integration - social participation - community involvement - intercultural communication - cultural sociology - cross cultural studies - rotterdam - zuid-holland - netherlands
Maatschappelijke solidariteit tussen verschillende bevolkingsgroepen bestaat nog wel degelijk in de huidige multiculturele samenleving van Rotterdam. Dat concluderen onderzoekers in een studie van de Wetenschapswinkel van Wageningen UR (University & Research centre) naar de effecten van de interculturele ontmoetingen die het project 'Welkom in Rotterdam' organiseert. Zowel ‘oude’ als ‘nieuwe’ Rotterdammers staan open voor contact met elkaar, maar de drempel voor spontane contacten is voor veel mensen te hoog. Hun sociale netwerken zijn gescheiden waardoor de gelegenheid vaak ontbreekt.
|Cultures et organisations
Hofstede, G. ; Hofstede, G.J. ; Minkov, M. - \ 2010
Paris : Pearson Education France - ISBN 9782744074141 - 512
cultuur - organisaties - intercultureel onderzoek - cultureel gedrag - communicatie - nationaal bewustzijn - internationale samenwerking - etnische groepen - pluriforme samenleving - culturele differentiatie - psychologie - nationalisme - culture - organizations - cross cultural studies - cultural behaviour - communication - national consciousness - international cooperation - ethnic groups - plural society - cultural differentiation - psychology - nationalism
La coopération interculturelle, une question de survie Véritable atlas des valeurs culturelles, paru en 18 langues, Cultures et organisations est le fruit de plus de 40 ans de recherches menées dans plus de 100 pays. Il est aujourd'hui le livre de référence des chercheurs, universitaires et professionnels en management interculturel, sociologie des organisations, psychosociologie... Dans un monde divisé malgré la globalisation et l'avènement des nouvelles technologies, cet ouvrage est d'autant plus essentiel pour comprendre les origines des conflits culturels et permettre enfin la mise en place d'une coopération pacifique dans l'intérêt de tous. Des recherches empiriques et une théorie révolutionnaire Dans cette nouvelle édition, les auteurs complètent leur étude des années 1970 menée auprès des employés d'IBM à travers le monde, en utilisant des sources de données récentes, comme le World Values Survey, fondé sur des échantillons représentatifs de la population d'une centaine de nations et de régions, y compris l'ex-bloc soviétique. Ils identifient aujourd'hui six dimensions dans les différences culturelles (la distance hiérarchique, le contrôle de l'incertitude, l'individualisme/le collectivisme, la féminité/la masculinité, l'orientation au court terme/long terme et l'indulgence/la sévérité) et distinguent cultures organisationnelles et nationales. Des applications pratiques Les auteurs analysent également l'influence des cultures nationales sur le traitement des problèmes économiques, commerciaux, politiques, éthiques et religieux de nos sociétés contemporaines, en étudiant par exemple les racines culturelles de la crise économique qui a commencé en 2007. Ils prêtent une attention particulière aux rencontres entre cultures dans un contexte de mondialisation (éducation, tourisme, communications en ligne, négociations internationales), ainsi qu'à la communication interculturelle, offrant une aide précieuse pour évaluer concrètement l'impact des différences culturelles, en particulier dans la gestion des entreprises.
|Kulturer og organisationer
Hofstede, G. ; Hofstede, G.J. ; Minkov, M. - \ 2010
København : Handelshøjskolens Forlag - ISBN 9788762903777 - 553
cultuur - organisaties - intercultureel onderzoek - cultureel gedrag - nationaal bewustzijn - internationale samenwerking - communicatie - etnische groepen - pluriforme samenleving - culturele differentiatie - nationalisme - psychologie - culture - organizations - cross cultural studies - cultural behaviour - national consciousness - international cooperation - communication - ethnic groups - plural society - cultural differentiation - nationalism - psychology
Kultur er de grundfæstede og ofte ubevidste værdier vi er vokset op med. Det er de kulturelle forskelle der adskiller os fra de andre. Bogen afdækker de værdier, der kendetegner de forskellige kulturer - såvel de nationale og regionale som de organisatoriske. Forfatterne redegør for disse værdier via kulturelle dimensioner som forholdet mellem magt og lighed, forholdet mellem individ og gruppe, sociale roller for kvinder og mænd samt usikkerhedsundvigelse og krisehåndtering. Disse begreber og værdier gøres levende og vedkommende med en række eksempler fra dagligdagen rundt om i verden. Forfatterne viser desuden hvordan man håndterer det interkulturelle - dvs. slår bro over forskellene i de kulturelle værdinormer, f.eks. i internationale koncerner. Bogen henvender sig især til ledere, faglige specialister og forhandlere i såvel erhvervslivet som organisationer, hvor der arbejdes på tværs af de kulturelle skel. Men alle med interesse for interkulturelle forhold og ønske om en større kulturforståelse, kan få glæde af denne spændende bog. I denne ajourførte 3. udgave medvirker Michael Minkov som ny medforfatter. Dette har bl.a. betydet, at datagrundlaget er udvidet med en række østeuropæiske lande, således at resultater, eksempler og kulturmodeller er blevet endnu bedre og mere nuancerede.
Plurality of religion, plurality of justice : exploring the role of religion in disputing processes in Gorongosa, Central Mozambique
Jacobs, C. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F. von Benda-Beckmann, co-promotor(en): K. von Benda-Beckmann. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858010 - 262
recht - rechtssystemen - sociale systemen - cultuur - religie - conflict - pluriforme samenleving - mozambique - christendom - conflictmanagement - law - legal systems - social systems - culture - religion - conflict - plural society - mozambique - christianity - conflict management
Secularisation and modernisation theories long predicted the demise of supernatural forces in the lives of people after the Enlightenment. By the end of the twentieth century however, scholars slowly came to recognise that a belief in the supernatural was not disappearing at all but, in fact, gaining momentum in many parts of the world, especially in the global South. Religion is (back) at the centre of attention. The current attention, however, appears to be mainly to religion in a negative sense; to fundamentalism and religiously-oriented wars that are wreaking havoc in many parts of the world. Less effort has been made to come to an understanding of the role of religion in disputes that are not necessarily about religion. This dissertation explores the role of religion in disputing processes in Gorongosa, a district in Central Mozambique. Religion might provide important orientations to people on how to behave in everyday life vis-à-vis each other and vis-à-vis the spiritual world. But which normative orientations does religion provide to people in the prevention, mediation, and resolution of disputes?
In Chapter 1, theoretical approaches towards religion and disputing are discussed. Central to religion is a belief in spiritual beings, which provides normative orientations to people. In the context of Gorongosa, Christianity and traditional religion play important roles. The latter is usually referred to simply as ‘tradition’ by people in Gorongosa. After the discussion of religion, follows a discussion of theoretical approaches towards processes of disputing in the context of legal pluralism. At the end of the chapter, the selection of Gorongosa, Mozambique for the study is explained and the field site is introduced.
Chapter 2 provides a historical overview of key developments in Mozambique in general, and in Gorongosa in particular, especially in relation to governance and religion. Crucial legal changes are described and how they have affected the society of Gorongosa. It is shown that the first lasting evangelisation in Gorongosa started only in 1947, which is relatively recent. Therefore, many of the older people still vividly recall times in which traditional beliefs held a more central role.
Chapter 3 further elaborates on the changes brought to society and individuals in this society from early Christianisation onwards. Today, plurality of religion is ingrained in both society and individuals. In this chapter, I describe the way in which people identify with tradition and Christianity in discourse and in praxis. Many people define themselves as Christians, but when looking for normative orientations to guide their behaviour, they frequently shift between tradition and Christianity. Both categories of religion play a role in providing normative orientations and spiritual security to people in a rapidly changing world. When people in Gorongosa, refer to religion, they are typically referring to Christianity, not to traditional religion. It is argued that this is partly due to missionary discourse that defines Christianity as the one and only religion. Not defining tradition in the same terms as Christianity makes the two categories more compatible. It also makes it easier for people to more efficiently shop at the religious marketplace when they are in search of normative orientations.
In Chapter 4, I present a case study of a conflict over land in the Gorongosa district. At the centre of the conflict between the local population and the Gorongosa National Park was a mountain. For the Park management, the mountain was of interest because it is part of the park’s watershed and, it was argued, essential for the Park’s ecosystem. For the local population, the mountain is an important resource, with fertile lands due to the favourable climatic conditions. Additionally, certain parts of the mountain are believed to be sacred and access is tightly regulated due to ritual prescriptions laid down by the ancestral spirits. The case shows how people can empower themselves by referring to the spirits.
The role of religious leaders in disputing processes is described in Chapter 5. The first part of the chapter describes the way in which spirit mediums participate in the disputing process by first revealing the spiritual truth and subsequently by retaliation. Only once these phases have been fulfilled, steps can be taken towards reconciliation. Special attention is paid to ‘the video’; an innovative method to reveal the truth that one of the spirit mediums in Gorongosa introduced early 2008. Within a couple of weeks, this method was fully accepted by large parts of the population. I show that the instrument was innovative, yet strongly rooted in tradition. The second part of the chapter shows the mediatory role of the pastors in disputes. Pastors follow a different path through the disputing process than spirit mediums, but they strive for a similar aim; reconciliation. To achieve reconciliation, pastors first pray and read the Bible with the disputing parties. The next step is mutual forgiveness. Once this is done, the way to reconciliation is open. Pastors mainly intervene in conflicts that people want to keep ‘within the house’.
In Chapter 6, I move from the religious realms to the staterooms of disputing; the police station and the district court. While religion does appear in these settings, it is mainly traditional religion, via a reference to the spirits. People – plaintiffs and defendants alike – allocate responsibility to the spirits to justify or explain their behaviour and to defend their rights. Although many of the local state officials share a belief in ‘the spirits of tradition’ with their subjects, ‘spiritual arguments’ are seldom taken into consideration in the decision-making stage of the disputing process. I show that this sometimes leads to dissatisfaction among the disputants, who subsequently turn their backs on the state and search for a solution outside the control of the state.
Neighbourhood secretaries, community courts, and régulos are more or less hybrid authorities who have more freedom to accommodate a wide range of arguments when they are consulted to mediate in conflicts. In Chapter 7, I show that these authorities not only assist in the mediation of a wider range of arguments, but that they themselves also actively invoke normative orientations provided by both Christianity and traditional religion. Although these shifts in orientations might seem inconsistent, I argue that they are in line with the shifting orientations of their subjects, as presented in Chapter 3.
In Chapter 8, I will describe the ‘problem of order’ that the Mozambican state faces. In recent years, Mozambique has been increasingly affected by waves of ‘private justice’; often very violent forms of justice that citizens impose with their own hands. Targets of these acts of justice are mainly people suspected of crimes, witchcraft, or a combination of the two. I describe several of these incidents and discuss in which way they are linked to each other. I argue that this private justice should be understood as a questioning of the order that is imposed by the state. I use this phenomenon of private justice to show that to regain control the state is driven to cooperate with other authorities who are more trusted by the people. After independence, the Mozambican state has taken a strongly secular stance and rejected religion. Yet, the acts of private justice led the local state administration in Gorongosa to seek the cooperation of church leaders to indirectly sensitise the population. But typically, no such cooperation has been solicited from the spirit mediums. The state thus seems to be approaching the Christian leaders but much less the spirit mediums. This is despite the fact that both categories of religious leaders feel they are able to give their responses to these forms of violence meant to impose justice.
In the concluding chapter of this dissertation, Chapter 9, I come back to the main question: what role does religion play in disputing processes? It is argued that religion plays a role not only through religious leaders who engage in the mediation of disputes but also via normative orientations that might prevent conflicts from taking place. Moreover, religion is not as absent in secular rooms of disputing as might be expected. Spirits, particularly, also play a role in disputes taken to the police station and district court, yet, their role is often downplayed as being insignificant. For complainants and defendants however, this is often a crucial aspect in a conflict and when not recognised within the secular rooms of the state, people can turn their backs to the state and find justice somewhere else. In conclusion, I argue that a plurality of religion contributes to a plurality of justice in Gorongosa via the different normative orientations it provides.
Gender, AIDS and food security : culture and vulnerability in rural Côte d'Ivoire
Maiga, M.M. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser; Anke Niehof. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857891 - 199
acquired immune deficiency syndrome - voedselzekerheid - cultuur - plattelandsvrouwen - sociologie - vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - plattelandsbevolking - sociale economie - verwantschap - relaties - ivoorkust - afrika - geslacht (gender) - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - food security - culture - rural women - sociology - female labour - rural population - socioeconomics - kinship - relationships - cote d'ivoire - africa - gender - livelihood strategies
|Cultures and Organizations, Software of the mind. Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for survival
Hofstede, G. ; Hofstede, G.J. ; Minkov, M. - \ 2010
USA : McGraw-Hill - ISBN 9780071664189 - 561
cultuur - intercultureel onderzoek - cultureel gedrag - organisaties - communicatie - internationale samenwerking - nationaal bewustzijn - etnische groepen - pluriforme samenleving - culturele differentiatie - psychologie - bedrijfsvoering - volkenkunde - culture - cross cultural studies - cultural behaviour - organizations - communication - international cooperation - national consciousness - ethnic groups - plural society - cultural differentiation - psychology - management - ethnology
This book reveals: * The unexamined rules behind the thoughts and emotions of people of different cultures * Ways in which cultures differ in the areas of collectivism/individualism, assertiveness/modesty, tolerance for ambiguity, and deferment of gratification * How organizational cultures differ from national cultures, and how they can be managed
Out of the Mainstream. Water Rights, Politics and Identity
Boelens, R.A. ; Getches, D. ; Guevara-Gil, A. - \ 2010
London : Earthscan - ISBN 9781844076765 - 366
watervoorziening - watervoorraden - ontwikkeling van hulpbronnen - politiek - cultuur - gevalsanalyse - eigendomsrechten - latijns-amerika - andesgroep - waterrechten - identiteit - staat - inheemse volkeren - geslacht (gender) - water supply - water resources - resource development - politics - culture - case studies - property rights - latin america - andean group - water rights - identity - state - indigenous people - gender
Water is not only a source of life and culture. It is also a source of power, conflicting interests and identity battles. Rights to materially access, culturally organize and politically control water resources are poorly understood by mainstream scientific approaches and hardly addressed by current normative frameworks. These issues become even more challenging when law and policy-makers and dominant power groups try to grasp, contain and handle them in multicultural societies. The struggles over the uses, meanings and appropriation of water are especially well-illustrated in Andean communities and local water systems of Peru, Chile, Ecuador, and Bolivia, as well as in Native American communities in south-western USA. The problem is that throughout history, these nation-states have attempted to 'civilize' and bring into the mainstream the different cultures and peoples within their borders instead of understanding 'context' and harnessing the strengths and potentials of diversity. This book examines the multi-scale struggles for cultural justice and socio-economic re-distribution that arise as Latin American communities and user federations seek access to water resources and decision-making power regarding their control and management. It is set in the dynamic context of unequal, globalizing power relations, politics of scale and identity, environmental encroachment and the increasing presence of extractive industries that are creating additional pressures on local livelihoods. While much of the focus of the book is on the Andean Region, a number of comparative chapters are also included. These address issues such as water rights and defence strategies in neighboring countries and those of Native American people in the southern USA, as well as state reform and multi-culturalism across Latin and Native America and the use of international standards in struggles for indigenous water rights. This book shows that, against all odds, people are actively contesting neoliberal globalization and water power plays. In doing so, they construct new, hybrid water rights systems, livelihoods, cultures and hydro-political networks, and dynamically challenge the mainstream powers and politics.