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Functional studies of soybean (Glycine max L.) seed LEA proteins GmPM6, GmPM11, and GmPM30 by CD and FTIR spectroscopy
Hoekstra, F.A. - \ 2012
Plant Science 196 (2012). - ISSN 0168-9452 - p. 152 - 159.
embryogenesis-abundant protein - desiccation tolerance - arabidopsis-thaliana - secondary structure - saccharomyces-cerevisiae - circular-dichroism - wheat-germ - dehydration - expression - plants
The protein and mRNA levels of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) genes may be linked to osmotic stresses. Here, we characterized three soybean hydrophilic LEA proteins – GmPM11 (LEA I), GmPM6 (LEA II), and GmPM30 (LEA III) – by circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Structural analysis revealed that the LEA proteins adopted high amounts of disordered conformations in solution and underwent conformational changes with hydrophobicity and desiccation induction. Macromolecular interaction studies revealed that the GmPM proteins interact with non-reducing sugars and phospholipids. GmPM6 and GmPM30 but not GmPM11 could prevent beta-aggregation of poly-l-lysine after slow drying. We discuss the possible functions of hydrophilic LEA proteins in maturing seeds.
The impact of freeze-drying on microstructure and rehydration properties of carrot
Voda, A. ; Homan, N. ; Witek, M. ; Duijster, A. ; Dalen, G. van; Sman, R.G.M. van der; Nijsse, J. ; Vliet, L.J. van; As, H. van; Duynhoven, J.P.M. van - \ 2012
Food Research International 49 (2012)2. - ISSN 0963-9969 - p. 687 - 693.
integral-equations - apple tissue - ice crystals - tip radius - frozen - nmr - fruit - crystallization - dehydration - mechanisms
The impact of freeze-drying, blanching and freezing rate pre-treatments on the microstructure and on the rehydration properties of winter carrots were studied by µCT, SEM, MRI and NMR techniques. The freezing rate determines the size of ice crystals being formed that leave pores upon drying. Their average size (determined by µCT) can be predicted in a quantitative manner by considering dendritic growth and freezing rates. Blanching as a pre-treatment, however, did not affect pore size distribution induced by freeze-drying. Upon rehydration of the freeze-dried carrots, PFG NMR and MRI show that cellular compartments were not restored and instead a porous network with permeable barriers is formed. Blanching pre-treatment introduced a less connected and more anisotropic porous network if followed by fast freezing, indicating that more of the native cell wall morphology is preserved.
Synthesis of Biobased Succinonitrile from Glutamic Acid and Glutamine
Lammens, T.M. ; Nôtre, J. Le; Franssen, M.C.R. ; Scott, E.L. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2011
ChemSusChem 4 (2011)6. - ISSN 1864-5631 - p. 785 - 791.
primary amides - amino-acids - nitriles - suzuki - dehydration - complexes - catalysts
Succinonitrile is the precursor of 1,4-diaminobutane, which is used for the industrial production of polyamides. This paper describes the synthesis of biobased succinonitrile from glutamic acid and glutamine, amino acids that are abundantly present in many plant proteins. Synthesis of the intermediate 3-cyanopropanoic amide was achieved from glutamic acid 5-methyl ester in an 86 mol¿% yield and from glutamine in a 56 mol¿% yield. 3-Cyanopropanoic acid can be converted into succinonitrile, with a selectivity close to 100¿% and a 62¿% conversion, by making use of a palladium(II)-catalyzed equilibrium reaction with acetonitrile. Thus, a new route to produce biobased 1,4-diaminobutane has been discovered.
Bulk chemicals from biomass
Haveren, J. van; Scott, E.L. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2008
Biofuels Bioproducts and Biorefining 2 (2008)1. - ISSN 1932-104X - p. 41 - 57.
klebsiella-pneumoniae - zeolite catalysts - 2,3-butanediol - ethanol - lignin - 1,3-propanediol - dehydration - conversion - glycerol - butanol
Given the current robust forces driving sustainable production, and available biomass conversion technologies, biomass-based routes are expected to make a significant impact on the production of bulk chemicals within 10 years, and a huge impact within 20-30 years. In the Port of Rotterdam there is a clear short-term (0-10 year) substitution potential of 10-15 % of fossil oil-based bulk chemicals by bio-based bulk chemicals, especially for oxygenated bulk chemicals, such as ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, iso-propanol and acetone, butylene and methylethylketone and for the replacement of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) by ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). Glycerin, as a byproduct of biodiesel production, is a very favorable short-term option for the production of ethylene and propy-lene glycols in the Port of Rotterdam. In the mid-term (10-20 years) there is clear potential for a bio-based production of ethylene, acrylic acid and N-containing bulk chemicals such as acrylonitrile, acrylamide and -caprolactam. Technologies involving direct isolation of aromatic building blocks from biomass, or the conversion of sugars or lignin to aromatics are still in their infancy. Biorefineries that are being started up today will form the stepping stones toward the chemicals mentioned above if we learn to upgrade their side streams. For main ports like the Port of Rotterdam, these developments imply that it has to consider in much closer detail those facilities it has to offer for a more bio-based chemistry and economy. © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Selenium enrichment pattern in flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and asparagus
Mo, H.Z. ; Yang Zhu, Yang ; Zhang, M. - \ 2006
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 17 (2006)2. - ISSN 1722-6996 - p. 39 - 42.
dehydration - health
CONCLUSIONS - Within a certain range, selenium accumulation in three studied vegetables was lineally correlated with spraying concentration. However, a too high concentration caused the reduction of vegetable output and damage in quality. - Twice spraying with lower concentration of selenium was a better option to improve selenium enrichment efficiency. - Proper adjustment of pH could improve selenium absorption. - Selenium could be transported to other parts of the vegetable, as a recyclable element. - Spraying timing for cabbage did not affect the percentage of organic selenium content, but spraying at later growth phase had higher selenium accumulation. - It is well known that Cruciferae plants and Allium genus plants have higher ability to absorb selenium which is seen in the present study as higher Se concentrations in cabbage and flowering Chinese cabbage.
Cold-induced imbibition damage of lettuce embryos: A study using cryo-scanning electron microscopy
Nijsse, J. ; Walther, P. ; Hoekstra, F. - \ 2004
Seed Science Research 14 (2004)2. - ISSN 0960-2585 - p. 117 - 126.
membrane phase-transitions - desiccation tolerance - structural integrity - chilling injury - seeds - pollen - temperature - leakage - dehydration - behavior
The impact of rehydration on a multicellular organism was studied in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) embryos, using cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). Naked embryos were sensitive to imbibitional stress, whereas embryos with an intact, thick-walled endosperm were not. Imbibitional injury to naked embryos was mainly confined to the outer 2-3 cell layers of the axis. These cells failed to swell and appeared poorly hydrated. Deeper layers were not affected even after extended periods of cold rehydration. The proportion of damaged cells (6-7% of total) roughly corresponded with the additional K+ that gradually leached from the embryos. Damaged embryos were able to survive the loss of their surface layers and form adventitious roots. The swelling of inner tissues caused the dead surface layers to rupture into patches. Plasma membranes in dried embryos showed normal bilayer structure with a homogeneous distribution of intra-membrane particles (IMPs), also after non-injurious rehydration. Imbibitionally damaged plasma membranes showed many irregularities, such as globular insertions, that probably resulted from malfusions in the ruptured membrane, but the IMPs were still randomly distributed.
|Soil water repellency; occurrence, consequences, and amelioration
Ritsema, C.J. ; Dekker, L.W. - \ 2003
Amsterdam : Elsevier - ISBN 0444512691 - 352
bodemwater - afstoting - bevochtigbaarheid - hygroscopiciteit - dehydratie - bodemstructuur - fysische bodemeigenschappen - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - soil water - repellency - wettability - hygroscopicity - dehydration - soil structure - soil physical properties - hydraulic conductivity
The effect of fructan on membrane lipid organisation and dynamics in the dry state
Vereyken, I.J. ; Chupin, V. ; Hoekstra, F.A. ; Smeekens, S.C.M. ; Kruijff, B. de - \ 2003
Biophysical Journal 84 (2003). - ISSN 0006-3495 - p. 3759 - 3766.
nuclear magnetic-resonance - phase-transitions - vitrification - sugars - dehydration - headgroup - liposomes - h-2-nmr - water - p-31
Fructans are a group of fructose-based oligo- and polysaccharides, which appear to be involved in membrane preservation during dehydration by interacting with the membrane lipids. To get further understanding of the protective mechanism, the consequences of the fructan-membrane lipid interaction for the molecular organization and dynamics in the dry state were studied. POPC and DMPC were investigated in the dry state by H-2, P-31 NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using two types of fructan and dextran. The order-disorder transition temperature of dry POPC was reduced by 70degreesC in the presence of fructan. Fructan increased the mobility of the acyl chains, but immobilized the lipid headgroup region. Most likely, fructans insert between the headgroups of lipids, thereby spacing the acyl chains. This results in a much lower phase transition temperature. The headgroup is immobilized by the interaction with fructan. The location of the interaction with the lipid headgroup is different for the inulin-type fructan compared to the levan-type fructan, since inulin shows interaction with the lipid phosphate group, whereas levan does not. Dextran did not influence the phase transition temperature of dry POPC showing that reduction of this temperature is not a general property of polysaccharides.
Influence of surfactant applications on the wettability of a dune sand with grass cover: long-term effect of Primerr604 and short-term effect of ACA 1897
Oostindie, K. ; Dekker, L.W. ; Ritsema, C.J. - \ 2003
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 659) - 54
duinzand - neerslag - infiltratie - waterafstotende gronden - oppervlaktespanningsverlagende stoffen - bodemwater - dehydratie - dune sand - precipitation - infiltration - water repellent soils - surfactants - soil water - dehydration
Occurrence of soil water repellency in arid and humid climates
Jaramillo, D.F. ; Dekker, L.W. ; Ritsema, C.J. ; Hendrickx, J.M.H. - \ 2000
Journal of Hydrology 231/232 (2000). - ISSN 0022-1694 - p. 105 - 111.
bodemwater - hydratatie - afstoting - dehydratie - evaporatie - humide klimaatzones - soil water - hydration - repellency - dehydration - evaporation - humid zones
Modeling and field evidence of finger formation and finger recurrence in a water repellent sandy soil
Ritsema, C.J. ; Dekker, L.W. ; Nieber, J.L. ; Steenhuis, T.S. - \ 1998
Water Resources Research 34 (1998)4. - ISSN 0043-1397 - p. 555 - 567.
infiltratie - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - kwel - bodem - hygroscopiciteit - hydratatie - dehydratie - modellen - onderzoek - infiltration - hydraulic conductivity - seepage - soil - hygroscopicity - hydration - dehydration - models - research
Stable or unstable wetting fronts in water repellent soils - effect of antecedent soil moisture content
Ritsema, C.J. ; Nieber, J.L. ; Dekker, L.W. ; Steenhuis, T.S. - \ 1998
Soil & Tillage Research 47 (1998). - ISSN 0167-1987 - p. 111 - 123.
infiltratie - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - kwel - bodem - hygroscopiciteit - hydratatie - dehydratie - infiltration - hydraulic conductivity - seepage - soil - hygroscopicity - hydration - dehydration
|Biologisch afbreekbare smeermiddelen
Straelen, B.C.P.M. van - \ 1998
Tuin en Park Techniek 5 (1998)2. - ISSN 1380-3212 - p. 34 - 35.
roadsides - weed control - hot air treatment - heat treatment - plant protection - control methods - temperature - hydration - dehydration - wegbermen - onkruidbestrijding - heteluchtbehandeling - warmtebehandeling - gewasbescherming - bestrijdingsmethoden - temperatuur - hydratatie - dehydratie
Bijzonderheden over een nieuwe thermische onkruidbestrijder die werkt met stoom van een temperatuur tussen de 120 en 140 graden Celsius
Flow and transport in water repellent sandy soils
Ritsema, C.J. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): R.A. Feddes; J. Bouma. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789054859154 - 215
infiltratie - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - kwel - bodem - hygroscopiciteit - hydratatie - dehydratie - zandgronden - infiltration - hydraulic conductivity - seepage - soil - hygroscopicity - hydration - dehydration - sandy soils
Water repellency in soils is currently receiving increasing attention from scientists and policy makers, due to the adverse and sometimes devastating effects of soil water repellency on environmental quality and agricultural crop production. Soil water repellency often leads to severe erosion and runoff, rapid leaching of surface-applied agrichemicals, and loss of water and nutrient availability for crops.
In general, soils become water repellent through the coating of soil particles or structural elements with water repellent organic substances originating from decaying plant material. Soil water repellency manifests itself when the water content of the soil drops below a critical level. Water flow and solute transport patterns are complex under such conditions. The present study deals with flow and transport processes in an untilled, grass-covered water repellent sandy soil consisting of three layers.
Extensive tracer experiments indicate that distribution flow dominates in the humous top layer, preferential flow in the water repellent sand layer, and diverging flow in the underlying wettable zone. Preferential flow paths or fingers occur almost throughout the year. Fingers develop rapidly during severe rain storms, causing significant portions of the infiltrating water to be preferentially transported to the deep subsoil. Fingers form at sites with relatively low degrees of water repellency, and finger diameters range from 10 to 25 cm.
Model simulations show that fingered flow results from hysteresis in the water retention function, and the nature of the formation depends on the shape of the main wetting and drainage branches of that function. Once fingers are established, hysteresis causes them to recur along the same pathways during subsequent rain events. In the long term, recurrence of fingers may lead to changes in physical and/or chemical properties of the soil within the fingered flow pathways. It is only under initially dry conditions, with soil water contents below the critical level, that fingers will be formed during infiltration. Under wetter conditions, with soil water contents above the critical level, wetting fronts will remain stable and no fingers will develop.
Future research should focus on improving our understanding of the origins, occurrence, hydrological responses and agricultural functioning of water repellent soils.
Moisture variability resulting from water repellency in Dutch soils
Dekker, L.W. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J. Bouma; R.A. Feddes. - S.l. : Dekker - 240
bodemwater - bodem - hygroscopiciteit - hydratatie - dehydratie - geostatistiek - soil water - soil - hygroscopicity - hydration - dehydration - geostatistics
The present study suggests that many soils in the Netherlands, in natural as well as in agricultural areas, may be water repellent to some degree, challenging the common perception that soil water repellency is only an interesting aberration. When dry, water repellent soils resist or retard water infiltration into the soil matrix. Soil water repellency can lead to the development of unstable wetting and preferential flow paths. Preferential flow has wide-ranging significance for rapid transport of solutes, such as agrichemicals, towards the groundwater and surface water, making it essential to understand this phenomenon.
The persistence and degree of water repellency was examined in topsoils of nature reserves and cultivated soils, using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) and alcohol percentage tests. The severity of water repellency measured on dried soil samples, the so-called "potential" water repellency, can be used as a parameter for comparing soils with respect to their sensitivity to water repellency. In some cases, however, the severity of potential water repellency was found to be sensitive to the initial moisture content of the soil and the temperature during drying. Measurement of the "actual" water repellency on field-moist samples determines the soil fraction excluded from direct solute and water flow. However, preferential flow is a dynamic process, which is why the ratio between water repellent and wettable soil is time dependent. The "critical soil water content", below which the soil in the field is water repellent and above which the soil is wettable, was found to be a useful parameter in water repellency studies.
Spatial and temporal variability in volumetric soil water content was studied in vertical transects by intensive sampling with 100 cm 3steel cylinders. Spatial variability in soil water content under grass cover was high, due to fingered flow. On arable land, vegetation and microtopography appeared to play a dominant role. This thesis provides examples of uneven moisture patterns in water repellent sand, loam, clay and peat soils with grass cover, and in cropped, water repellent sandy soils.
Recurring fingered flow pathways in a water repellent sandy field soil
Ritsema, C.J. ; Dekker, L.W. ; Elsen, E.G.M. van den; Oostindie, K. ; Steenhuis, T.S. ; Nieber, J.L. - \ 1997
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 1 (1997)4. - ISSN 1027-5606 - p. 777 - 786.
bodem - hygroscopiciteit - hydratatie - dehydratie - zandgronden - soil - hygroscopicity - hydration - dehydration - sandy soils
Three-dimensional fingered flow patterns in a water repellent sandy field soil
Ritsema, C.J. ; Dekker, L.W. ; Heijs, A.W.J. - \ 1997
Soil Science 162 (1997)2. - ISSN 0038-075X - p. 79 - 90.
dehydratie - hydratatie - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - hygroscopiciteit - infiltratie - zandgronden - kwel - bodem - dehydration - hydration - hydraulic conductivity - hygroscopicity - infiltration - sandy soils - seepage - soil
Water flow and transport through the vadose zone of water-repellent field soils take place mainly through preferred flow paths. For modelling purposes, it is essential to know when fingers can be expected and what their average dimension is. Thereforeten soil blocks, each 1.2 m long, 0.6 m wide and 0.52 m deep, were sampled in a water-repellent sandy field soil. Fingered flow patterns were distinct in soil blocks sampled after rain events. Fingers were found where the degree of potential water repellency in the upper part of the soil was low.
Preferente stroming en vochtpatronen in waterafstotende zavel-, klei- en veengronden
Dekker, L.W. ; Ritsema, C.J. - \ 1996
Stromingen : vakblad voor hydrologen 2 (1996)4. - ISSN 1382-6069 - p. 23 - 35.
hoogveengronden - dehydratie - hydratatie - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - hygroscopiciteit - infiltratie - veengronden - kwel - bodem - moerasgronden - bog soils - dehydration - hydration - hydraulic conductivity - hygroscopicity - infiltration - peat soils - seepage - soil - swamp soils
Meststoffen en andere chemicaliën komen vaak sneller in het grondwater terecht dan modellen voorspellen. De meeste modellen zijn namelijk gebaseerd op de veronderstelling dat de bodem homogeen is, het water in de onverzadigde zone verticaal infiltreert en het vochtfront evenwijdig is aan het bodemoppervlak. In werkelijkheid stroomt het water vaak via preferente banen door de bodem. Preferente stroming heeft diverse oorzaken en kan in nagenoeg alle gronden optreden. In dit artikel wordt naar voren gebracht dat regenwater zich in zavel-, klei- en veengronden niet alleen snel naar de ondergrond verplaatst door scheuren en gangen, maar dat tevens de bovengrond ongelijkmatig bevochtigd wordt, waardoor vochtpatronen in de matrix van deze gronden ontstaan
Variation in water content and wetting patterns in Dutch water repellent peaty clay and clayey peat soils
Dekker, L.W. ; Ritsema, C.J. - \ 1996
Catena 28 (1996)1-2. - ISSN 0341-8162 - p. 89 - 105.
hoogveengronden - dehydratie - hydratatie - hygroscopiciteit - nederland - veengronden - bodem - moerasgronden - bog soils - dehydration - hydration - hygroscopicity - netherlands - peat soils - soil - swamp soils
The variation in water content of grass-covered peaty clay and clayey peat soils was studied at six sites in the Netherlands. The topsoils were water-repellent during dry spells. When the topsoils were dry, they could absorb water only with difficultywhich is illustrated by wetting rate measurements. Precipitation could flow rapidly through shrinkage cracks towards the subsoil, bypassing the matrix of the peat. The measurements, however, revealed that preferential flow was not limited to macropore flow: irregular, finger-like wetting patterns were also formed in the soil matrix. Owing to these typical wetting patterns, soil water content varied over short distances at all the sites on all the sampling dates.
Uneven moisture patterns in water repellent soils
Dekker, L.W. ; Ritsema, C.J. - \ 1996
Geoderma 70 (1996)2/4. - ISSN 0016-7061 - p. 87 - 99.
dehydratie - hydratatie - hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - hygroscopiciteit - infiltratie - kwel - bodem - dehydration - hydration - hydraulic conductivity - hygroscopicity - infiltration - seepage - soil
In the Netherlands, water-repellent soils are widespread and they often show irregular moisture patterns, which cause accelerated transport of water and solutes to the groundwater and surface water. Under grass cover, spatial variability in soil moisture content is high owing to fingered flow; in arable land, vegetation and microtopography play a dominant role. Examples are given of uneven soil moisture patterns in water-repellent sandy, loam, clay and peat soils with grass cover, and in cropped water-repellent sandy soils. In addition, the influence of fungi on inducing soil moisture patterns is illustrated as well.