Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Water Markets: Insights from an Applied General Equilibrium Model for Extremadura, Spain
    Solis, A.F. ; Zhu, X. - \ 2015
    Water Resources Management 29 (2015)12. - ISSN 0920-4741 - p. 4335 - 4356.
    resource - benefits - quality - demand
    In Extremadura, a southwest region of Spain, water has been traditionally been seen as an abundant resource, but growing irrigation demands under a low price of about 0.01 €/m3 are outstripping the supply of raw water and competing with its other consumptive and non-consumptive uses. To deal with the water scarcity in the region, a water market can be established to achieve the highest value of water use, which ma allocate irrigation water tot he most efficient users. Hence, a Social Accounting Matrix and Water accounts (SAMWA) for 2005 is used as a central core to calibrate an Appplied General Eauilibrium (AGE) model. This model is formulated in the Negishi format which, as a welfare program, can price raw water by its marginal value. The main purpose of this paper is to obtain insights into the potential economy-wide gains from establishing a water market such that this resource is allocated efficiently. The impact of a water market policy is investigated under three scenarios. First, we simulate a decrease in the availability of raw waer in Extremadura due to climate change. Second, an investment in a more efficient irrigation techjnology is considered. Finally, we extend our AGE model by including the amenity services of water and investiate how the willingness to pay f soncumers would affect the efficient water allocation. We thus offer policy makers insights into how reginal policies could be designed under different circumstances for a better management of raw water in Extremadura.
    Price Rigidity and Industrial Concentration: Evidence from the Indonesian Food and Beverages Industry
    Setiawan, M. ; Emvalomatis, G. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2015
    Asian Economic Journal 29 (2015)1. - ISSN 1351-3958 - p. 61 - 72.
    oligopoly - demand
    This paper investigates the relationship between industrial concentration and price rigidity in the Indonesian food and beverages industry. A Cournot model of firm behavior is used in which prices adjust according to a partial adjustment mechanism. The model is applied to panel data of the Indonesian food and beverages industry over the period 1995–2006. The results suggest that industrial concentration has a positive effect on percentage price changes. Furthermore, the speed of price adjustment is higher when the per unit cost of production rises.
    Simulating Welfare Effects of Europe’s Nutrition and Health Claims regulation: the Italian Yogurt Market
    Bonanno, A. ; Huang, R. ; Liu, Y. - \ 2015
    European Review of Agricultural Economics 42 (2015)3. - ISSN 0165-1587 - p. 499 - 533.
    discrete-choice models - product differentiation - functional foods - empirical-analysis - demand - information - quality - price - probiotics - valuation
    With the enactment of Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006, 20 December 2006, ‘On nutrition and health claims made on foods’ several health claims can no longer be used on food products in European markets. We simulate the overall impact of the regulation on consumers and producers using the Italian yogurt market as a case study, and data prior to the introduction of the policy. We quantify welfare losses incurred if accepted claims were false, and simulate scenarios where rejected truthful health claims are removed, considering also the case where the products carrying them exit the market. We find that consumers can incur large welfare losses if approved claims are untruthful; if truthful claims are instead denied both consumers and producers may incur losses, with consumers being penalised more than producers.
    A control model for object virtualization in supply chain management
    Verdouw, C.N. ; Beulens, A.J.M. ; Reijers, H.A. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der - \ 2015
    Computers in Industry 68 (2015). - ISSN 0166-3615 - p. 116 - 131.
    information-systems - intelligent products - science research - design science - internet - things - life - technology - framework - demand
    Due to the emergence of the Internet of Things, supply chain control can increasingly be based on virtual objects instead of on the direct observation of physical objects. Object virtualization allows the decoupling of control activities from the handling and observing of physical products and resources. Moreover, virtual objects can be enriched with information that goes beyond human observation. This will allow for more advanced control capabilities, e.g. concerning tracking and tracing, quality monitoring and supply chain (re)planning. This paper proposes a control model for object virtualization in supply chain management, which is based on a multiple case study in the Dutch floriculture. It includes a typology of distinct mechanisms for object virtualization, which discerns reference objects and future projections next to the representation of real physical objects. The control model helps to define feasible redesign options for the virtualization of supply chain control. It is also of value as a basis to define the requirements for information systems that enable these redesign options.
    The impact of inefficiency on diversification
    Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. ; Stefanou, S.E. ; Kapelko, M. - \ 2015
    Journal of Productivity Analysis 44 (2015)2. - ISSN 0895-562X - p. 189 - 198.
    data envelopment analysis - sensitivity-analysis - inputs - dea - technologies - agriculture - efficiency - economies - outputs - demand
    Diversification is often seen as a risk management tool, but specialization allows operators to exploit scale economies in single outputs and offers specialized operators more opportunities to fine-tune their skills which can promote a greater degree of technical proficiency. Measuring economies of scope facilitates the assessment of the benefits from output diversification versus specialization for operators and provides a metric for explaining and predicting trends towards specialization or diversification. However, the current literature on economies of scope provides little insight into the potential trade-off between the benefits of diversification and the presence of inefficiency in production and decision making. To remedy this shortcoming, this paper develops a measure of an effective (or behavioral) measure of scope economies which measures the benefits of diversification accounting for the contributions of allocative, congestion and technical efficiency in scaling the perfectly efficient version of scope economies. The application focuses on measuring and explaining economies of scope on Dutch crop farms.
    Innovation grants to smallholder farmers: Revisiting the key assumptions in the impact pathways
    Ton, G. ; Klerkx, L.W.A. ; Grip, K. de; Rau, M.L. - \ 2015
    Food Policy 51 (2015). - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 9 - 23.
    driven agricultural extension - research-and-development - input subsidy programs - systematic reviews - advisory services - demand - africa - policy - participation - productivity
    Grant funds specifically targeted to smallholder farmers to facilitate innovation are a promising agricultural policy instrument. They stimulate smallholders to experiment with improved practices, and to engage with research, extension and business development services providers. However, evidence on impact and effectiveness of these grants is scarce. Partly, because attribution of changes in practices and performance to the grant alone is challenging, and the grant is often invested in innovation processes that benefitted from other support in the past. We discuss three modalities: vouchers, business development matching grants and farmer-driven innovation support funds. Our review points to an important and transversal outcome area of innovation grant systems: the creation of human and social capital to sustain creative thinking and innovative practices. Harmonising measurement on these outcomes could enhance the usefulness and comparability of impact studies and facilitate benchmarking of different policy options for smallholder innovation.
    Managing Perishables with Time and temperature History
    Ketzenberg, M. ; Bloemhof, J.M. ; Gaukler, G. - \ 2015
    Production and Operations Management 24 (2015)1. - ISSN 1059-1478 - p. 54 - 70.
    shelf-life prediction - supply chain - deteriorating inventory - ordering policies - information - products - replenishment - management - storage - demand
    We address the use and value of time and temperature information to manage perishables in the contextof a retailer that sells a random lifetime product subject to stochastic demand and lost sales. The product’s lifetime is largely determined by the temperature history and the flow time through the supply chain. We compare the case in which information on flow time and temperature history is available and used for inventory management to a base case in which such information is not available. We formulate the two cases as Markov Decision Processes and evaluate the value of information through an extensive simulation using representative, real world supply chain parameters.
    Heuristic burst detection method using flow and pressure measurements
    Bakker, M. ; Vreeburg, J.H.G. ; Roer, M. Van de; Rietveld, L.C. - \ 2014
    Journal of Hydroinformatics 16 (2014)5. - ISSN 1464-7141 - p. 1194 - 1209.
    water distribution-systems - distribution networks - leakage detection - pipe networks - management - location - support - demand
    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst detection method, which continuously compares measured and expected values of water demands and pressures. The expected values of the water demand are generated by an adaptive water demand forecasting model, and the expected values of the pressures are generated by a dynamic pressure drop - demand relation estimator. The method was tested off-line on a historic dataset of 5 years of water flow and pressure data in three supply areas (with 650, 11,180 and 130,920 connections) in the western part of the Netherlands. In the period 274 bursts were reported of which, based on the definition we propose in this paper, 38 were considered as relatively larger bursts. The method was able to detect 50, 25.9 and 7.8% in the considered areas related to all bursts, and around 80% in all three areas related to the subset of relatively larger bursts. The method generated false alarms on 3% of the evaluated days on average.
    Synthese monitoring mestmarkt 2006-2012
    Koeijer, T.J. de; Luesink, H.H. ; Daatselaar, C.H.G. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 18)
    dierlijke meststoffen - markten - monitoring - landbouwtellingen - schattingen - aanbod - vraag - kosten - landbouw - nederland - animal manures - markets - monitoring - agricultural censuses - estimates - supply - demand - costs - agriculture - netherlands
    De aanvoer en afzet van dierlijke mest via de mestmarkt in Nederland zijn op verzoek van het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) voor de periode 2006-2012 in beeld gebracht. Dit is gedaan op basis van analyses van de Vervoersbewijzen Dierlijke Mest (VDM’s) van RVO.nl (Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland) en op basis van modelberekeningen met MAMBO. Dit WOt-technical report geeft een synthese van de resultaten. Op basis van vergelijkbare meststromen is het aanbod op basis van de VDM’s 73 mln. kg fosfaat. Op basis van modelberekeningen is dit aanbod 74 mln. kg fosfaat. De afzet naar landbouwbedrijven vormt met 40% de belangrijkste afzetpost op de VDM’s. De overige afzetposten op de VDM’s zijn export (28%), verwerking (28%), particulieren (3%) en overige bestemmingen (1%)
    Knowledge gaps and research needs concerning agroforestry's contribution to sustainable development goals in Africa
    Mbow, C. ; Noordwijk, M. van; Prabhu, R. ; Simons, A.J. - \ 2014
    Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 6 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 162 - 170.
    climate-change - agriculture - systems - food - intensification - demand
    This review addresses the role of agroforestry in the links between food security and agricultural sustainability in Africa. We illustrate that the products and services flowing from the integration of trees within farming systems can contribute to food security, farmer livelihoods and environmental resilience. However, for agroforestry to be adopted it should not be constrained by policies which hinder the integration of trees, with crops and livestock. This policy scenario can best be met when the governance of food production at local to global scales is multi-sectoral and based on a ‘Systems Approach’. Nevertheless, the adoption of agroforestry has recently been greatly supported by the international agenda on the mitigation of climate change and to achieve sustainable food production. In conclusion we pose the hypothesis that “Agroforestry concepts and practices can form an effective, efficient and fair pathway towards the achievement of many Sustainable Development Goals”, and discuss the main messages and research questions emerging from the papers presented in this special issue.
    Weather Effects on Maize Yields in Northern China
    Sun, Baojing ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2014
    The Journal of Agricultural Science 152 (2014)4. - ISSN 0021-8596 - p. 523 - 533.
    temperature - climate - demand
    In the present study, the effect of weather on maize yields in northern China was examined using data from 10 districts in Inner Mongolia and two in Shaanxi province. A regression model with a flexible functional form was specified on the basis of agronomic considerations. Explanatory variables included in the model were seasonal growing degree days, precipitation, technological change (e.g. adoption of new crop varieties, improved equipment, better management, etc.) and dummy variables to account for regional fixed effects. Results indicated that a fractional polynomial model in growing degree days could explain variability in maize yields better than a linear or quadratic model. Growing degree days, precipitation in July, August and September, and technological changes were important determinants of maize yields. The results could be used to predict potential maize yields under future climate change scenarios, to construct financial weather products and for policy makers to incentivize technological changes and construction of infrastructure (e.g. irrigation works) that facilitate adaptation to climate change in the agricultural sector.
    Determinants of parasitic weed infestation in rainfed lowland rice in Benin
    N'cho, A.S. ; Mourits, M.C.M. ; Rodenburg, J. ; Demont, M. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2014
    Agricultural Systems 130 (2014). - ISSN 0308-521X - p. 105 - 115.
    sub-saharan africa - rhamphicarpa-fistulosa - striga-hermonthica - farming systems - management - selection - scrophulariaceae - specification - demand - model
    The parasitic weed Rhamphicarpa fistulosa is threatening rainfed lowland rice production in Benin. The aim of this study was to explore factors (such as biophysical characters of the rice growing environment, farmers’ management practices, and socioeconomic characteristics) that affect the infestation of rainfed lowland rice fields by R. fistulosa and farmers’ ability to cope with the problem. Data were collected from 231 rice plots located in 12 inland valleys infested by Rhamphicarpa in Benin. Data were analyzed using a double hurdle model, which analyses both the likelihood (of occurrence) and the severity of infestation. Results showed that 72% of the surveyed rice plots were infested by R. fistulosa and the average severity was 109 plants m-2. The likelihood of infestation was higher on poorly fertile soils and fields located in the inland-valley bottom, and it decreases through timely use of herbicides and ploughing. Severity of infestation was higher on rice plots cultivated by female-headed households farmers and reduced through management practices such as late sowing, timely application of post-emergence herbicide, three hoe or hand weeding operations, medium-rate fertilizer application and prolonged fallow. Likelihood and severity of infestation were found to be negatively correlated. These findings suggest that farmers can reduce the likelihood and the severity of infestation of their plot as long as they are aware of factors causing the problem given their access to and management capacity of production resources.
    Producing Woodfuel for Urban Centers in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Path Out of Poverty for Rural Households?
    Schure, J.M. ; Levang, P. ; Wiersum, K.F. - \ 2014
    World Development 64 (2014)suppl.1. - ISSN 0305-750X - p. S80 - S90.
    timber forest products - tropical forests - south-africa - charcoal - livelihoods - alleviation - conservation - biomass - demand - amazon
    Woodfuel is a renewable energy source with good potential for climate change mitigation. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the sector employs over 300,000 people for the supply of Kinshasa alone, but the benefits to the poor are often unknown. This paper analyzes the contribution of commercial woodfuel production to livelihoods and poverty reduction in the DRC. Woodfuel revenues, especially those of charcoal, contribute substantially to producers’ household income, ranging from 12% for fuelwood producers around Kisangani to 75% for charcoal producers around Kinshasa. It supports basic needs and investments in other livelihood activities (for 82% of charcoal producers and 65% of fuelwood producers), which helps to reduce poverty. The contribution of woodfuel commercialization to poverty reduction should be part of energy and forestry policies.
    Agriculture and climate change in global scenarios: why don't the models agree
    Nelson, G.C. ; Mensbrugghe, D. van der; Ahammad, H. ; Blanc, E. ; Calvin, K. ; Hasegawa, T. ; Havlik, P. ; Heyhoe, E. ; Kyle, P. ; Lotze-Campen, H. ; Lampe, M. von; Mason d'Croz, D. ; Meijl, H. van; Müller, C. ; Reilly, J. ; Robertson, R. ; Sands, R.D. ; Schmitz, C. ; Tabeau, A.A. ; Takahashi, K. ; Valin, H. ; Willenbockel, D. - \ 2014
    Agricultural Economics 45 (2014)1. - ISSN 0169-5150 - p. 85 - 101.
    system model - demand - cmip5
    Agriculture is unique among economic sectors in the nature of impacts from climate change. The production activity that transforms inputs into agricultural outputs involves direct use of weather inputs (temperature, solar radiation available to the plant, and precipitation). Previous studies of the impacts of climate change on agriculture have reported substantial differences in outcomes such as prices, production, and trade arising from differences in model inputs and model specification. This article presents climate change results and underlying determinants from a model comparison exercise with 10 of the leading global economic models that include significant representation of agriculture. By harmonizing key drivers that include climate change effects, differences in model outcomes were reduced. The particular choice of climate change drivers for this comparison activity results in large and negative productivity effects. All models respond with higher prices. Producer behavior differs by model with some emphasizing area response and others yield response. Demand response is least important. The differences reflect both differences in model specification and perspectives on the future. The results from this study highlight the need to more fully compare the deep model parameters, to generate a call for a combination of econometric and validation studies to narrow the degree of uncertainty and variability in these parameters and to move to Monte Carlo type simulations to better map the contours of economic uncertainty.
    What determines ingredient awareness of consumers? A study on ten functional food ingredients
    Bornkessel, S. ; Bröring, S. ; Omta, S.W.F. ; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2014
    Food Quality and Preference 32 (2014)Part C. - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 330 - 339.
    nutrition knowledge - perception - association - behavior - demand - labels
    Given the importance of consumer awareness of functional food ingredients for healthy food choices, the aim of this study is to explore consumers’ ingredient awareness and the determinants which influence the awareness about functional food ingredients. A sample of 200 German consumers was interviewed via CATI (computer aided telephone interview) during September 2011. The participants have been asked about their specific awareness regarding to ten functional food ingredients. Likewise, determinants like health status and health motivation have been assessed and their influence on the construct “consumers’ ingredient awareness” has been tested by employing structural equation modeling. The study shows that consumers’ ingredient awareness varies throughout the sample. Overall it can be stated, that 19% of consumer awareness about functional food ingredients is explained through the described model based on the following predictors: age, educational level, health status, health motivation and information strategies. Among these factors, consumers’ health motivation seems to have the highest relevance to explain consumer awareness. But also the determinants information strategies as well as the education show a significant influence on consumers’ ingredient awareness. As health motivation shows the highest impact on consumers’ ingredient awareness this study underlines the importance of prevention propensity for healthy food choices.
    Evaluating the potential of improving residential water balance at building scale
    Agudelo Vera, C.M. ; Keesman, K.J. ; Mels, A.R. ; Rijnaarts, H. - \ 2013
    Water Research 47 (2013)20. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 7287 - 7299.
    watervoorziening - zelfvoorziening - nieuwe sanitatie - watergebruik - vraag - huishoudens - woonwijken - stedelijke gebieden - hydrologische cyclus - duurzame ontwikkeling - regenwateropvang - hergebruik van water - water supply - self sufficiency - new sanitation - water use - demand - households - residential areas - urban areas - hydrological cycle - sustainable development - water harvesting - water reuse - waste-water - rainwater
    Earlier results indicated that, for an average household, self-sufficiency inwater supply can be achieved by following the Urban harvest Approach (UHA), in a combination of demand minimization, cascading and multi-sourcing. To achieve these results, it was assumed that all available local resources can be harvested. In reality, however, temporal, spatial and locationbound factors pose limitations to this harvest and, thus, to self-sufficiency. This article investigates potential spatial and temporal limitations to harvest local water resources at building level for the Netherlands, with a focus on indoor demand. Two building types were studied, a free standing house (one four-people household) and a mid-rise apartment flat (28 two-person households). To be able tomodel yearlywater balances, daily patterns considering household occupancy and presence ofwater using applianceswere defined per building type. Three strategies were defined. The strategies include demand minimization, light grey water (LGW) recycling,andrainwaterharvesting(multi-sourcing).Recyclingandmulti-sourcingcater for toilet flushing and laundrymachine. Results showed thatwater saving devicesmay reduce 30% of the conventional demand. Recycling of LGWcan supply 100% of second quality water (DQ2)whichrepresents36%of theconventionaldemandorupto20%of theminimizeddemand. Rainwater harvestingmay supply approximately 80%of theminimized demand in case of the apartmentflat and 60%in case of the free standinghouse.Toharvest these potentials, different system specifications, related to the household type, are required. Two constraints to recycle and multi-source were identified, namely i) limitations in the grey water production and availablerainfall;andii) thepotential toharvestwaterasdeterminedbythe temporalpatternin water availability, water use, and storage and treatment capacities.
    Virtualisation of floricultural supply chains: A review from an Internet of Things perspective
    Verdouw, C.N. ; Beulens, A.J.M. ; Vorst, J.G.A.J. van der - \ 2013
    Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 99 (2013)1. - ISSN 0168-1699 - p. 160 - 175.
    augmented reality - information - management - virtualization - technology - challenges - dimensions - product - demand
    Supply chains are increasingly virtualised in response to market challenges and to opportunities offered by nowadays affordable new technologies. Virtual supply chain management does no longer require physical proximity, which implies that control and coordination can take place in other locations and by other partners. This paper assesses how the Internet of Things concept can be used to enhance virtualisation of supply chains in the floricultural sector. Virtualisation is expected to have a big impact in this sector where currently still most products physically pass through auction houses on their fixed routes from (inter)national growers to (inter)national customers. The paper defines the concept of virtualisation and describes different perspectives on virtualisation in literature, i.e. the organisational, team, information technology, virtual reality and virtual things perspectives. Subsequently it develops a conceptual framework for analysis of virtualisation in supply chains. This framework is applied in the Dutch floriculture to investigate the existing situation and to define future challenges for virtualisation in this sector
    Yield Gap analysis - Rationale, methods and applications - Introduction to the Special Issue
    Ittersum, M.K. van; Cassman, K.G. - \ 2013
    Field Crops Research 143 (2013). - ISSN 0378-4290 - p. 1 - 3.
    quality - demand
    Yield gap analysis is an increasingly popular concept. It is a powerful method to reveal and understand the biophysical opportunities to meet the projected increase in demand for agricultural products towards 2050, and to support decision making on research, policies, development and investment that is needed. This Special Issue presents the state-of-the-art about concepts, methods and applications of yield gap analysis. The methodological papers emphasize the need for agronomically sound and relevant analyses, from local to global scales. The fourteen papers provide examples of applications to different crops, climate zones and production conditions, at various spatial extents and with different approaches and data availability. The overall goal of this Special Issue is to provide the scientific foundation for improvement and interpretation of yield gap analyses.
    The Emerging Geopolitics of Food: A Strategic Response to Supply Risks of Critical Imports for the Dutch Agro-Food Sector
    Ridder, M. de; Jong, S. de; Selleslaghs, J. ; Achterbosch, T.J. ; Jongeneel, R.A. ; Berkhout, P. ; Heide, M. van der - \ 2013
    The Hague : The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies (HCSS) & LEI, WUR (Rapport 19 | 02 | 13) - ISBN 9789491040764 - 70
    voedsel - landbouwproducten - ruwe grondstoffen - vraag - overheidsbeleid - voedselzekerheid - handelspolitiek - internationale economie - politieke conflicten - risicobeheersing - strategisch management - food - agricultural products - raw materials - demand - government policy - food security - trade policy - international economy - political conflicts - risk management - strategic management
    Interdependencies in the field of food, agriculture, and raw materials are growing. Global population growth, rising prosperity, and changing consumption patterns in emerging economies have increased the demand for all three. Geopolitical trends shape global markets for food, agriculture, and raw materials and carry consequences for the Dutch agro-food sector. Critical sectors of the Dutch agricultural complex are dependent on imported raw materials from the rest of the world and are therefore vulnerable to supply disruptions resulting from geopolitical developments. This report explores how the Dutch government could strengthen the resilience of the Dutch agro-food system and mitigate risks to the supply of critical raw material imports.
    Sustainability effects of household-scale biogas in rural China
    Gosens, J. ; Lu Yonglong, ; He Guizhen, ; Bluemling, B. ; Beckers, T.A.M. - \ 2013
    Energy Policy 54 (2013). - ISSN 0301-4215 - p. 273 - 287.
    indoor air-pollution - energy-consumption - fuel use - developing-countries - jiangxi province - developing-world - cooking fuels - digesters - areas - demand
    Households in rural China rely heavily on low quality fuels which results in reduced quality of life and environmental degradation. This study assesses the comparative contribution of household scale biogas installations to the broad set of sustainability objectives in the Chinese biogas policy framework, which targets household budget, fuel collection workload, forest degradation, indoor air quality and health, renewable energy supply, and climate change. A household survey was used to determine how biogas affected consumption levels of crop residues, fuel wood, coal, LPG, and electricity. Biogas users were found to reduce consumption of biomass fuels but not coal. Although LPG is not a highly commonly used fuel in rural China, biogas users nearly cease to use it altogether. A big reduction in fuel wood consumption results in strongly reduced workload and forest degradation. Although household scale biogas has alleviated all sustainability issues targeted by Chinese policies, low quality fuel use remains abundant, even in households using biogas. Continued promotion of the construction of biogas installations is advisable, but additional policies are needed to ensure higher quality heating energy supply and cleaner uses of biomass fuels.
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