Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Few vertebrate species dominate the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. Life cycle
    Hofmeester, T.R. ; Coipan, E.C. ; Wieren, S.E. van; Prins, H.H.T. ; Takken, W. ; Sprong, H. - \ 2016
    Environmental Research Letters 11 (2016)4. - ISSN 1748-9326
    deer - Ixodes ricinus - Lyme borreliosis - small mammals - thrushes - transmission maintenance - 016-3926

    Background. In the northern hemisphere, ticks of the Ixodidae family are vectors of diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tick-borne encephalitis. Most of these ticks are generalists and have a three-host life cycle for which they are dependent on three different hosts for their blood meal. Finding out which host species contribute most in maintaining ticks and the pathogens they transmit, is imperative in understanding the drivers behind the dynamics of a disease. Methods. We performed a systematic review to identify the most important vertebrate host species for Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. as a well-studied model system for tick-borne diseases. We analyzed data from 66 publications and quantified the relative contribution for 15 host species. Review results. We found a positive correlation between host body mass and tick burdens for the different stages of I. ricinus. We show that nymphal burdens of host species are positively correlated with infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi s.l., which is again positively correlated with the realized reservoir competence of a host species for B. burgdorferi s.l. Our quantification method suggests that only a few host species, which are amongst the most widespread species in the environment (rodents, thrushes and deer), feed the majority of I. ricinus individuals and that rodents infect the majority of I. ricinus larvae with B. burgdorferi s.l. Discussion. We argue that small mammal-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high density of their reservoir hosts, while bird-transmitted Borrelia spp. are maintained due to the high infection prevalence of their reservoir hosts. Our findings suggest that Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. populations are maintained by a few widespread host species. The increase in distribution and abundance of these species, could be the cause for the increase in Lyme borreliosis incidence in Europe in recent decades.

    Samenvatting stand van zaken waterbuffelhouderij, struisvogelhouderij, hertenhouderij en eendenhouderij in Nederland, februari 2014
    Poelarends, J.J. ; Ruis, M.A.W. - \ 2014
    [Lelystad] : Wageningen UR Livestock Research - 5
    dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - buffels - struisvogels - herten - eenden - animal production - animal welfare - buffaloes - ostriches - deer - ducks
    Rapport over de stand van zaken rond waterbuffelhouderij, struisvogelhouderij, hertenhouderij en eendenhouderij in Nederland.
    Transition of a Sambucus nigra L. dominated woody vegetation into grassland by a self regulating multi-species herbivore assemblage
    Cornelissen, P. ; Gresnigt, M.C. ; Vermeulen, R.A. ; Bokdam, J. ; Smit, R. - \ 2014
    Journal for Nature Conservation 22 (2014)1. - ISSN 1617-1381 - p. 84 - 92.
    plant - neighbors - survival - hawthorn - refuges - forests - mammals - deer
    We describe and analyse how large herbivores strongly diminished a woody vegetation, dominated by the unpalatable shrub Sambucus nigra L. and changed it into grassland. Density of woody species and cover of vegetation were measured in 1996, 2002 and 2012 in the grazed Oostvaardersplassen. In 2002 and 2012 we also measured density and cover in an ungrazed control site. In 2002 we measured intensity of browsing and bark loss of Sambucus shrubs in the grazed and control sites. In the grazed site the density of Sambucus and Salix spp. declined significantly between 1996 and 2012, and large areas changed into grassland. In the control site the density of Sambucus increased significantly during this period, the density of Salix spp. did not change, and the vegetation consisted of a mixture of woody species and a field layer dominated by tall herbs. In 2002 and 2012 the percentages of dead Sambucus shrubs were significantly higher in the grazed site than in the control site. In 2002 the percentages of twigs browsed and ring barked stems of Sambucus shrubs were significantly higher in the grazed site than in the control site. Our results show that debarking caused mature Sambucus shrubs to die, but that heavy browsing may have helped this process. Our results also point to a significant neighbour effect on the break down of Sambucus, suggesting that Aggregational Resistance and Associational Palatability were both active. Essential conditions for the break down of this woody vegetation were the presence of large herbivores, the low ratio between the areas of summer and winter feeding habitats and the competition amongst herbivores. Browsing may have been responsible for seedling death, as seedlings were found only in the control site and not on the old and newly established grasslands in the grazed site.
    Acceptability of Lethal Control of Wildlife that Damage Agriculture in the Netherlands
    Sijtsma, M.T.J. ; Vaske, J.J. ; Jacobs, M.H. - \ 2012
    Society & Natural Resources 25 (2012)12. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 1308 - 1323.
    management actions - value orientations - united-states - canada geese - deer - attitudes - beliefs
    The use of lethal control of wildlife is controversial. We examined the acceptability of using lethal control to minimize the impacts of geese and deer on agricultural crops in the Netherlands. Two sets of predictors were examined: wildlife value orientations (WVOs) and demographics. The two wildlife value orientations—domination and mutualism—were based on prior theorizing and research in the United States. Demographic variables included age, gender, education, and current residence. We used data from a mailed survey (n = 353) sent to randomly selected individuals in the Netherlands. We examined six separate logistic regression models. As predicted, only the value orientations were statistically significant, accounting for 39% (geese) and 37% (deer) of the variance. Of the two WVOs, domination was a better predictor of acceptability ratings than mutualism. Results suggest that WVOs have predictive validity outside the United States.
    Frankincense production is determined by tree size and tapping frequency and intensity
    Eshete, A. ; Sterck, F.J. ; Bongers, F. - \ 2012
    Forest Ecology and Management 274 (2012). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 136 - 142.
    umbellularia-californica - boswellia-papyrifera - resin - biosynthesis - plantation - conifers - yield - pine - deer
    Resin production in trees probably depends on trade-offs within the tree, its environment and on tapping activities. Frankincense, the highly esteemed resin from dry woodland frankincense trees of Boswellia papyrifera is exploited in traditional ways for millennia. New exploitation practices lead to weak trees and non-sustainable resin production. For 500 trees from four populations of B. papyrifera we evaluated how frankincense yield is affected by different tapping intensities (number of incision spots) and frequencies (number of resin collection rounds during the dry season), since both of them have been intensified recently. These effects are considered for trees of different size, since larger trees probably provide more resources for resin production. We predicted that frankincense production would initially increase with tapping intensity and tapping frequency, but later level-off because of resin depletion. Frankincense production varied highly: yield per tree per year of all 500 monitored trees averaged 261 g (±231, but largely varied and ranged from 41 to 1829 g. We indeed found that resin yield increased with tapping intensity, but not anymore beyond an intensity of 6–9 incision spots. Yield peaked around the seventh collection round, and declined thereafter. Yield increased with trunk diameter, but leveled-off beyond trees with a stem diameter of >20 cm. These patterns were similar across populations, and between contrasting areas. Our results suggest that high tapping intensity risks short-term resource depletion, warranting tuning down the intensity of the current collection practices. Less intense tapping rounds per season will reduce damage, increase the health of tree populations, and contribute to long term frankincense production. This study thus allows for developing less damaging and more sustainable management for frankincense trees.
    Salivary amino acid concentrations in zebus (Bos indicus) and zebu hybrids (Bos indicus x Bos Taurus) fed a tannin-rich diet
    Yisehak, K. ; Becker, A. ; Belay, D. ; Bosch, G. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Clauss, M. ; Janssens, G. - \ 2011
    Belgian Journal of Zoology 141 (2011)2. - ISSN 0777-6276 - p. 93 - 96.
    proteins - deer - adaptation - nutrition - excretion - broilers - cattle
    Ungulates and their management in the Netherlands
    Wieren, S.E. van; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. - \ 2010
    In: European ungulates and their management in the 21th century / Apollonia, M., Andersen, R., Putman, R., Cambridge : Cambridge University Press - ISBN 9780521760614 - p. 165 - 183.
    wildbeheer - hoefdieren - herten - sus scrofa - jagen - wildlife management - ungulates - deer - sus scrofa - hunting
    Eight species of ungulates in the wild or semi-wild state can be found in the Netherlands: red deer, roe deer, wild boar, fallow deer, muntjac, mouflon, cattele and horses. Except for roe deer, which has a country wide distribution, the greatest number of animals of the other species can be found in the Veluwe (a forested heathland area of 100.000 ha in the province of Gelderland)
    Density dependence and population dynamics of black rhinos (Diceros bicornis michaeli) in Kenya's rhino sanctuaries
    Ouma, B.O. ; Amin, R. ; Langevelde, F. van; Leader-Williams, N. - \ 2010
    African Journal of Ecology 48 (2010)3. - ISSN 0141-6707 - p. 791 - 799.
    sex-ratio - management - strategy - deer
    Density-dependent feedback mechanisms provide insights into the population dynamics and interactions of large herbivores with their ecosystem. Sex ratio also has particularly important implications for growth rates of many large mammal populations through its influence on reproductive potential. Therefore, the interrelationships between density-dependent factors, comprising density, sex ratio and underlying growth rates (r) were examined for the Eastern black rhino (Diceros bicornis michaeli) living in three rhino sanctuaries in Kenya using four population models. The exponential and logistic models gave similar results and the former were accepted because they better portrayed the actual situation on the ground. Sex ratios in all sanctuary populations were positively correlated with r but interpreted with realization of other factors also affecting r. We caution that the results of population models should be interpreted alongside ground-truthed observations. We recommend that future translocation strategies should take into account sex and age structures of the donor population, while future studies of density dependence should take into account both biotic and abiotic factors.
    Waterbuffel-, herten- en struisvogelhouderij in Nederland : quickscan om risico's op ongerief in te schatten
    Poelarends, J.J. ; Leenstra, F.R. - \ 2009
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 180) - 13
    buffels - herten - struisvogels - commerciële landbouw - dierhouderij - dierenwelzijn - buffaloes - deer - ostriches - commercial farming - animal husbandry - animal welfare
    The commercial production of water buffalo, deer and ostrich in The Netherlands is described in a quick scan, with special attention for risks on discomfort of the animals.
    Damherten en reeën in het natuurreservaat De Kop van Schouwen : inventarisaties
    Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Breukelen, L. van - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1933) - 84
    damherten - herten - natuurreservaten - karteringen - monitoring - methodologie - zeeuwse eilanden - zeeland - veldwerk - fallow deer - deer - nature reserves - surveys - monitoring - methodology - zeeuwse eilanden - zeeland - field work
    Bij het inventariseren van damherten en reeën op de Kop van Schouwen zijn veel waarnemingsmethoden, zowel direct als indirect, beperkt bruikbaar vanwege de geringe doorkijkbaarheid van delen van het gebied. Bij de thans gehanteerde methode kan gebruik worden gemaakt van een groot aantal vrijwilligers, terwijl bijvoorbeeld een goed uitgevoerde transecttelling de inzet vereist van professionals. Voor een analyse van de populatieontwikkeling dient een groot deel van de populatie nauwkeurig te worden aangesproken. Op dit punt is verbetering mogelijk. Het advies voor de Kop van Schouwen luidt dan ook om de gevolgde methode voort te zetten, met aandacht voor een aantal verbeteringen. Een belangrijke aanbeveling is om bij een volgende gelegenheid het begin en einde van de telling beter te synchroniseren. ‘Gemiddeld’ zijn er tijdens drie tellingen op twee dagen 433 damherten en 171 reeën geteld. De indruk bestaat dat bij beide hoefdiersoorten in de groep ‘kalveren’ (juvenielen) waarnemingsfouten worden gemaakt, waarbij een deel wordt ingedeeld bij de groep volwassen vrouwelijke dieren. Ook zal een deel van de volwassen vrouwtjes bestempeld worden als ‘onaangesproken’, dat wil zeggen, dat onbekend was wat voor dieren het zijn
    A comparison of faecal analysis with backtracking to determine the diet composition and species preference of the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor)
    Lieverloo, R.J. van; Schuiling, B.F. ; Boer, W.F. de; Lent, P.C. ; Jong, C.B. de; Brown, D. ; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2009
    European Journal of Wildlife Research 55 (2009)5. - ISSN 1612-4642 - p. 505 - 515.
    fish river reserve - south-african savanna - microhistological analysis - forage quality - subtropical thicket - browsing ruminants - retention times - woody-plants - selection - deer
    The diet of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) was studied using backtracking and faecal analysis in South Africa. Both methods yielded different results, with a large bias for dominant species. Results of backtracking showed that the rhinos browsed on 80 plant species. Grasses comprised 4.5% of the diet in the faecal analysis, but were not recorded during the backtracking. The backtracking method, along with a measure of forage availability, was used to identify two groups of plant species, those species taken in a higher proportion than available in the field and those taken in a lower proportion. Chemical analyses showed that these two species groups were similar in in vitro digestibility, macro-elements and fibre constituents. Mean bite size and species contribution to the diet were not correlated with any of the forage quality parameters, indicating that rhinos were not maximising nutrient intake or minimising fibre intake of these consumed plant species.
    Veluws wild mag gaan zwerven
    Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. - \ 2009
    Kennis Online 6 (2009)mei. - p. 8 - 8.
    wild - wildbeheer - wildbescherming - herten - wilde varkens - zwerfdieren - veluwe - wildlife - wildlife management - wildlife conservation - deer - wild pigs - stray animals - veluwe
    Herten, reeën en wilde zwijnen krijgen vrij baan op de Veluwe. Als ze zich tenminste netjes gaan gedragen in hun nieuwe leefgebieden. Alterra ontwikkelde daarom een plan om hun eerste stappen te monitoren.
    Wildschade
    Hamont, J. van; Iperen, C. van; Animal Sciences Group (ASG), - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR (BioKennis bericht : Akkerbouw en vollegrondsgroente ) - 4
    wildbeheer - beweidingsschade - natuurbescherming - konijnen - duiven - vogelafweermiddelen - dassen (zoogdieren) - herten - jagen - geluid - natuurlijke vijanden - akkerbouw - vollegrondsteelt - wildlife management - browsing damage - nature conservation - rabbits - pigeons - bird repellents - badgers - deer - hunting - noise - natural enemies - arable farming - outdoor cropping
    Wildschade is niet specifiek iets dat voorkomt in de biologische landbouw. Alle boeren en tuinders hebben hiermee te maken. Wild kan voor fikse problemen zorgen. Daarom is het belangrijk om preventieve maatregelen te treffen om schade te voorkomen of in ieder geval te beperken.
    Opname, retentie en uitscheiding van stikstof, fosfor en kalium bij edelherten = Intake, retention and excretion of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by red deer
    Jongbloed, A.W. ; Hindle, V.A. - \ 2008
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group 159) - 41
    edelherten - herten - excretie - fosfor - kalium - red deer - deer - excretion - phosphorus - potassium
    Annual excretion rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by red deer were estimated based on an inventory among farmers. These excretion rates are lower than earlier estimates, except for N by fattening stock
    Bayesian estimation of hepatitis E virus seroprevalence for populations with different exposure levels to swine in The Netherlands
    Bouwknegt, M. ; Engel, B. ; Herremans, M.M.P.T. ; Widdowson, M.A. ; Worm, H.C. ; Koopmans, M.P.G. ; Frankena, K. ; Roda Husman, A.M. de; Jong, M.C.M. de; Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2008
    Epidemiology and Infection 136 (2008)4. - ISSN 0950-2688 - p. 567 - 576.
    diagnostic-tests - disease prevalence - gold standard - antibody - veterinarians - specificity - sensitivity - infection - absence - deer
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is ubiquitous in pigs worldwide and may be zoonotic. Previous HEV seroprevalence estimates for groups of people working with swine were higher than for control groups. However, discordance among results of anti-HEV assays means that true seroprevalence estimates, i.e. seroprevalence due to previous exposure to HEV, depends on choice of seroassay. We tested blood samples from three subpopulations (49 swine veterinarians, 153 non-swine veterinarians and 644 randomly selected individuals from the general population) with one IgM and two IgG ELISAs, and subsets with IgG and/or IgM Western blots. A Bayesian stochastical model was used to combine results of all assays. The model accounted for imperfection of each assay by estimating sensitivity and specificity, and accounted for dependence between serological assays. As expected, discordance among assay results occurred. Applying the model yielded seroprevalence estimates of ~11% for swine veterinarians, ~6% for non-swine veterinarians and ~2% for the general population. By combining the results of five serological assays in a Bayesian stochastical model we confirmed that exposure to swine or their environment was associated with elevated HEV seroprevalence.
    The Rauischholzhausen agenda for road ecology
    Roedenbeck, I.A. ; Fahrig, L. ; Findlay, C.S. ; Houlahan, J.E. ; Jaeger, J.A.G. ; Klar, N. ; Kramer-Schadt, S. ; Grift, E.A. van der - \ 2007
    Ecology and Society 12 (2007)1. - ISSN 1708-3087 - 21 p.
    breeding bird populations - precautionary principle - environmental impacts - swareflex reflectors - sampling design - habitat - conservation - density - deer - biodiversity
    Despite the documented negative effects of roads on wildlife, ecological research on road effects has had comparatively little influence on road planning decisions. We argue that road research would have a larger impact if researchers carefully considered the relevance of the research questions addressed and the inferential strength of the studies undertaken. At a workshop at the German castle of Rauischholzhausen we identified five particularly relevant questions, which we suggest provide the framework for a research agenda for road ecology: (1) Under what circumstances do roads affect population persistence? (2) What is the relative importance of road effects vs. other effects on population persistence? (3) Under what circumstances can road effects be mitigated? (4) What is the relative importance of the different mechanisms by which roads affect population persistence? (5) Under what circumstances do road networks affect population persistence at the landscape scale? We recommend experimental designs that maximize inferential strength, given existing constraints, and we provide hypothetical examples of such experiments for each of the five research questions. In general, manipulative experiments have higher inferential strength than do nonmanipulative experiments, and full before-after-control-impact designs are preferable to before-after or control-impact designs. Finally, we argue that both scientists and planners must be aware of the limits to inferential strength that exist for a given research question in a given situation. In particular, when the maximum inferential strength of any feasible design is low, decision makers must not demand stronger evidence before incorporating research results into the planning process, even though the level of uncertainty may be high
    Robuuste verbindingen en wilde hoefdieren; verwachte aantallen hoefdieren en mogelijke overlast voor de landbouw, het verkeer en de diergezondheid
    Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Vos, C.J. de; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Spek, G.J. ; Pouwels, R. ; Griffioen, A.J. ; Gies, T.J.A. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1506) - 146
    edelherten - herten - hoefdieren - landbouw - verkeer - diergezondheid - verkeersveiligheid - migratie - ecologische hoofdstructuur - habitatfragmentatie - natuur - red deer - deer - ungulates - agriculture - traffic - animal health - traffic safety - migration - ecological network - habitat fragmentation - nature
    In dit rapport worden verwachtingen uitgesproken over het toekomstig functioneren van een aantal robuuste verbindingen die geschikt worden gemaakt voor het edelhert. Ook is onderzocht hoe het gebruik zou kunnen zijn door het wilde zwijn. Er wordt ingegaan op de verwachte aantallen wilde hoefdieren in de robuuste verbindingen en hun mogelijk effect op de landbouw, de verkeersveiligheid en de diergezondheid. Jaarlijks zal naar verwachting 10-20% van de bronpopulatie naar de verbindingszones migreren. Die zogenaamde `starters¿ krijgen vervolgens te maken met de weerstand van het landschap, waardoor hun aantal afneemt, in sommige gevallen tot 0. Edelherten berokkenen per individu gemiddeld per jaar schade aan 0,03 ha landbouwgrond en wilde zwijnen aan 0,05 ha. In een willekeurig gebied kan de procentuele samenstelling van die 0,03 en 0,05 ha in gewastypen worden berekend, door de oppervlaktepercentages van de gewastypen te vermenigvuldigen met gewas- en diersoortspecifieke correctiefactoren. Jaarlijks zal ca. 3% van het aantal dieren in de verbinding sterven in het verkeer (0,2 ¿ 2 dieren/jr). Voor de beoordeling van het veterinaire risico van de robuuste verbindingen is gekeken naar: klassieke varkenspest (KVP), mond- en klauwzeer (MKZ), de ziekte van Aujeszky (ZvA), koeiengriep (IBR) en blauwtong (BT). Bij de kans op besmetting speelt een rol: het aantal dieren dat in de verbindingen wordt verwacht, de prevalentie van de ziekte onder die dieren, de bedrijfs- en dierdichtheid in en rondom de verbindingen en de mogelijkheden voor contact tussen vrijlevende en gehouden dieren. In een aantal opzichten kunnen beheerders of de sector preventieve maatregelen nemen. Als er geen wilde zwijnen toegelaten worden in de robuuste verbindingen, wordt het veterinaire risico sterk gereduceerd.
    Robuuste ecologische verbindingen: de stand van zaken voor het edelhert
    Groot Bruinderink, Geert - \ 2006
    cervus elaphus - deer - migration - landscape - germany - ecological network - gelderland - south netherlands - utrechtse heuvelrug - salland
    Een kwaliteitscheck op het ecologisch functioneren van de robuuste ecologische verbindingszone tussen de Oostvaardersplassen en het Horsterwold (Oostvaarderswold)
    Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Grift, E.A. van der - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1406) - 67
    ecologie - edelherten - herten - recreatie - infrastructuur - ecosystemen - natuurbescherming - nederland - ecologische hoofdstructuur - flevoland - ecology - red deer - deer - recreation - infrastructure - ecosystems - nature conservation - netherlands - ecological network - flevoland
    Dit rapport bevat een ecologische beoordeling van de plannen voor een robuuste ecologische verbinding tussen de Oostvaardersplassen en het Horsterwold (het OostvaardersWold). Hiermee kan een natuurgebied van ca. 11.000 ha worden gerealiseerd. Op den duur zullen naast het edelhert veel andere soorten hier een volwaardig leefgebied vinden. Vanwege de schrikreactie bij edelherten zijn afspraken nodig over de ballonvaart en het vliegen met helikopters boven de zone.
    Spatial interactions between ungulate herbivory and forest management
    Kramer, K. ; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Prins, H.H.T. - \ 2006
    Forest Ecology and Management 226 (2006)1-3. - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 238 - 247.
    dynamics - growth - regeneration - densities - impact - deer
    The SE-Veluwe is a forested area in The Netherlands consisting mainly of Pinus and heathlands and includes mono- and mixed species stands of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Q. petraea, Picea abies, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Betula pubescens and B. pendens. In this area, forest managers differ in management targets. Managers with a productivity-oriented target feel limited in meeting their target because neighbouring managers with biodiversity as main target do not or insufficiently control ungulate levels. The objective of this study was to assess to what extent ungulate herbivores affect natural regeneration and to gain insight in the spatial interactions between ungulate grazing, forest management and natural regeneration. This was assessed using the model FORSPACE, which is a process-based and spatial-explicit simulation model that integrates the impacts of ungulate grazing (cattle, horse, red deer, fallow deer, roe deer and wild boar) and forest management. We found that spatial interactions caused important local differences including: (i) spatial effects due to forest management; (ii) spatial interactions between ungulate species; (iii) spatial effects due to the distribution of seed sources of trees; and (iv) spatial interactions between plant species and grazing intensity. In general, we conclude that the effects of forest management on regeneration of trees are much more profound than that of ungulate grazing and browsing. Moreover, there are relatively small differences in the effects of the ungulates at very low to very high densities. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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