Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Sustaining dairy
    Villarreal Herrera, Georgina - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.S.C. Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): J.W. van der Schans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431545 - 331
    dairy farming - dairy farms - agricultural society - economic sectors - agricultural sector - sustainable agriculture - sustainability - netherlands - great britain - western europe - europe - melkveehouderij - melkveebedrijven - agrarische samenleving - economische sectoren - landbouwsector - duurzame landbouw - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - nederland - groot-brittannië - west-europa - europa

    Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability programs are a part of that.

    Regime change as outlined in transition theory enhanced through a sociological approach on actors informed this research. More specifically, the notion of obligatory passage points was used to explore the mechanisms through which dominant actors make certain actions mandatory and reify their status as indispensable. The thesis consists of three case studies: the dairy sectors in the Netherlands, Ireland and the United Kingdom. The cases trace the evolution of all sectors since the post-war era, outlining the dominant logic that has guided its development. The sustainability programs of three dairy processors—located in each of the case countries—are also part of the analysis. Data was collected through document analysis and semi-structured interviews.

    The analysis shows that the post-war logic based on the increase of scale and intensification of dairying has continued to shape the development of the sector through today. While the visible impacts of intensive dairy have led to adaptations to the dominant rules and practices, these changes have not been fundamental in nature. The analysis of dairy processors and their sustainability programs revealed that these programs can be an additional tool for compliance to legal standards and the alleviation of pressing societal concerns. However, processors address social and environmentally relevant dairy-related challenges when an effective link to profit can be established. These programs have been unable to ensure that the dairy sector operates within established environmental limits and societal expectations, while providing a stable livelihood for farmers.

    This research contributes to the understanding of sustainability (agri-food) transitions by identifying the mechanisms through which the regime adapts to the shifting environment and dominant actors strive for their own continuity. It also adds to the debate about the role that incumbent actors can have in sustainability transitions—their involvement is important but they are unable to guide such processes. This study advances the empirical ground in sustainability transition studies by focusing on systems in which change is less likely to be technologically driven and where social change plays a larger role. Finally, this thesis connects past development, current challenges, and present engagement in a discussion about the future development of the dairy sector; this adds to the further conceptualization of the complexity and co-evolutionary nature of sustainability transitions.

    The utility of sensor technology to support reproductive management on dairy farms
    Rutten, C.J. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Hogeveen; M. Nielen, co-promotor(en): W. Steeneveld. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431934 - 232
    dairy cattle - dairy farms - sensors - reproduction - reproductive behaviour - animal health - calving - activity - management - dairy farming - technology - agricultural economics - melkvee - melkveebedrijven - sensors - voortplanting - voortplantingsgedrag - diergezondheid - kalven - activiteit - bedrijfsvoering - melkveehouderij - technologie - agrarische economie

    Since the 1980s, efforts have been made to develop sensors that measure a parameter from an individual cow. The development started with individual cow recognition and was followed by sensors that measure the electrical conductivity of milk and pedometers that measure activity. Some sensors like activity meters, electrical conductivity, weight floors and somatic cell count sensors are commercially available. Adoption has in general been low and mainly driven by the AMS, with a clear exception for estrus detection. In practice, the economic benefits of using sensor systems has not been proven. So, to make sensors live up to their full potential there is a need for research to shift from technical development towards practical applications and integration with operational farm management. Estrus detection sensors can have a good detection performance and are currently applied by farmers in practice, therefore this thesis focusses on sensors that support reproductive management. The main objective of this thesis is to study the utility of sensor technology to support reproductive management on dairy farms. This main objective was split in five sub objectives that each study a part of the main objective and were discussed in the separate chapters of this thesis.

    We demonstrated that utility of sensors for reproductive management can be found in economic benefits (estrus and calving detection), reduction of labor (calving and estrus detection) and more detailed management information (prognosis of insemination success). So, automated estrus detection aids reproductive management.

    From this thesis the following conclusions can be drawn:

    The developed theoretical framework describes four levels of sensor development, which should all be included in proper development of sensor systems. The literature review showed that no studies developed sensor systems with regard to management and decision support.

    It was possible to improve the prediction of the start of calving compared to a model that only uses the expected calving date. However, predicting the start of calving within an hour was not possible with a high sensitivity and specificity.

    There was financial merit in the use of calving detection, because the sensor system enables more timely intervention by the farmer. The uncertainty about the positive effects was large, which caused a wide range in the simulated financial benefits.

    Investment in a sensor for estrus detection was on average profitable with a return on investment of 11%. Profitability was influenced most by the heuristic culling rules and the expected increase of the estrus detection rate between detection by visual observation and the sensor.

    Routinely collected farm data can be used to estimate a prognosis on insemination success and be used to determine whether an individual cow has a higher or lower than average likelihood of insemination success. Integration of this prognostic model with an estrus detection sensor has potential.

    Currently farmers only adopt sensors for estrus detection or because they were standard with an AMS. A reason for this is that sensor systems do not produce clear information for farmers. Sensor technology should be focused on management support of applications. Labor benefits of sensors are important for adoption of sensors by farmers, farmers value flexibility, increased family time and less physical workload as benefits. However, economic evaluations of technical solutions are unable to quantify these benefits. Sensor research should consider the preference of farmers regarding labor. For the appraisal of sensor technology new methods to value labor benefits of sensor are needed. Furthermore, in sensor development societal acceptance should be an important consideration. Animal rights activists may frame the use of sensors as a form of industrialized farming. Only using technical arguments and considerations to explain the benefits of sensors will hamper the societal acceptance of modern dairy farming. Application of sensors on dairy farms should be communicated smartly to society in terms that relate the values of citizens.

    Monitoringsprotocol Energie Duurzame Zuivelketen
    Hoogeveen, M.W. ; Helmes, R.J.K. ; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Smit, P.X. ; Reijs, J.W. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-043) - ISBN 9789462578166 - 45
    melkveehouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - landbouw en milieu - duurzame energie - monitoring - emissiereductie - agro-industriële ketens - melkveebedrijven - nederland - dairy farming - sustainability - agriculture and environment - sustainable energy - monitoring - emission reduction - agro-industrial chains - dairy farms - netherlands
    With the Sustainable Dairy Chain initiative, dairy businesses and dairy farmers are pursuing a futureproof and responsible dairy sector. A monitoring protocol has been developed for the theme ‘Climateneutral development’. This protocol describes the calculation methods and data sources in a systematic manner. The protocol was created following a request by the Sustainable Dairy Chain steering group and developed by LEI Wageningen UR in collaboration with the ‘Climate-neutral development’ programme team and various other stakeholders. This project was also used to make improvements to the monitor thus providing more insight into sector developments in terms of the energy objectives.
    Agrarische bedrijfswaterplannen Dwingelerstroom en Wapserveensche Aa : pilotstudie naar de potentie en effectiviteit van maatregelen bij agrarische bedrijven die bijdragen aan verbetering van de waterhuishouding
    Schipper, P.N.M. ; Groenendijk, P. ; Hoving, I.E. ; Michels, R. ; Arts, M. ; Staarink, H. ; Bakel, J. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2735) - 67
    melkveebedrijven - melkveehouderij - waterbeheer - bodembeheer - gewasopbrengst - drainage - drenthe - dairy farms - dairy farming - water management - soil management - crop yield - drainage - drenthe
    In dit onderzoek zijn 9 agrarische melkveebedrijven in Drenthe bezocht en is samen met de betrokken agrariërs besproken en geanalyseerd in hoeverre de situatie op het erf en de percelen verbeterd kan worden ten aanzien van bodem en water. Vanuit gesignaleerde knelpunten zijn maatregelen aangedragen die bij kunnen dragen aan verbetering van het bedrijfsresultaat en het watersysteem. Samen met het waterschap zijn een 6-tal type maatregelen geselecteerd waarvan de effectiviteit is berekend. Hierbij is gebruik gemaakt van modellen die op perceelsniveau de vochthuishouding, gewasopbrengst en nutriëntenhuishouding simuleren. Voor ieder bedrijf zijn de resultaten van het veldbezoek, analyse en berekening van effecten opgenomen in een bedrijfswaterplan, welke voor feedback is voorgelegd aan de betreffende agrariër. Het voorliggende rapport vat de resultaten van de 9 bedrijfswaterplannen samen en geeft op hoofdlijnen aan wat de potenties zijn van maatregelen op regionaal niveau.
    An uncertain climate : the value of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in environmental impact assessment of food
    Groen, E.A. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Eddy Bokkers; R. Heijungs. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577558 - 239
    environment - environmental impact - climatic change - uncertainty analysis - screening - sensitivity analysis - modeling - greenhouse gases - farms - dairy farms - food production - correlation analysis - milieu - milieueffect - klimaatverandering - onzekerheidsanalyse - screenen - gevoeligheidsanalyse - modelleren - broeikasgassen - landbouwbedrijven - melkveebedrijven - voedselproductie - correlatieanalyse


    Production of food contributes to climate change and other forms of environmental impact. Input data used in environmental impact assessment models, such as life cycle assessment (LCA) and nutrient balance (NB) analysis, may vary due to seasonal changes, geographical conditions or socio-economic factors (i.e. natural variability). Moreover, input data may be uncertain, due to measurement errors and observational errors that exist around modelling of emissions and technical parameters (i.e. epistemic uncertainty). Although agricultural activities required for food production are prone to natural variability and epistemic uncertainty, very few case studies in LCA and NB analysis made a thorough examination of the effects of variability and uncertainty. This thesis aimed to enhance understanding the effects of variability and uncertainty on the results, by means of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. Uncertainty analysis refers to the estimation of the uncertainty attribute of a model output using the uncertainty attributes of the model in- puts. There are three types of sensitivity analyses: (I) a local sensitivity analysis addresses what happens to the output when input parameters are changed, i.e. the intrinsic model behaviour of a parameter; (II) a screening analysis addresses what happens to the output based on the un- certainty range of the different input parameters; and (III) a global sensitivity analysis addresses how much the uncertainty around each input parameter contributes to the output variance. Both the screening analysis and the global sensitivity analysis combine the intrinsic model behaviour with the information of uncertainty around input parameters. Applying uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis can help to reduce the efforts for data collection, support the development of mitigation strategies and improve overall reliability, leading to more informed decision making in environmental impact assessment models. Including uncertainty in environmental impact assessment models showed that: (1) the type of uncertainty analysis or sensitivity analysis applied depends on the question to be addressed and the available information; (2) in some cases it is no longer possible to benchmark environmental performance if epistemic uncertainty is included; (3) including correlations between input parameters during uncertainty propagation will either increase or decrease output variance, which can be predicted beforehand; (4) under specific characteristics of the input parameters, ignoring correlation has a minimal effect on the model outcome. Systematically combining a local and global sensitivity analysis in environmental impact assessment models: (1) resulted in more parameters than found previously in similar studies (for the case studies discussed in this thesis); (2) allowed finding mitigation options, either based on innovations (derived from the local sensitivity analysis) or on management strategies (derived from the global sensitivity analysis); (3) showed for which parameters reliability should be improved by increasing data quality; (4) showed that reducing the (epistemic) uncertainty of the most important parameters can affect the comparison of the environmental performance.

    Inpassen van maatregelen ter reductie van gasvormige emissies in de bedrijfsvoering van melkveebedrijven : Koeien & Kansen resultaten 2010-2013
    Goselink, R.M.A. ; Sebek, L.B. ; Hilhorst, G.J. ; Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Koeien & Kansen nr. 76) - 33
    broeikasgassen - emissie - maatregelen - ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie - luchtkwaliteit - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - melkveebedrijven - duurzame veehouderij - melkveehouderij - greenhouse gases - emission - measures - ammonia emission - emission reduction - air quality - farm management - dairy farms - sustainable animal husbandry - dairy farming
    In 2010 the dairy farmers of Cows & Opportunities have started working on a new project goal: gaseous emissions. To continue their role as pilot farm within the future developments in the dairy sector new goals have been added to their original goals on optimizing the nitrogen en phosphorus cycle: reducing greenhouse gas emissions and ammonia. The ultimate goal for 2013 was a 30% reduction of the average greenhouse gas emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) together, relative to the average Dutch dairy farm in 1990. In addition to the reduction of greenhouse gases, a second aim was to further reduce ammonia (NH3) emissions with 10% relative to the individual farm level in 2009. In 2009 the autonomously achieved reduction on greenhouse gas emissions turned out to be 29%, and this was further improved to 31% in 2013, reaching the project goal. This improvement was reached by both a reduction of N2O and CH4. The reduction of the N2O emission reached already 56% in 2009, but unexpectedly grew to 62% in 2013, partly by an increase in production intensity (kg FPCM per ha). The reduction of CH4 emission was less substantial, starting at 12% in 2009 and fluctuating around 13% in 2010-2013. The second aim was to further reduce NH3 emissions to an average of 3.2 kg NH3 per 1000 kg FPCM (10% reduction relative to the individual farm level in 2009). This was reached in 2013, showing that this goal was realistic even while working on other project goals like CH4 reduction in parallel. The decline in the NH3 emission is mainly achieved at the project farms situated on sandy soils and peat, while the emission of project farms on clay soils stayed relatively constant. Farm-specific circumstances such as the weather and roughage quality will influence the effect of measurements, thereby causing fluctuations in the emissions over the years. Working on the reduction of gaseous emissions is however possible on the average Dutch dairy farm and may lead to a reduction of 25% relative to 1990, looking at the autonomous reduction already reach in Cows & Opportunities in 2009. Further reduction of greenhouse gas emissions will cost more effort. If 50% of the Dutch dairy farmers also reaches a decrease in NH3 emission in 2020 comparable to the farmers in Cows & Opportunities have reached in 2013, the emission of the dairy sector wil be 3.6 kg NH3 per 1000 kg FPCM. Dairy farmers will however need high management skills, as they have to run a complex farming system and work simultaneously on a variety of financial, social and environmental objectives all-year.
    Meer euro's onder de streep in 2014 : Economie op Koeien & Kansen-bedrijven
    Doornewaard, G.J. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2016
    V-focus 13 (2016). - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 34 - 36.
    boekhouding van landbouwbedrijf - agrarische economie - melkveehouderij - melkveebedrijven - landbouw en milieu - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - melkproductiekosten - farm accounting - agricultural economics - dairy farming - dairy farms - agriculture and environment - farm results - milk production costs
    In het project Koeien & Kansen (K&K) werken melkveehouders, onderzoekers en adviseurs samen aan het verbeteren van de milieuprestaties, zonder verlies aan inkomen. Het verhogen van de mineralenbenutting krijgt hierbij veel aandacht. Vanaf 2014 heeft het project met het thema ‘water’ extra focus gekregen. Dus extra aandacht voor doelen van de Kaderrichtlijn Water, maar ook voor voldoende kwalitatief goed drinkwater voor het vee en het beperken van nat- en droogteschade.
    Sectorrapportage Duurzame Zuivelketen : prestaties 2014 in perspectief
    Reijs, J.W. ; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Jager, J.H. ; Beldman, A.C.G. - \ 2015
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Report LEI 2015-126) - ISBN 9789086157273 - 161
    dairy farming - dairy farms - milk production - agriculture and environment - emission reduction - greenhouse gases - sustainability - policy goals - monitoring - animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle - animal health - animal housing - melkveehouderij - melkveebedrijven - melkproductie - landbouw en milieu - emissiereductie - broeikasgassen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - beleidsdoelstellingen - monitoring - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - melkvee - diergezondheid - huisvesting, dieren
    Via het initiatief de Duurzame Zuivelketen streven zuivelondernemingen en melkveehouders gezamenlijk naar een toekomstbestendige en verantwoorde zuivelsector. De Duurzame Zuivelketen heeft doelen geformuleerd op 4 duurzaamheidsthema’s. Deze sectorrapportage doet verslag van de voortgang op deze doelen in 2014. Deze rapportage laat zien dat de Duurzame Zuivelketen sinds de nulmeting (2011) op het gebied van antibiotica, energie-efficiëntie en verantwoorde soja veel vooruitgang heeft geboekt en dat de doelen voor 2020 binnen handbereik zijn in 2014 of zelfs al gehaald. Ook bij levensduur en duurzame energie zijn er ontwikkelingen in de goede richting maar is er meer vooruitgang nodig om de doelen te kunnen halen. Op het gebied van broeikasgassen, fosfaat en ammoniak zorgt het toegenomen productievolume ervoor dat de afgesproken productieplafonds in gevaar komen. Op het thema weidegang is het vooralsnog niet gelukt om de ingezette dalende trend te keren. Voor dierenwelzijn en biodiversiteit is monitoring nog in ontwikkeling.
    McGraze : Concept model for modern continuous stocking
    Klein Koerkamp, Pim ; Li, Peiyun ; Oostdam, Marieke ; El-Din Sherif, Mohie ; Stienezen, M.W.J. ; Philipsen, A.P. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 31
    dairy farms - grasslands - grazing - pastures - weather - management - stocking density - tools - dairy farming - melkveebedrijven - graslanden - begrazing - weiden - weer - bedrijfsvoering - bezettingsdichtheid - gereedschappen - melkveehouderij
    This report analysed the modern continuous stocking system for dairy farms in the Netherlands. This system has to deal with a minimum grass height of 8 or 10cm (depending on the season) in order to obtain maximum grass production. A model should predict the available herbage mass under changing weather conditions and therefore the available fresh grass and the related amount of additional feed needed for the cows. A concept model, called McGraze, is developed for farmers in order to manage modern continuous stocking (Figure 1). McGraze consists of a grass production section and a stoking related section. The grass production section is based on an existing grass production model called LINGRA, which resulted from a literature review to be the most accurate model to predict grass production. LINGRA needs some minor changes in order to fit into McGraze. The stocking related section is key to the final hours of stocking and the related additional feeding, which are the outputs of McGraze. All values used to predict the outputs are a result of a literature study on grass height, grass quality, grass intake and the effect of stocking on grass growth.
    DairyBISS Baseline report
    Buizer, N.N. ; Berhanu, Tinsae ; Murutse, Girmay ; Vugt, S.M. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation
    dairy farms - firms - businesses - profitability - extension - training - private sector - development - ethiopia - melkveebedrijven - firma's - bedrijven - rentabiliteit - voorlichting - opleiding - particuliere sector - ontwikkeling - ethiopië
    This baseline report of the Dairy Business Information Service and Support (DairyBISS) project presents the findings of a baseline survey among 103 commercial farms and 31 firms and advisors working in the dairy value chain. Additional results from the survey among commercial dairy farms are described in an additional report. The findings validate the main strategies of the project. Farms and firms are interested in joining a dairy business platform that includes members from the entire value chain. While currently there is gap between the demand and supply of good quality business information and advisory services, there is a willingness to pay for advisory services. Among advisors there is a need for training on technical topics along the dairy value chain and there is an interest in forming an advisor network to share experiences.
    Potential of extensification of European agriculture for a more sustainable food system; the case for nitrogen and livestock
    Grinsven, J.J.M. van; Erisman, J.W. ; Vries, W. de; Westhoek, H. - \ 2015
    Environmental Research Letters 10 (2015)2. - ISSN 1748-9326 - 10 p.
    dairy farms - management - intensification - welfare - trends - impact - costs - meat - pig
    Most global strategies for future food security focus on sustainable intensification of production of food and involve increased use of nitrogen fertilizer and manure. The external costs of current high nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture in the European Union, are 0.3–1.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2008. We explore the potential of sustainable extensification for agriculture in the EU and The Netherlands by analysing cases and scenario studies focusing on reducing N inputs and livestock densities. Benefits of extensification are higher local biodiversity and less environmental pollution and therefore less external costs for society. Extensification also has risks such as a reduction of yields and therewith a decrease of the GDP and farm income and a smaller contribution to the global food production, and potentially an i0ncrease of global demand for land. We demonstrate favourable examples of extensification. Reducing the N fertilization rate for winter wheat in Northwest Europe to 25–30% below current N recommendations accounts for the external N cost, but requires action to compensate for a reduction in crop yield by 10–20%. Dutch dairy and pig farmers changing to less intensive production maintain or even improve farm income by price premiums on their products, and/or by savings on external inputs. A scenario reducing the Dutch pig and poultry sector by 50%, the dairy sector by 20% and synthetic N fertilizer use by 40% lowers annual N pollution costs by 0.2–2.2 billion euro (40%). This benefit compensates for the loss of GDP in the primary sector but not in the supply and processing chain. A 2030 scenario for the EU27 reducing consumption and production of animal products by 50% (demitarean diet) reduces N pollution by 10% and benefits human health. This diet allows the EU27 to become a food exporter, while reducing land demand outside Europe in 2030 by more than 100 million hectares (2%), which more than compensates increased land demand when changing to organic farming. We conclude that in Europe extensification of agriculture is sustainable when combined with adjusted diets and externalization of environmental costs to food prices.
    Strategisch stikstof bemesten op melkbeebedrijven : welke bemestingsadvies gebruik je als stikstof knelt?
    Curth-van Middelkoop, J.C. - \ 2015
    melkveebedrijven - stikstof - dierlijke meststoffen - consultancy - graslandgronden - maïs - bemesting - dairy farms - nitrogen - animal manures - consultancy - grassland soils - maize - fertilizer application
    Dit is een flyer met bemestingsadvies met betrekking tot stikstof. Gebruiksnormen voor stikstof (N) zijn voor gras en snijmaïs lager dan N-bemestingsadvies, met name op zand en löss. Normen gelden op bedrijfsniveau, u heeft de verdeling van de N in eigen hand over: Gewassen; (Groepen van) Percelen en eventueel grondsoorten; Tijd in het uitrijseizoen.
    Dairy cluster design for Myanmar
    Zijlstra, J. ; Lee, J. van der - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock research report 866) - 33
    dairy farming - milk production - dairy farms - myanmar - melkveehouderij - melkproductie - melkveebedrijven - myanmar
    At the request of the Dutch and Myanmar governments, a project team consisting of researchers from Wageningen University & Research centre and experts from dairy processor Royal FrieslandCampina, feed company Royal De Heus and AgriWorks consultancy have developed a design for a dairy cluster in Myanmar. The plan is for the cluster to start with 50 farms that deliver 8,000 kilograms of milk per day. The availability of fodder, the quality of raw milk, and cooperation with local government and dairy experts are considered to be key elements for the success of the cluster. These key elements have to be elaborated further before proceeding to the next steps towards implementation.
    Sustainability of milk production in the Netherlands - A comparison between raw organic, pasteurised organic and conventional milk
    Asselt, E.D. van; Capuano, E. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der - \ 2015
    International Dairy Journal 47 (2015). - ISSN 0958-6946 - p. 19 - 26.
    life-cycle assessment - environmental impacts - production systems - dairy farms - tool - metaanalysis - agriculture - consumption - indicators - quality
    Consumer preferences are changing, resulting in an increased demand for both organic milk and raw milk due to their perceived higher nutritional value and positive contribution to animal welfare. To compare the advantages and disadvantages of these products with conventional pasteurised milk, a sustainability assessment was performed incorporating social, environmental and economic factors. The assessment showed that raw organic milk gave the highest overall sustainability score. This is due to, for example, a high score for animal welfare and a high score for the environmental factors due to the omission of the pasteurisation step compared with conventional milk. The latter may pose human health risks due to the possible presence of pathogens in raw milk. As the approach followed is transparent, it allows policy makers to discuss the outcome of the sustainability assessment both with stakeholders and the general public, which will facilitate the decision making process.
    Sectorrapportage Duurzame Zuivelketen; Prestaties 2013 in perspectief
    Reijs, J.W. ; Doornewaard, G.J. ; Jager, J.H. ; Beldman, A.C.G. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI-report / LEI Wageningen UR 2014-033) - 144
    melkveehouderij - melkveebedrijven - melkproductie - landbouw en milieu - emissiereductie - broeikasgassen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - beleidsdoelstellingen - monitoring - dairy farming - dairy farms - milk production - agriculture and environment - emission reduction - greenhouse gases - sustainability - policy goals - monitoring
    Within the context of the Sustainable Dairy Chain initiative, dairy businesses and dairy farmers work together towards creating a futureproof and sound dairy sector and, consequently, support in the market and society at large. To enable this, the Sustainable Dairy Chain has formulated goals on four sustainability themes. This report describes these goals, the indicators chosen to monitor progress and the performance on these indicators in the year 2013. This report shows that progress been made for a number of themes, but also that further growth of the sector requires a decrease in emissions per kg of milk. This report also describes the revised goals that will be used from 2014 onwards and the consequences of the revisioning for the monitoring.
    Methaanemissie op het melkveebedrijf : impactanalyse voor reductiemaatregelen en doorrekening daarvan in de Kringloopwijzer
    Šebek, L.B. ; Haan, M.H.A. de; Bannink, A. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 796) - 38
    melkveebedrijven - methaanproductie - methaanremmers - broeikasgassen - koolstofcyclus - melkvee - mest - voer - diervoedering - melkveehouderij - emissiereductie - dairy farms - methane production - methane inhibitors - greenhouse gases - carbon cycle - dairy cattle - manures - feeds - animal feeding - dairy farming - emission reduction
    Voor u ligt het rapport ‘Methaanemissie op het melkveebedrijf: Impactanalyse voor reductiemaatregelen en doorrekening daarvan in de KringloopWijzer’. Het rapport geeft antwoord op de vraag van het Nederlandse diervoederbedrijfsleven om inzicht te geven in de relevantie en mogelijkheden voor aanpassing van de rekenregels in de KringloopWijzer. Het betreft de rekenregels voor methaanemissie uit de veestapel met als doel het effect van sturen op voerfactoren volledig in te rekenen. Door volledig inrekenen van voerfactoren wordt, met betrekking tot de vermindering van de methaanemissie, het handelingsperspectief duidelijk van zowel diervoederbedrijfsleven als (melk)veehouder.
    Measuring technical and environmental efficiency in a state-contingent technology
    Serra, T. ; Chambers, R.G. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2014
    European Journal of Operational Research 236 (2014)2. - ISSN 0377-2217 - p. 706 - 717.
    distance function-approach - dutch glasshouse industry - undesirable outputs - dairy farms - productivity - co2 - insurance - pollution - abatement - nitrogen
    Most developed countries support farming activities through policies that are tailored to meet their specific social, economic and environmental objectives. Economic and environmental efficiency have recently become relevant targets of most of these policies, whose sound implementation can be enhanced by monitoring farm performance from a multidimensional perspective. This paper proposes farm-level technical and environmental efficiency measures that recognize the stochastic conditions in which production takes place. A state-contingent framework is used to model production uncertainty. An implementable representation of the technology is developed using data envelopment analysis. The application focuses on a sample of Catalan arable crop farms. Results suggest that technical efficiency is slightly lower in bad than in good growing conditions. Nitrogen pollution can decrease substantially more under good than bad growing conditions.
    Inpassen van maatregelen ter reductie van gasvormige emissies in de bedrijfsvoering van melkveebedrijven : Koeien & Kansen resultaten 2010-2012
    Goselink, R.M.A. ; Sebek, L.B. ; Hilhorst, G.J. ; Evers, A.G. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Koeien & Kansen nr. 74) - 21
    broeikasgassen - emissie - maatregelen - ammoniakemissie - emissiereductie - luchtkwaliteit - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - melkveebedrijven - duurzame veehouderij - melkveehouderij - greenhouse gases - emission - measures - ammonia emission - emission reduction - air quality - farm management - dairy farms - sustainable animal husbandry - dairy farming
    The dairy farmers of Cows & Opportunities managed to further reduce their greenhouse gas and ammonia (NH3) emissions in 2012 relative to the period 2009-2011. The ultimate goal for 2013 is a 30% reduction of the average greenhouse gas emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) together, relative to the average Dutch dairy farm in 1990. In 2009 the autonomously achieved reduction turned out to be 27%, and this was further improved to 29% in 2011 and almost 30% in 2012.
    An ex ante analysis on the use of activity meters for automated estrus detection, to invest or not to invest?
    Rutten, C.J. ; Steeneveld, W. ; Inchaisri, C. ; Hogeveen, H. - \ 2014
    Journal of Dairy Science 97 (2014)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 6869 - 6887.
    timed artificial-insemination - dairy farms - decision-making - information-technology - reproductive programs - stochastic simulation - cows - cattle - herds - model
    The technical performance of activity meters for automated detection of estrus in dairy farming has been studied, and such meters are already used in practice. However, information on the economic consequences of using activity meters is lacking. The current study analyzes the economic benefits of a sensor system for detection of estrus and appraises the feasibility of an investment in such a system. A stochastic dynamic simulation model was used to simulate reproductive performance of a dairy herd. The number of cow places in this herd was fixed at 130. The model started with 130 randomly drawn cows (in a Monte Carlo process) and simulated calvings and replacement of these cows in subsequent years. Default herd characteristics were a conception rate of 50%, an 8-wk dry-off period, and an average milk production level of 8,310 kg per cow per 305 d. Model inputs were derived from real farm data and expertise. For the analysis, visual detection by the farmer (“without” situation) was compared with automated detection with activity meters (“with” situation). For visual estrus detection, an estrus detection rate of 50% and a specificity of 100% were assumed. For automated estrus detection, an estrus detection rate of 80% and a specificity of 95% were assumed. The results of the cow simulation model were used to estimate the difference between the annual net cash flows in the “with” and “without” situations (marginal financial effect) and the internal rate of return (IRR) as profitability indicators. The use of activity meters led to improved estrus detection and, therefore, to a decrease in the average calving interval and subsequent increase in annual milk production. For visual estrus detection, the average calving interval was 419 d and average annual milk production was 1,032,278 kg. For activity meters, the average calving interval was 403 d and the average annual milk production was 1,043,398 kg. It was estimated that the initial investment in activity meters would cost €17,728 for a herd of 130 cows, with an additional cost of €90 per year for the replacement of malfunctioning activity meters. Changes in annual net cash flows arising from using an activity meter included extra revenues from increased milk production and number of calves sold, increased costs from more inseminations, calvings, and feed consumption, and reduced costs from fewer culled cows and less labor for estrus detection. These changes in cash flows were caused mainly by changes in the technical results of the simulated dairy herds, which arose from differences in the estrus detection rate and specificity between the “with” and “without” situations. The average marginal financial effect in the “with” and “without” situations was €2,827 for the baseline scenario, with an average IRR of 11%. The IRR is a measure of the return on invested capital. Investment in activity meters was generally profitable. The most influential assumptions on the profitability of this investment were the assumed culling rules and the increase in sensitivity of estrus detection between the “without” and the “with” situation.
    Ex ante evaluatie wetsvoorstel; Verantwoorde groei melkveehouderij
    Koeijer, T.J. de; Blokland, P.W. ; Helming, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2014-019) - 34
    landbouwbeleid - landbouwsector - melkveehouderij - melkveebedrijven - mestbeleid - melkkoeien - quota's - dierlijke meststoffen - grondprijzen - milieueffect - agricultural policy - agricultural sector - dairy farming - dairy farms - manure policy - dairy cows - quotas - animal manures - land prices - environmental impact
    Dit onderzoek is een ex ante analyse van de effecten voor de periode 2015 - 2020 van het wetsvoorstel Verantwoorde groei melkveehouderij. De staatssecretaris van Economische Zaken heeft aangegeven geen ongebreidelde groei van de melkveehouderij te willen als in 2015 het melkquotum verdwijnt en heeft daarom het wetsvoorstel Verantwoorde groei melkveehouderij ingediend. Met dit wetsvoorstel stelt de staatsecretaris aanvullende voorwaarden aan de groei van de melkveehouderij. Het wetsvoorstel moet per 1 januari 2015 van kracht worden. De Tweede Kamer wil weten wat de effecten zijn van het verdwijnen van het melkquotum en het effect van de aanvullende voorwaarden. De effecten gelden voor de melkveehouderij evenals voor de varkenshouderij in verband met de mogelijke beïnvloeding van de mestmarkt. De voorwaarde die verbonden wordt aan groei van de melkveehouderij is dat bedrijven met melkvee de extra mest die zij ten opzichte van het referentiejaar 2013 gaan produceren op het eigen bedrijf moeten kunnen afzetten of moeten laten verwerken.
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