Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    A comprehensive assessment of agriculture in lowlands of south Brazil: characterization and comparison of current and alternative concepts
    Theisen, Giovani - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.P.R. Anten, co-promotor(en): L. Bastiaans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436380 - 234
    cropping systems - farming systems - crop management - lowland areas - wetlands - pampas - brazil - intensification - sustainability - productivity - indicators - soil management - rice - flooded rice - oryza sativa - maize - zea mays - glycine max - cover crops - livestock - rotation - mixed farming - seedbed preparation - farm machinery - teeltsystemen - bedrijfssystemen - gewasteelt - laaglandgebieden - wetlands - pampa's - brazilië - intensivering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - productiviteit - indicatoren - bodembeheer - rijst - natte rijst - oryza sativa - maïs - zea mays - glycine max - dekgewassen - vee - rotatie - gemengde landbouw - zaaibedbereiding - landbouwwerktuigen

    Agriculture in the lowlands of south Brazil is of strategic importance at the national level, since it supplies around 80% of the rice consumed by the Brazilian population. In Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state in Brazil, three million hectares of lowlands are ready for grain-based agriculture. Of this area, about half is fallow, partly used for cattle grazing, and irrigated rice is the predominant crop, cultivated annually on 1.1 million ha. The remaining area is used for soybean and other crops. The predominant cropping system is a combination of irrigated rice and cattle. Over the last decades, rice yields have steadily increased, but this rise in yield level has to a large extent been obtained at the expense of a continuously higher use of external inputs. The recent introduction of soybean in rotation with rice has partially improved the system, but in most areas the situation is becoming incompatible with the modern demands for sustainability. This thesis presents a long-term study (2006-2015) of five cropping systems for lowlands. Next to monocrop rice and two rice-soybean rotations conducted in either conventional or minimum tillage, the experiment contained two novel systems based on large ridges, on which soybean and maize were combined with either cover crops or crop-livestock integration in winter. In these last systems, 8-m-wide ridges were built to avoid flooding, thus allowing for diversification of cash crops and the cultivation of cover crops or pastures in winter time, as well as the use of no-tillage. All systems were evaluated at process-level, including soil preparation, seeding, plant nutrition, pest management, irrigation, harvesting, transport and cattle management, as well as regarding their performance for the different dimensions of sustainability, particularly environment, land productivity, economics, energy-use and labour. Next to system assessment, two additional experiments were conducted for the evaluation of two specific technologies for soil management in these areas. Crop livestock integration on the ridge-based system offered the best balance between food production, environmental impact and economics. This system is well suited to be used in fields that are kept fallow, thereby enlarging the agricultural productivity of the lowlands. The additional experiments revealed that a knife-roller can successfully substitute plough-and-harrow for soil preparation after rice harvest, and that germination of weed seeds can be reduced if crop seeding is conducted at a lower speed or using a no-tillage seeder equipped with an improved cutting mechanism. Overall the results show that by using alternative cropping systems that allow for diversification and new methods of field management it is possible to simultaneously attain a larger agricultural production and improved sustainability in the lowlands.

    On the role of soil organic matter for crop production in European arable farming
    Hijbeek, Renske - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.K. van Ittersum, co-promotor(en): H.F.M. ten Berge. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436632 - 211
    soil fertility - soil fertility management - soil management - soil conservation - organic matter - soil organic matter - nitrogen - nitrogen fertilizers - green manures - manures - straw - soil carbon sequestration - cover crops - crop yield - yields - meta-analysis - food security - europe - drivers - barriers - bodemvruchtbaarheid - bodemvruchtbaarheidsbeheer - bodembeheer - bodembescherming - organische stof - organisch bodemmateriaal - stikstof - stikstofmeststoffen - groenbemesters - mest - stro - koolstofvastlegging in de bodem - dekgewassen - gewasopbrengst - opbrengsten - meta-analyse - voedselzekerheid - europa - chauffeurs - barrières

    The aim of this thesis was to improve understanding of the role of organic inputs and soil organic matter (SOM) for crop production in contemporary arable farming in Europe. For this purpose, long-term experiments were analysed on the additional yield effect of organic inputs and savings in mineral fertiliser. In addition, a farm survey was conducted to find drivers and barriers for the use of organic inputs and to assess if arable farmers in Europe perceive a deficiency of SOM.

    The findings in this thesis suggest that at least on the shorter term, on average, there seems to be no immediate threat from a deficiency of SOM to crop production in arable farming in Europe. The long-term experiments showed that with sufficient use of only mineral fertilisers, on average, similar yields could be attained over multiple years as with the combined use of organic inputs and mineral fertiliser. This was reflected in the farm survey, in which a large majority of farmers indicated not to perceive a deficiency of SOM. Analysis of long-term experiments also showed that more mineral fertiliser N was saved when using farmyard manure at high N rates (with mineral fertiliser application) than at low N rates (without mineral fertiliser application), based on comparisons at equal yield.

    Specific crops and environments did benefit from organic inputs and more SOM in terms of crop production. Long-term experiments showed that organic inputs give benefit to crop production in wet climates and on sandy soils. In addition, farmers perceived a higher deficiency of SOM on steep slopes, sandy soils, wet and very dry climates. The additional yield effect of organic inputs was significant for potatoes. More in general, farmers who cultivated larger shares of their land with specialized crops (including potatoes, sugar beets, onions and other vegetables) than cereals perceived a higher deficiency of SOM. It seems that while the functions of SOM can be replaced with technical means to a large extent (e.g. tillage, use of mineral fertilisers), there are limits to this technical potential when environmental conditions are more extreme and crops are more demanding.

    The farm survey revealed that farmers perceive a trade-off between improved soil quality on the one hand and increased pressures from weeds, pests and diseases and financial consequences on the other hand when using organic inputs. If policies aim to stimulate the maintenance or increase of SOM, more insight is needed into the conditions that regulate the pressures of weeds, pests and diseases in response to organic inputs. Financial consequences (at least on the short term) should also be accounted for. More importantly however, benefits from SOM for crop production cannot be taken for granted. Only in specific situations such benefits will exist. If European policies on SOM aim to include benefits for crop production, focus should be on areas with more extreme environmental conditions (very dry or wet climates, steep slopes, sandy soils), or cropping systems with more specialized or horticultural crops rather than cereals.

    Witte lupine voor kalkrijke bodems : onderzoek over twee jaar naar perspectiefvolle lijnen
    Nuijten, H.A.C.P. ; Prins, U. - \ 2014
    Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 40
    akkerbouw - lupinen - dekgewassen - veevoeding - eiwitleverende planten - humane voeding - kalkrijke gronden - lupinus albus - rassen (planten) - arable farming - lupins - cover crops - livestock feeding - protein plants - human feeding - calcareous soils - lupinus albus - varieties
    Lupine (Lupinus spp) kan interessant zijn voor zowel biologische als gangbare akkerbouwers die zoeken naar een vlinderbloemig gewas om hun vruchtwisseling te verruimen, niet alleen als veevoer maar ook voor humane voeding. De beschikbare rassen kunnen echter alleen op kalkarme (zand‐)grond geteeld worden, terwijl de grootste arealen akkerbouw in Nederland op kalkrijke kleigronden liggen. Er is dus behoefte aan kalktolerante rassen.
    PlantyOrganic - Results 2013
    Hospers-Brands, A.J.T.M. ; Anema, J.R. ; Bus, M. - \ 2014
    Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 33
    akkerbouw - bemesting - stikstof - groenbemesters - dekgewassen - teeltsystemen - biologische landbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bodemvruchtbaarheid - groenteteelt - veldgewassen - arable farming - fertilizer application - nitrogen - green manures - cover crops - cropping systems - organic farming - farm management - sustainability - soil fertility - vegetable growing - field crops
    This report is the second in a series about the development of a farming system without external input of minerals or nitrogen. The first report described the design of the system, and the results of the first experimental year, 2012. The report you are now reading describes the results of 2013, the second experimental year.
    Groenbemesters in de strijd tegen gewone wortellesieaaltjes (Pratylenchus penetrans) : eindrapportage
    Elberse, I.A.M. ; Hoek, H. - \ 2012
    Lisse : PPO Bloembollen en Bomen - 51
    houtachtige planten als sierplanten - rosa - veldgewassen - wintertarwe - pratylenchus penetrans - groenbemesters - tagetes - dekgewassen - proeven - alternatieve methoden - ornamental woody plants - rosa - field crops - winter wheat - pratylenchus penetrans - green manures - tagetes - cover crops - trials - alternative methods
    Wortellesieaaltjes (Pratylenchus penetrans) kunnen in vele gewassen grote schade aanrichten. Bestrijding kan chemisch gebeuren, met natte grondontsmetting, maar een goed alternatief is het bestrijden door het telen van Tagetes patula (afrikaantjes). Een geslaagde teelt van deze groenbemester zorgt zelfs voor een betere bestrijding dan chemische grondontsmetting. Een Tagetesteelt heeft echter ook nadelen. Het bestrijdt alleen Pratulenchus penetrans en P. crenatus. Voor andere Pratylenchussoorten is de werking niet duidelijk. Voor een aantal andere belangrijke aaltjessoorten (aardappelcystenaaltjes, bietencystenaaltjes, wortelknobbelaaltjes) is Tagetes patula geen waardplant. Voor deze aaltjes is het effect van de teelt van T. patula gelijk aan het braak laten liggen van het land (zie ook Voor vrijlevende wortelaaltjes, die behoren tot de groep van de trichodoriden is de waardplantstatus van Tagetes momenteel niet duidelijk, omdat er tegenstrijdige informatie over is. Verder groeit er gemakkelijk onkruid in Tagetes door de trage beginontwikkeling van het gewas. Als er onkruid tussen de Tagetes groeit, is de bestrijding van P. penetrans niet meer optimaal, omdat deze aaltjes zich op diverse onkruidsoorten vaak in meer of mindere mate kunnen vermeerderen. Telers ervaren het ook als een groot nadeel dat de teelt van Tagetes een heel groeiseizoen kost, doordat het gewas tussen half mei en half juli gezaaid moet worden en dan drie maanden moet groeien. Bovendien is in een eerdere proef de werking van Tagetes wel eens tegen gevallen in diepere bodemlagen, na voorteelt van het houtige gewas roos.
    You can’t eat your mulch and have it too : cropping system design and tradeoffs around biomass use for Conservation Agriculture in Cameroon and Madagascar
    Naudin, K. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): E. Scopel. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734341 - 220
    grondbewerking gericht op bodemconservering - teeltsystemen - dekgewassen - mulchen - rotaties - madagascar - conservation tillage - cropping systems - cover crops - mulching - rotations - madagascar

    Conservation agriculture is defined by three main principles: minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover and crop rotations. CA is promoted as a promising technology for Africa, but to date, only a small area under CA fully complies with the above three principles. CA has both short and long term effects on crop productivity and sustainability through the modification of various agroecological functions. These functions are related to the quantity of crop and cover crop biomass produced and kept as mulch. One of the main challenges in designing CA for smallholder farming systems in developing countries is the competing uses for biomass, in particular for feeding livestock. The main difficulties are linking the efficiency of agroecological functions to varying degrees of biomass export, and evaluating the performance of cropping systems at farm level, which is where the decisions are made. In North Cameroon the quantity of biomass produced in the field has been doubled by associating a cover crop with a cereal crop. Part of the biomass was consumed by cattle during the dry season but the quantity of mulch that remained on the ground had a positive impact on the cotton water balance in the driest part of North Cameroon. In the Lake Alaotra region of Madagascar, the soil cover in rice fields under CA can vary, from 30% to 84% even in the same type of field depending on the plant used as cover crop, the quantity of biomass produced and management of the residues. The range is even greater when different kinds of fields are taken into consideration. Of course, the different agroecological functions can be fulfilled to a greater or lesser extent depending on the amount of available biomass and the resulting soil cover. The relationship between the quantity of biomass and soil cover has been calculated for different kinds of residues. We used these relationships to explore the variability of soil cover that could be generated in farmers’ fields, and to estimate how much of the biomass could be removed to feed livestock while leaving sufficient soil cover. Our results showed that under farmers’ conditions in Madagascar, the production and conservation of biomass was not always sufficient to fulfill all the agroecological functions of mulch. For example, partial export of biomass to be used as forage might have no effect in terms of erosion control but may considerably reduce the efficiency of physical weed control. As the balance between the potential benefits of exporting biomass and the efficiency of agroecological functions varies depending on the constraints and goals of each farm, we chose to analyze the potential benefits of exporting aboveground biomass to feed cattle at farm level. To this end, we modeled different size farms in Madagascar to investigate the relation between raising dairy cows and efficient application of CA. Our aim was to explore trade-offs and synergies between combinations of CA practices (i.e. different amounts of biomass exported) and the size of dairy cow herds (varying biomass needs and animal production). Changing the percentage of soil cover in CA plots did not significantly modify total farm net income, as this was more influenced by the characteristics of the milk market. Overall, CA systems can be beneficial for dairy cow farmers thanks to the forage produced, although the milk market and thus the value of biomass for forage, has a major influence on the way CA can be implemented at field level. To explore the range of possible cropping systems in a given biophysical situation, we created a tool named PRACT (Prototyping rotation and association with cover crop and no till). We used this tool to organize expert knowledge on crops and cover crops, biophysical characteristics of fields and agronomic rules and to link them using Malagasy conditions. PRACT generate a list of cropping systems, i.e. crops and cover crops and their sequences over three years. These cropping systems are characterized by their potential agroecological functions and crop production. The cropping systems are first selected based on the biophysical requirements of plants, plant compatibility and agronomic rules. But all the systems are not suitable for every kind of farm. Consequently using PRACT outputs, a second selection of cropping systems can be made based on the characteristics of the cropping system, i.e. crop production and agroecological functions. In this way, the selected cropping systems can be reduced to a number that can reasonably be handled by technicians and farmers. Finally, we recommend a more rigorous definition and characterization of treatments when comparing CA to conventional systems to obtain a clearer view of the link between the impact of CA, crop rotations and the level of biomass production. Key words: conservation agriculture, cropping system design, optimization, cover crops, cotton, rice, Cameroon, Madagascar

    Growth characteristics of several clover species and their suitability for weed suppression in a mixed cropping design
    Hollander, N.G. den - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Kropff, co-promotor(en): Lammert Bastiaans. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732682 - 132
    trifolium subterraneum - klavers - onkruidbestrijding - dekgewassen - levende mulches - oogstverliezen - trifolium subterraneum - clovers - weed control - cover crops - live mulches - yield losses

    Weed management without herbicides is a challenging undertaking and requires reliable alternative strategies, particularly in poorly competing crops, where weeds can cause severe yield losses. Adding a companion crop is one of the means to enhance the weed suppressive ability of the crop canopy. In this regard, clover is often referred to as an interesting option as, apart from weed suppression, clover species enhance the soil nitrogen status and contribute to pest suppression. Earlier experimental work showed however that clover can easily become too competitive, hindering the growth and development of the main crop. It thus remains questionable whether clover can be added as a companion cover crop for weed suppression without substantially harming the main crop. In this context, the relevance of the choice of clover species was investigated in the current research project. Next to field experiments, experiments in containers and pots were used to determine various traits of a range of clover species and to relate these traits to competitive and weed suppressive ability. Differences between clover species were large and it was shown that plant height was the main determinant of the competitive effect on crop plants, while rapid early growth was the trait correlating most strongly to weed suppressive ability. Persian clover was a good example of a species that suppressed weeds successfully, but also competed too fiercely with the main crop. The performance of the short growing subterranean clover was unsatisfactory. The slow early growth of this species resulted in poor weed suppression and in addition, the species competed more strongly with the crop than expected based on plant height. This last was shown to be due to a relatively strong ability to compete for below ground resources. It was concluded that successful introduction of a companion clover crop for enhanced weed suppression will not be possible unless additional management to reduce the competitive damage to the main crop is conducted. Of all the investigated clover species white clover held most promise as a weed suppressing clover species in a mixed cropping design.

    Key words: Clover, subterranean clover, weed suppression, cover crop, living mulch, smother crop, yield loss.

    Developing novel farming systems: effective use of nutrients from cover crops in intensive organic farming
    Burgt, G.J.H.M. van der; Scholberg, J.M.S. ; Koopmans, C.J. - \ 2011
    In: Organic is life - knowledge for tomorrow. Proceedings of the third scientific conference of the International Society of Organic Agriculture Research (ISOFAR) 28 September - 1 October 2011. - - p. 32 - 35.
    bemesting - biologische landbouw - dekgewassen - veldproeven - bodemvruchtbaarheid - luzerne - grasklaver - fertilizer application - organic farming - cover crops - field tests - soil fertility - lucerne - grass-clover swards
    On-farm nitrogen fixation is a driving force in organic agriculture. The efficiency with which this nitrogen is used can be increased by using alfalfa or grass-clover crops directly as fertilizer on other fields: cut-and-carry fertilizers. In two crops in two years, the use of several types of alfalfa and grass-clover as fertilizer is compared with the use of poultry manure and slurry. The nitrogen use efficiency at crop level is comparable or better for the cut-and-carry fertilizers as compared to the animal manures. The relative P and K content of these fertilizers comes closer to the crop demand than that of the poultry manure. Crop yields are comparable or better when using the alfalfa or grass-clover as fertilizer. It is concluded that the cut-and-carry fertilizers are a serious alternative for manure as part of an overall farm soil fertility strategy.
    Een schone bodem met biofumigatie?
    Visser, J.H.M. ; Korthals, G.W. - \ 2011
    De Boomkwekerij 4 (2011)25-1-2008. - ISSN 0923-2443 - p. 9 - 9.
    bodemfumigatie - grondsterilisatie - groenbemesters - tagetes - dekgewassen - organische zwavelverbindingen - glucosinolaten - koolsoorten - sorghum sudanense - pratylenchus penetrans - verticillium dahliae - gewasbescherming - biofumigatie - soil fumigation - soil sterilization - green manures - cover crops - organic sulfur compounds - glucosinolates - cabbages - plant protection - biofumigation
    Biofumigatie is het in de grond werken van gewassen of gewasresten, waarbij gasvorminge stoffen ontstaan die een dodende werking hebben op bodemziekten- en plagen. Vooral kruisbloemigen, zoals koolachtige gewassen, zijn geschikt voor biofumigatie
    Aaltjes en gewas bepalen keuze groenbemester
    Hoek, H. ; Korthals, G.W. - \ 2010
    Groenten en Fruit Actueel 2010 (2010)25. - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. 11 - 11.
    akkerbouw - groenbemesters - dekgewassen - nematoda - plantenplagen - waardplanten - vollegrondsgroenten - arable farming - green manures - cover crops - plant pests - host plants - field vegetables
    Groenbemesters werken positief op de bodemconditie en hebben nog meer positieve eigenschappen. Helaas kunnen ze ook schadelijke aaltjes vermeerderen. Welke passen het beste bij aardbei, prei, Chinese kool of waspeen?
    Het belang van groencompost
    Haan, J.J. de - \ 2010
    Nieuwe oogst / Magazine gewas 6 (2010)7. - ISSN 1871-093X - p. 18 - 19.
    proeven op proefstations - prestatie-onderzoek - tests - groenbemesters - bodemvruchtbaarheid - gewassen - mest - dekgewassen - bodemvruchtbaarheidsbeheer - station tests - performance testing - green manures - soil fertility - crops - manures - cover crops - soil fertility management
    Groencompost wordt een aantal belangrijke positieve effecten toegedicht, maar onderzoek laat zien dat het gaat om investeren voor de lange termijn. Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving heeft samen met de Branche Vereniging Reststoffen (BVOR) en vijf agrarische ondernemers in diverse sectoren gekeken naar de effecten van de toediening van groencompost.
    Maize cropping with less herbicide
    Melander, B. ; Bàrberi, P. ; Monier-Jolain, N. ; Weide, R.Y. van der; Verschwele, A. ; Sattin, M. - \ 2009
    onkruidbestrijding - geïntegreerde bestrijding - teelt in rijen - reductie - herbiciden - gebruik - dekgewassen - rotaties - weed control - integrated control - alley cropping - reduction - herbicides - usage - cover crops - rotations
    Geïntegreerde onkruidbeheersing (IWM) is een brede term die veel methoden dekt die kunnen worden gecombineerd en op verschillende manieren in het gewas kunnen worden toegepast. Deze vormen dan gezamenlijk een IWM-strategie. Maïs is een breedverspreid op rijen geteeld gewas in Europa dat vele mogelijkheden biedt voor toepassing van IWM gebaseerd op combinaties van niet-chemische en chemische onkruidbestrijdingsmethoden. De inzet van IWM kan leiden tot aanzienlijke reducties van het herbicidengebruik in maïs.
    Groenbemesters : aanvullende informatie voor de bollenteelt
    Os, G.J. van; Boer, M. de; Kool, S.A.M. de - \ 2009
    groenbemesters - dekgewassen - bollen - bloembollen - teelt - gewasbescherming - onkruidbestrijding - nederland - green manures - cover crops - bulbs - ornamental bulbs - cultivation - plant protection - weed control - netherlands
    Aanvullende informatie bij brochure 'Groenbemesters: van teelttechniek tot ziekten en plagen', met specifieke informatie over de toepassing van groenbemesters in de bollenteelt
    En de boer... hij ploegt niet meer? : onderzoek niet-kerende grondbewerking (ridge-till/no-till)
    Weide, R.Y. van der; Bleeker, P.O. ; Riemens, M.M. ; Paauw, J.G.M. ; Schooten, H.A. van - \ 2009
    proeven op proefstations - dekgewassen - akkerbouw - gereduceerde grondbewerking - groenbemesters - tussengewassen (companion crops) - bodembedekkende planten - station tests - cover crops - arable farming - reduced tillage - green manures - companion crops - ground cover plants
    Er zijn veel verschillende systemen van niet-kerende grondbewerking en er is (inter)nationaal ook veel ontwikkeling in. Sommige systemen bieden nieuwe kansen voor onkruidbeheersing met minder chemie en kosten. Doel van het onderzoek is nieuwe kostenbesparende ridge-till enno-till methoden onder Nederlandse omstandigheden te testen opbruikbaarheid. In het vergelijksonderzoek worden 5 verschillende groenbemesters als tussengewas meegenomen. De keuze van de groenbemester is belangrijk als 'plantaardige ploeg' en als bodembedekker. Posterpresentatie
    Kwekers leren van kwekers : nieuwe mogelijkheden in bestrijding van onkruid en plagen in de vaste planten
    Hiemstra, J.A. ; Dalfsen, P. van; Pastoor, K. - \ 2008
    [S.l.] : Telen met toekomst - 4
    tuinbouw - onkruidbestrijding - landbouwtechniek - plantenplagen - roofmijten - spuiten - groenbemesters - dekgewassen - landbouwkundig onderzoek - plantenkwekerijen - overblijvende planten - mechanische bestrijding - horticulture - weed control - agricultural engineering - plant pests - predatory mites - spraying - green manures - cover crops - agricultural research - nurseries - perennials - mechanical control
    Proeven en onderzoeken met 14 vaste plantenbedrijven naar duurzame gewasbescherming. Naast mechanische onkruidbestrijding wordt ook onderzoek verricht naar onder andere groenbemesters, spuittechnieken en de inzet van roofmijt in vaste planten
    Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization
    Kruidhof, H.M. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Kropff, co-promotor(en): Lammert Bastiaans. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049357 - 156
    gewassen - onkruiden - onkruidbestrijding - gewas onkruid concurrentie - dekgewassen - plantenecologie - biologische landbouw - groenbemesters - allelopathie - secale - brassica napus - medicago sativa - oogstresten - allelochemicaliën - zaailingen - onkruidkunde - agro-ecologie - crops - weeds - weed control - crop weed competition - cover crops - plant ecology - organic farming - green manures - allelopathy - secale - brassica napus - medicago sativa - crop residues - allelochemicals - seedlings - weed science - agroecology
    Keywords: organic farming, ecologically-based weed management, cover crops, green manure, allelopathy, Secale cereale, Brassica napus, Medicago sativa

    Cover crop-based ecological weed management: exploration and optimization. In organic farming systems, weed control is recognized as one of the main production-related bottlenecks. System-oriented approaches for ecological weed management are needed and cover crops may form an important component of such an approach. Inclusion of cover crops in crop rotations introduces two important mechanisms through which the development of weed populations may be hampered. In late summer and autumn the successful introduction of cover crops can prevent growth and seed production of weeds through competition. In springtime, cover crop residues incorporated in the upper layer of the soil may suppress or retard weed development and growth due to, among others, allelopathic effects. The main focus of research was put on the weed suppressive effect of cover crop residue material in spring and particularly on identifying management options to maximize this effect. To better appreciate the potential of cover crop residue material the investigations were focused on three aspects, namely allelochemicals in the cover crop, the residence time of the residue-mediated inhibitory potential in the soil and the variability in inhibitory effects on receptor plants. The study was conducted with representatives of three plant families: Secale cereale L. (winter rye), Brassica napus L. (winter oilseed rape) and Medicago sativa L. (lucerne). Mechanical injuring of field grown cover crops enhanced the allelopathic activity per unit biomass. However, this increase was often just sufficient to compensate for loss of plant material resulting from damaging, implying the limited practical significance of damaging. Different options for pre-treatment and incorporation of cover crop residue material were compared and these were found to influence the size and persistence of an inhibitory effect on seedling emergence. Results were found to be cover crop specific. With regard to species’ sensitivity our results suggest that for inhibition of a receptor plant not just seed size is important. Only if the time course of sensitivity of the receptor plant matches with the time course of residue-mediated inhibitory potential, significant reductions in seedling establishment can be expected. In light of this, it was postulated that variation in synchronicity of receptor species’ sensitivity and potential residue effects may well explain the large degree of variation often noted in field studies of allelopathy.

    Groenbemester steeds vaker 'groene' motor voor gezonde grond
    Hoek, J. ; Korthals, G.W. - \ 2007
    Groenten en Fruit. Algemeen 43 (2007). - ISSN 0925-9694 - p. 30 - 31.
    groenbemesters - rassen (planten) - dekgewassen - gewassen - mest - bodemverbeteraars - nematodenbestrijding - plagenbestrijding - gewasbescherming - bemesting - green manures - varieties - cover crops - crops - manures - soil conditioners - nematode control - pest control - plant protection - fertilizer application
    Het onderzoek met groenbemesters neemt de laatste jaren toe. Dat heeft alles te maken met het feit dat de toelating van chemische middelen voor de bestrijding van schadelijke bodemorganismen steeds meer wordt ingeperkt én doordat de biologische landbouw toeneemt. Zo zijn veredelingsbedrijven bezig met het kweken van rassen die geen of een slechte waardplant vormen voor schadelijke aaltjes
    Grond afdekken met luchtdicht plastic bestrijdt bodempathogenen
    Lamers, J.G. ; Kalkdijk, J.R. - \ 2005 2005 (2005)15 juli.
    gewasbescherming - ziektebestrijding - dekgewassen - grondbehandeling - folie - biologische behandeling - cultuurmethoden - grondsterilisatie - aardbeien - asparagus - vollegrondsteelt - akkerbouw - plant protection - disease control - cover crops - soil treatment - foil - biological treatment - cultural methods - soil sterilization - strawberries - outdoor cropping - arable farming
    Onderzoek, gedaan in de teelt van asperges en aardbei, toont aan dat het onderwerken van groenbemesters en daarna de grond afdekken (beter bekend als biologische grondontsmetting) mogelijkheden biedt om een breed scala van ziekten in gewassen te beheersen. Toepassing van deze techniek in een akkerbouwmatig bouwplan zou veel gewasproblemen als gevolg van bodemziekten kunnen tegengaan.
    Teelthandleiding graszaad - dekvruchten
    Borm, G.E.L. - \ 2005 2005 (2005)15 juni.
    grassen - dekgewassen - zaadbehandeling - wintertarwe - zaaitijd - onkruidbestrijding - akkerbouw - rassenlijsten - bemesting - graszaden - teelthandleidingen - grasses - cover crops - seed treatment - winter wheat - sowing date - weed control - arable farming - descriptive list of varieties - fertilizer application - grass seeds - cultivation manuals
    Omdat er vóór half augustus nog vrijwel geen gewassen zijn die het veld geruimd hebben, wordt voor de zwenkgrassen en veldbeemd de groeiperiode verlengd door deze soorten onder dekvrucht uit te zaaien. Engels en Italiaans raaigras kunnen zowel na vroeg geoogste gewassen in open land in september als onder dekvrucht worden gezaaid. De bijzondere grassoorten met een beperkt areaal zoals kropaar, struisgras, beemdlangbloem en timothee kunnen eveneens zowel onder dekvrucht als voor een bepaalde datum in open land worden gezaaid. Vooral voor de langzaam groeiende soorten veldbeemd en roodzwenk is inzaaien onder dekvrucht noodzakelijk om een gewas te krijgen dat in de herfst voldoende ontwikkeld is om in het volgende jaar zaad te kunnen vormen. Daarnaast moet het ook sterk genoeg zijn om bespuitingen met onkruidbestrijdingsmiddelen te kunnen verdragen.
    Onkruidbeheersing in bouwplanverband door inzet van groenbemestingsgewassen; Be- en inwerken van gewas(resten) gericht op het voorkomen van hergroei ervan
    Molema, G.J. ; Verwijs, B.R. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Innovations (A&F rapport 618) - 30
    onkruidbestrijding - groenbemesters - dekgewassen - oogstresten - hakselen - grondbewerking - incorporatie - biologische landbouw - weed control - green manures - cover crops - crop residues - chopping - tillage - incorporation - organic farming
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