Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Political Consumerism: Research Challenges and Future Directions
    Boström, Magnus ; Micheletti, Michele ; Oosterveer, P.J.M. - \ 2018
    In: The Oxford Handbook of Political Consumerism / Boström, Magnus, Micheletti, Michele, Oosterveer, Peter, Oxford University Press - ISBN 9780190629038
    political consumerism - consumer research design - industry sectors - hybridization - supply and demand - infrastructure - moral dilemmas - democracy - religion - nationalism - research design
    This chapter highlights The Oxford Handbook of Political Consumerism’s most interesting findings and identifies major characteristics and conceptual/methodological topics for advancing research on the phenomenon of political consumerism. It emphasizes how scholars study the phenomenon’s multidimensionality in a more fragmented context and explains differences in the forms and spread of political consumerism across industry sectors. The wide diversity in the forms and spread of political consumerism across countries and regions is related to political and cultural traditions, levels of economic development, and the role of social media. The Handbook also puts stress on how all four forms of political consumerism are involved in democratically problematic types of political consumerism. Political consumerism’s effectiveness is evaluated from several perspectives along with a recommendation for further study of input, output, and outcome aspects. The chapter encourages new studies on undemocratic types of political consumerism as well as investigations into the absence of political consumerism in certain countries and industry sectors. All this requires innovative methodology, new theoretical conceptualization, and cross-disciplinary work.” through innovative methodology, conceptualization, and cross-disciplinary work.
    Pionieren : Jaarmagazine over het DEMOCRATISCH samenspel van groene burgerinitiatieven en overheden
    Salverda, I.E. ; Kruit, J. ; Kuijper, Florien ; Koffijberg, M. ; Neefjes, M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Pionieren ) - 39
    natuur - openbaar groen - stedelijke gebieden - burgers - participatie - innovaties - vergroening - democratie - nederland - nature - public green areas - urban areas - citizens - participation - innovations - greening - democracy - netherlands
    Bonding by doing : the dynamics of self-organizing groups of citizens taking charge of their living environment
    Dam, R.I. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Katrien Termeer; Andre van der Zande. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578975 - 188
    citizens - groups - public authorities - public domain - living conditions - social participation - democracy - governance - case studies - society - burgers - groepen - overheid - overheidsdomein - levensomstandigheden - sociale participatie - democratie - governance - gevalsanalyse - samenleving

    This thesis is about groups of citizens following their ideals and taking charge of their living environment. The research set out to investigate the practice of citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities, seen as groups of people who organize themselves, take action in the public domain, create public values and organize and manage their social, cultural and green living environment. The topicality of the concept of citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities—from empirical, normative and scientific perspectives—sparked an interest in investigating their actual practice: people’s reasons for getting involved, the meaning they assign to place and what people mean for places, the activities and the strategies, the (informal) organization, how the initiatives develop and the relations they entail. Besides investigating how citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities develop and achieve things, the research examines the implications for governance processes, and the role and approach of citizens and government organizations in these processes. A micro-perspective is used to focus on analysing how citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities act on the road from ideal to realization. Moreover, the practice of groups of citizens taking charge of their living environment is approached here from a relational perspective, focussing on questions around bonding processes and interaction, and the dynamics that come with them. As a consequence, the research questions are: (1) how do the dynamics within and between groups of people taking charge of their living environment and their surroundings manifest themselves? and (2) how do groups of people taking charge of their living environment affect governance processes and vice versa?

    In this thesis, an interpretive research approach was chosen, based on case studies and the principles of openness and heterogeneity. The interpretive research approach made it possible to start with a general interest in the development of groups of people taking charge of their living environment and from there to delve deeper into the aspects that seemed relevant. Importantly, particularly given that this study focuses on people’s approaches and activities, this approach views the social as constructed in the intertwinement of action and meaning; it also values various ways in which meaning arises, including informal and less rational approaches and values. In total, seventeen cases of citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities are studied. Of these seventeen, one case is studied in great depth and at various points in time, another seven in moderate depth and nine cases are studied at a broader, more illustrative and exploratory level. The data was collected through a combination of interviews, casual conversations, participatory observation, non-participatory observation and learning network meetings, as well as a study of secondary material. The qualitative analysis took place in iterative phases in which several analytical concepts were applied. Triangulation was ensured by using a variety of methods and theories. The findings are presented in five empirical chapters (Chapters 2 to 6 of this thesis).

    Chapter 2 describes a study in which the transition in societal organization from a heavy reliance on the state to self-organization is examined by analysing two self-organizing communities. The case studies of the ADM squatter community [Amsterdamse Doe-het-Zelf Maatschappij - Amsterdam do-it-yourself company] and the Golfresidence Dronten show how these communities of self-organizing citizens created their own residential arrangements and took the initiative in developing a unique spatial environment. The role self-organization plays differs depending on how the communities were established and the inhabitants’ motivations. There are also differences in the physical appearance of the two communities and the communities’ organization and rules. Although quite different self-organizing communities, both are manifestations of alternative living arrangements, both socially and spatially, and address the differences in citizens’ needs concerning living arrangements in society in general. As such, concluding remarks concern the value of and need for heterogeneity.

    Chapter 3 presents an analysis of the social and spatial bonding processes affecting a squatter community who lived at Fort Pannerden for about seven years. Besides describing the relation between the squatters and the fort, the chapter analyses the influence of the squatters’ actions on the development of the fort and on the local community and local governmental organizations in terms of social and spatial bonding processes. It shows how a non-institutional actor—a squatter community—was able to breathe new life into a national monument that had been abandoned for several decades, reconnecting a cultural heritage site to society and vice versa.

    Chapter 4 analyses the citizens’ initiatives Natural Area Grasweg and Collective Farmers of Essen and Aa’s in terms of their evolution, their organization and the strategies adopted. Strategies are understood as something people do, rather than something organizations and firms have. Natural Area Grasweg chose a formal approach for the organization of their initiative, adjusting it to institutional settings. For Collective Farmers of Essen and Aa’s, by contrast, it is an explicit goal to get local residents involved, fostering a sense of community and collectively improving the cultural historical landscape. Both cases are viewed here as the contingent product of a self-transforming organization, and a way of relating its internal processes to the outside world. The chapter analyses the ability of citizens’ initiatives to adapt and to mobilize, which makes them a powerful and relevant development in the governance area.

    Chapter 5 focusses on the mutually activated process of subjectification in citizens’ initiatives. Analysing the citizens’ initiatives Lingewaard Natural, Border Experience Enschede and Residents’ Association and Action Committee Horstermeerpolder, it is argued that the discourses produced by governmental organizations on what it entails to be an active citizen have a performative effect on citizens’ initiatives, which adapt themselves, anticipate what is expected of them and act strategically with respect to these discourses.

    Chapter 6 presents an exploratory study of the citizens’ initiatives Sustainable Soester quarter, Caetshage City Farm, Emma’s Court, Power of Utrecht, Beautiful Wageningen, Ecopeace, As We Speak, Canal Park Leiden and Harderwijk Steiner School Natural Playground. The study shows how the participatory society and information society come together at the community level. Regarding the role of information in how citizens’ initiatives operate and develop, it is concluded that informational capital is fundamental to the realization of citizens’ initiatives, that there is a dynamic between social capital, human capital and informational capital and that informational capital is generated, identified, used and enlarged through the relational strategies of bonding, bridging and linking. It is a process which works both ways and reinforces citizens’ initiatives.

    Chapter 7 synthesizes the outcomes of the five chapters and provides an answer to the research questions. The research revealed four sets of dynamics in and between groups of people taking charge of their living environment. Firstly, there are the dynamics of the drivers causing citizens to take charge of their living environment. Citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities are triggered by an interplay of drivers that originate on the one hand in the citizens’ ideals and their intrinsic will to do something, and on the other hand in dissatisfaction with the current situation, whether locally, at the policy level or at a broader societal level. They often choose subjects close to their everyday lives but with a broader societal component. As a consequence, the interplay between public interest and self-interest is another important driver in how and why citizens’ initiatives and self-organizing communities operate. Secondly, in the operation, development and realization of groups of self-organizing citizens, there is a dynamic relationship between social capital, human capital and informational capital. These forms of capital can be seen as ‘resources’ that ‘feed’ the communities and initiatives. Social, human and informational capital are forms of capital related to a changing society in which citizens play a vital role in creating public values and where other, less tangible, forms of capital become important. The various forms of capital interact and can reinforce each other, contributing to the development of the initiatives. The third set of dynamics concerns the dynamics of the relational strategies of bonding, bridging and linking. Using the interrelated relational strategies, groups of people taking charge of their living environment connect with different actors, both institutional and non-institutional, at different times and levels of intensity. By establishing connections with others, citizens’ initiatives embed themselves in society. They interact with others, using and at the same time growing their social, human and informational capital. Fourthly, the dynamics between social and spatial bonding are revealed in groups of people taking charge of their living environment. Place turned out to be more than the context; often it is also part of the objective. The citizens in the initiatives connected with a place and thought and behaved in a certain way, but they also enabled others to connect (or reconnect) with a place and to think and act in a certain way in relation to the place. So these citizens mobilize and connect people. When groups of people take charge of their living environment, we clearly see that social bonding processes (bonding, bridging and linking) and spatial bonding processes (cognitive, affective and conative) are inextricably intertwined: they interact with, influence and reinforce one another. This can be symbolized by the double helix, two DNA strings twisted around each other.

    Furthermore, the interaction in governance processes was dealt with by summarizing the patterns and mechanisms found in the interaction between self-organizing citizens and others, particularly between citizens and governmental organizations. A pattern was analysed in how the internal process of groups of citizens taking charge of their living environment relates to the outside world. In this process of self-transformation, the identity of a citizens’ initiative—seen broadly as how they define themselves and how they operate—is influenced by their interpretations of the immediate and relevant outside world, which in turn shapes their strategies. In this process of self-transformation, specifically in relation to governmental organizations, citizens’ initiatives tend to internalize the assumptions about what is considered important to the relevant governmental institutions, which often leads to them pursuing formal strategies and adopting a formal identity. The case studies showed that government officials often only tend to like those citizens’ initiatives that they can relate to, in terms of both content and form. Citizens’ initiatives that have other objectives, take a different course of action, have a different form or express a different opinion are often bullied or treated as irrelevant. This governmental dominancy is influenced in turn by the way citizens’ initiatives act and position themselves with respect to governmental organizations. They adapt, anticipate and act strategically with regard to their images of governmental organizations and their interpretations of these organizations’ wishes. In other words, they apply the techniques of adaptation, anticipation and framing themselves constructively. So in the practice of Dutch citizens’ initiatives, the initiators are both made subject and subject themselves to governmental organizations. The initiators can be labelled as obedient and submissive, but also as smart and strategic. This leads to the conclusion that there is teamwork going on between citizens and governmental organizations, in which there is a mutual reproduction of government thinking.

    Assuming we want to move towards a more citizen-driven society, this thesis reveals that there is indeed a great deal of potential in citizens. Reflecting further on new practices, one can say both citizens and governmental institutions need to learn and to take the next step. There is a need for an interplay of forces in which all actors contribute in their own way to the joint creation of public values. Although the development of self-organization is also taking place on the continuum between citizens and the market, as well as in a variety of different combinations of these players, one can say that the way to go forward, specifically in the relationship between citizens and government, is to aim for an interplay in which ‘learning by doing’ is followed by ‘bonding by doing’. To conclude, groups of people taking charge of their living environment (or something else) is an expression of an informal and participatory democracy that is giving shape to democratic values. This ‘do-ocracy’ is not just an alternative but can also be a complementary form of democracy that meets a need related to democratic values. Democracy can be seen as an ongoing process which needs working on.

    Regional restrictions on environmental impact assessment approval in China: the legitimacy of environmental authoritarianism
    Zhu, X. ; Zhang, L. ; Ran, R. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2015
    Journal of Cleaner Production 92 (2015). - ISSN 0959-6526 - p. 100 - 108.
    public-participation - politics - implementation - management - democracy - power - law
    The poor enforcement and effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) on construction and investment projects in China has long been blamed for not preventing environmental pollution and degradation. At the same time, freezing EIA approval of all new projects in an administrative region, introduced in 2006 as a punishment for failing to meet regional environmental quality targets, has been regarded as an innovative administrative instrument used by higher level environmental authorities on local governments. But it also raised controversies. Applying an environmental authoritarianism perspective, this study analyzed the legitimacy and environmental effectiveness of freezing EIA approval procedures by reviewing all 25 national cases and 12 provincial cases of so-called EIA Restrictions Targeting Regions between 1 December 2006 and 31 December 2013. The results show that such an environmental authoritarian measure is to some extent environmentally effective but lacks legality and transparency towards and participation of third parties, and hence falls short in legitimacy. Legal foundations and wider third party participation are essential for the long term effectiveness of this policy and its transfer to other countries.
    Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
    Wang, H. ; Liddell, C.A. ; Coates, M. ; Mooney, M.D. ; Levitz, C.E. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2014
    The Lancet 384 (2014)9947. - ISSN 0140-6736 - p. 957 - 979.
    millennium development goals - child-mortality - maternal education - developing-countries - income countries - health - democracy - coverage - survival - trends
    Background Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of reduction of child mortality by two thirds from 1990 to 2015, and to identify models of success. Methods We generated updated estimates of child mortality in early neonatal (age 0–6 days), late neonatal (7–28 days), postneonatal (29–364 days), childhood (1–4 years), and under-5 (0–4 years) age groups for 188 countries from 1970 to 2013, with more than 29¿000 survey, census, vital registration, and sample registration datapoints. We used Gaussian process regression with adjustments for bias and non-sampling error to synthesise the data for under-5 mortality for each country, and a separate model to estimate mortality for more detailed age groups. We used explanatory mixed effects regression models to assess the association between under-5 mortality and income per person, maternal education, HIV child death rates, secular shifts, and other factors. To quantify the contribution of these different factors and birth numbers to the change in numbers of deaths in under-5 age groups from 1990 to 2013, we used Shapley decomposition. We used estimated rates of change between 2000 and 2013 to construct under-5 mortality rate scenarios out to 2030. Findings We estimated that 6·3 million (95% UI 6·0–6·6) children under-5 died in 2013, a 64% reduction from 17·6 million (17·1–18·1) in 1970. In 2013, child mortality rates ranged from 152·5 per 1000 livebirths (130·6–177·4) in Guinea-Bissau to 2·3 (1·8–2·9) per 1000 in Singapore. The annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2013 ranged from -6·8% to 0·1%. 99 of 188 countries, including 43 of 48 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, had faster decreases in child mortality during 2000–13 than during 1990–2000. In 2013, neonatal deaths accounted for 41·6% of under-5 deaths compared with 37·4% in 1990. Compared with 1990, in 2013, rising numbers of births, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, led to 1·4 million more child deaths, and rising income per person and maternal education led to 0·9 million and 2·2 million fewer deaths, respectively. Changes in secular trends led to 4·2 million fewer deaths. Unexplained factors accounted for only -1% of the change in child deaths. In 30 developing countries, decreases since 2000 have been faster than predicted attributable to income, education, and secular shift alone. Interpretation Only 27 developing countries are expected to achieve MDG 4. Decreases since 2000 in under-5 mortality rates are accelerating in many developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The Millennium Declaration and increased development assistance for health might have been a factor in faster decreases in some developing countries. Without further accelerated progress, many countries in west and central Africa will still have high levels of under-5 mortality in 2030.
    Political regime and human capital: A cross-country analysis
    Klomp, J.G. ; Haan, J. de - \ 2013
    Social Indicators Research 111 (2013)1. - ISSN 0303-8300 - p. 45 - 73.
    economic-growth - democracy - education - institutions - database
    We examine the relationship between different dimensions of the political regime in place and human capital using a two-step structural equation model. In the first step, we employ factor analysis on 16 human capital indicators to construct two new human capital measures (basic and advanced human capital). In the second step, we estimate the impact of our political variables on human capital, using a cross-sectional structural model for some 100 countries. We conclude that democracy is positively related to basic human capital, while regime instability has a negative link with basic human capital. Governance has a positive relationship with advanced human capital, while government instability has a negative link with advanced human capital. Finally, we also find an indirect positive effect of governance and democracy on both types of human capital through their effect on income.
    Doen : nieuwe vormen van democratie
    Specker, J. ; Hindriks, M. ; Wessel, M.G.J. van - \ 2013
    Den Haag : Hivos - 89
    democratie - burgers - overheid - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - participatie - democracy - citizens - public authorities - relations between people and state - participation
    Dit boek gaat in op vragen over de relatie tussen burgers en overheid en hoe opkomende burgerinitiatieven een rol spelen in representatieve democratie.
    Legitimacy in an era of fragmentation: the case of global climate governance
    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E. ; McGee, J. - \ 2013
    Global Environmental Politics 13 (2013)3. - ISSN 1526-3800 - p. 56 - 78.
    civil-society - framework - accountability - democracy - law
    Studies grounded in regime theory have examined the effectiveness of “minilateral” climate change forums that have emerged outside of the UN climate process. However, there are no detailed studies of the legitimacy of these forums or of the impacts of their legitimacy on effectiveness and governance potential. Adopting the lens of legitimacy, we analyze the reasons for the formation of minilateral climate change forums and their recent role in global climate governance. We use Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen and Vihma's analytical framework for international institutions to examine three minilateral climate forums: the Asia-Pacific Partnership, the Major Economies Meetings, and the G8 climate process. These forums have significant deficits in their source-based, process-based, and outcome-based legitimacy, particularly when compared to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. If assessed purely on grounds of effectiveness, the minilateral forums might be easily dismissed as peripheral to the UN climate process. However, they play important roles by providing sites for powerful countries to shape the assumptions and expectations of global climate governance. Thus, the observed institutional fragmentation allows key states to use minilateral forums to shape the architecture of global climate governance.
    Advancing the deliberative turn in natural resource management: An analysis of discourses on the use of local resources
    Rodela, R. - \ 2012
    Journal of Environmental Management 96 (2012)1. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 26 - 34.
    public-participation - citizen participation - impact assessment - democracy - slovenia - policy - power
    The natural resource management literature stresses the need for public participation and community involvement in resource management and planning. Recently, some of this literature turned to the theory on deliberative democracy and demonstrated that a deliberative perspective on participation can help to challenge established practices and contribute with new ideas about how to conduct participation. The purpose of this paper is to consider the latest developments in deliberative democracy and outline the implications arising from these insights for a "deliberative turn" in resource management. A bottom-up protected area establishment, the Goricko Landscape Park, is examined. The empirical case is discussed from a discursive perspective, which relied on John Dryzek's approach to discourse analysis here used to explore the construction of discourses on the use of local natural resources. Two discourses are identified and the way these interfaced with the participatory park establishment process is considered. Findings indicate that advocates of the two discourses engaged differently with the participatory tools used and this had important implications for the park establishment. The case study suggests that, in contexts where participation has been recently introduced, knowledge of discourses on the use of local natural resources and of mobilization strategies actors may pursue could usefully assist in the design and implementation of participatory processes.
    The politics of democratic governance : the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the Netherlands
    Behagel, J.H. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Esther Turnhout. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734488 - 223
    kaderrichtlijn water - governance - politieke processen - democratie - besluitvorming - participatie - bestuurskunde - nederland - water framework directive - governance - political processes - democracy - decision making - participation - public administration - netherlands - cum laude
    cum laude graduation (with distinction)
    Industrial Wage Inequality in Latin America in Global Perspective, 1900-2000
    Frankema, E.H.P. - \ 2012
    Studies in Comparative International Development 47 (2012)1. - ISSN 0039-3606 - p. 47 - 74.
    income-distribution - technological-change - labor - argentina - education - brazil - trade - world - productivity - democracy
    Standard economic theories of wage inequality focus on the factor-biased nature of technological change and globalization. This paper examines the long-run development of industrial wage inequality in Latin America from a global comparative perspective. We find that wage inequality was comparatively modest during the first half of the twentieth century, but rising much faster during the post-war era than in other industrial countries. In-depth analyses of wage inequality trends in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile confirm this pattern, but also reveal notable country peculiarities. In Argentina and Chile, trend breaks coincided with large political–institutional shocks while in Brazil, wage inequality increased unabated under the wage regulation policies of successive post-war administrations. We argue that without taking national policies with respect to education and the labor market into account, economic theory cannot explain “Latin American” patterns of wage inequality.
    Democratizing Water Governance from the Grassroots: The Development of Interjuntas-Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes
    Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2012
    Human Organization 71 (2012)1. - ISSN 0018-7259 - p. 76 - 86.
    river-basin management - indigenous movements - latin-america - south-africa - politics - mexico - democracy - rights - organizations - model
    Making water management more democratic through the participation of water users, while crucially including the poor, has often proven elusive in practice. Through an in-depth case study, this article analyzes how the provincial water users federation Interjuntas-Chimborazo was consolidated in the Ecuadorian Andes. The case illustrates the critical role external actors can play in the consolidation of federative organizations through methodological design, facilitation, and financial and logistical support to local societal actors. In turn, such federations can effectively promote social democracy. As a new societal actor, the federation Interjuntas-Chimborazo now struggles for voice, representation, and inclusion of the marginalized water users. They participate in formal state-dominated institutional arrangements of stakeholder participation. Yet, more importantly, they also push their claims by tilting established power relations through other means such as protests, mobilizations, lobbying, and negotiations. The development of this federation brings to the fore important lessons on federative organizations, the role of external actors, and participation in water governance
    Democratic Legitimacy in the Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the Netherlands: Towards Participatory and Deliberative Norms?
    Behagel, J.H. ; Turnhout, E. - \ 2011
    Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning 13 (2011)3. - ISSN 1523-908X - p. 297 - 316.
    waterkwaliteit - kaderrichtlijn water - democratie - governance - participatie - eu regelingen - nederland - politieke processen - water quality - water framework directive - democracy - governance - participation - eu regulations - netherlands - political processes - natural-resource management - global governance - european-union - state
    The European Union (EU) increasingly shapes environmental policy in its member states. By including public participation requirements in environmental directives, the European Commission aims to open up the policy-making process and move from an administrative to a more participatory approach. Participation is considered to contribute to democratic governance, but has been associated with democratic problems as well, as the bases of democratic legitimacy do not automatically change when a participatory approach is implemented. This article uses a discourse-theoretical approach to analyze how participation in the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the Netherlands took shape and what the implications were for the construction of democratic legitimacy. Our findings show how market and agricultural groups succeeded in dominating the debate by articulating a hegemonic discourse that marginalized environmental demands. Environmental groups did not succeed in turning the debate around, as the participatory and deliberative norms that they ascribed to were not taken up. The case study demonstrates that although the administrative policy-making process was opened up, political dynamics limited the scope for participation. The article concludes by reflecting on the potential of EU governance to promote democratic legitimacy and fulfil participatory and deliberative norms.
    Income Shocks and Corruption in Africa: Does a Virtuous Cycle Exist?
    Voors, M.J. ; Bulte, E.H. ; Damania, R. - \ 2011
    Journal of African Economies 20 (2011)3. - ISSN 0963-8024 - p. 395 - 418.
    economic-growth - natural-resources - political regimes - rent-seeking - foreign-aid - institutions - democracy - curse - governance - conflict
    Empirical evidence suggests that governance quality is a key driver of economic growth and that, in turn, higher incomes might have a positive causal effect on the quality of governance. Such complementarity could invite virtuous cycles of development. Using a measure of corruption as our proxy for the quality of governance, and rainfall as an instrument for income, we explore this issue and find evidence to the contrary. For a panel of African countries, positive income shocks on average tend to invite extra corruption. Closer inspection, however, reveals that this result can be attributed to the most corrupt countries. Conversely, countries with a sufficiently low level of corruption can escape the detrimental effect of income booms on corruption and may actually experience a virtuous cycle of development.
    What participants do. A practice based approach to public participation in two policy fields
    Arend, S. van der; Behagel, J.H. - \ 2011
    Critical Policy Studies 5 (2011)2. - ISSN 1946-0171 - p. 169 - 186.
    participatie - democratie - besluitvorming - politieke processen - waterbeleid - kaderrichtlijn water - ruimtelijke ordening - nederland - participation - democracy - decision making - political processes - water policy - water framework directive - physical planning - netherlands
    The rise of public participation in policy is an integral part of the shift from government to governance, and is presented as the best and most appropriate answer to requests for democratic policymaking. Both in official accounts and in the work of scholars, participation is situated in a discourse that combines a deliberative ethics with a managerialist pathos. This discourse has two important omissions: the neglect of the role of power in participation, and the poor coverage of the activities of participants. To remedy these omissions, this paper proposes a practice based approach to the study of participation. Two case studies of participants' practices are presented: one dealing with spatial planning, the other with qualitative water policies. The case studies show similarities and differences in practices of participation. These are related to the values that participants hold, the roles they adopt, and the context in which they are situated. The paper concludes that power relations in participation are only fully understood in the light of a complex field of practice that stretches beyond formal venues and official accounts of participation
    The changing role of the state in Dutch regional partnerships
    Kuindersma, W. ; Boonstra, F.G. - \ 2010
    Environment and Planning C. Government and Policy 28 (2010)6. - ISSN 0263-774X - p. 1045 - 1062.
    rural governance - public governance - networks - metagovernance - accountability - empowerment - legitimacy - inclusion - framework - democracy
    We address the changing relationship of the state vis-à-vis regional partnerships on issues of state policy performance, partnership legitimacy, and the role and position of the state. Theoretical expectations regarding these issues differ greatly according to whether a state-centric or a society-centric perspective is adopted. A general case study of Dutch area-based rural policy (1988 – 2008) reveals that changes predominantly lean towards the state-centric perspective. These changes include an increased usage of regional partnerships as state instruments, an improved democratic anchorage of regional partnerships, and a continuation of the state’s privileged position. An embedded case study shows that individual partnerships can continue to develop in other directions and can institutionalise into largely self-organising partnerships. We conclude by showing that regional partnerships can serve as state instruments, provided that a certain degree of self-organisation is possible. Overregulation of regional partnerships could eventually undermine their overall performance.
    Power and interactive policy-making: a comparative study of power and influence in 8 interactive projects in The Netherlands
    Tatenhove, J.P.M. van; Edelenbos, J. ; Klok, P.J. - \ 2010
    Public Administration 88 (2010)3. - ISSN 0033-3298 - p. 609 - 626.
    decision-making - participation - governance - democracy
    A number of countries use forms of interactive policy-making to increase the influence of citizens on decision making. Since there has also been an increase in citizen participation in The Netherlands over the last decade, in this paper, we provide a comparative analysis of 8 interactive projects initiated by the Dutch central government. The central aim of the paper is to understand processes of power in interactive policy-making. We do so by raising two central questions: ( 1) how do power processes influence the setting-up of a project, the negotiations within a project and the translation of the results of interactive projects into formal decision making circuits?; ( 2) to what extent and under what conditions do citizens and other stakeholders obtain influence in interactive projects, especially in defining problems, selecting solutions/instruments and realizing outcomes? Our findings show there is relatively little translation of the outcomes of the projects in regular decision making.
    Trust, knowledge, and democracy. The public debate about Dutch mega-stables
    Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Pot, W.D. ; Breeman, G.E. ; Lieshout, M. van - \ 2009
    landbouw - kennis - democratie - intensieve veehouderij - stallen - huisvesting van koeien - dierenwelzijn - agriculture - knowledge - democracy - intensive livestock farming - stalls - cow housing - animal welfare
    This paper focuses on the relationship between trust, knowledge and democracy. Using the public debate about a mega-stable in a small town in the Netherlands, we demonstrate the role of the media, and communication of research in establishing and loosing trust. We ask the following: how can local governments maintain, or regain trust amongst citizens when they deal with sensitive and knowledge intensive issues which trigger a lot of resistance and thus increase the risks of declining trust? In this town, citizens protested against the arrival of a mega-stable in their backyard, where politicians and researchers strongly supported the concept because of its alleged sustainable character. Mass media coverage was to the advantage of the opponents, because their message could more easily be dramatised. The more information and knowledge by means of research reports and media attention became available, the more people began to mistrust their administrators and vice versa. We argue that governments should be aware of the different configurations in which stakeholders operate, and that it should use arguments which relate to these configurations or perceptions of actors Keywords Agriculture, media, trust, configurations, knowledge, democratic government
    The Institutional Embedding of Interactive Policy Making. Insights from a comparative research based on eight interactive projects in the Netherlands
    Edelenbos, J. ; Klok, P.J. ; Tatenhove, J.P.M. van - \ 2009
    American Review of Public Administration 39 (2009)2. - ISSN 0275-0740 - p. 125 - 148.
    decision-making - democracy - governance - politicians - sciences
    In this article, the authors address citizen involvement at the central government level in the Netherlands. Through comparative research in which they systematically analyze eight interactive projects in three governmental departments, the authors especially pay attention to the relation between the informal character of interactive policy making and formal democratic decisionmaking procedures. They call this the "institutional embedding of interactive policy making." The authors address the question, which forms of institutional embedding are most promising in securing continued effect from interactive policy making on formal democratic decision making? To answer this question, they distinguish three different forms of institutional embedding¿that is, administrative, governmental, and political. The comparative research shows that a multiple institutional embedding of administrative, governmental, and political secures the continued effect of interactive policy making. Political embedding is especially important in creating enough pressure to organize and manage interactive processes well and take outcomes seriously into account
    Democratie en de grote economie
    Dijk, G. van; Klep, L. - \ 2008
    Utrecht : s.n. - 64
    coöperaties - democratie - sociale participatie - nederland - coöperatieve verenigingen - landbouwcoöperaties - maatschappelijk middenveld - deugdelijk ondernemingsbestuur - cooperatives - democracy - social participation - netherlands - cooperative societies - agricultural cooperatives - civil society - corporate governance
    De publicatie “Democratie en de grote economie” van prof.dr.ir. G. van Dijk en ir. L.F.M. Klep is op 20 juni 2008 uitgebracht ter gelegenheid van het afscheid van Gert van Dijk als directeur van de NCR. Op dit moment behoren de coöperatieve ondernemingen in ons land tot de laatste grote bedrijven die nog geheel in Nederlandse handen zijn. De zeggenschap berust namelijk bij de leden, die daarmee een doel voor ogen hebben. Ledenzeggenschap gaat daarom niet alleen over toezicht op goed bestuur, maar ook over dat ledendoel. Dit stelt bijzondere eisen aan het democratisch functioneren van ledenzeggenschap. In dit essay gaan de auteurs in op de voorwaarden waaronder die interne democratie ook in de toekomst goed kan blijven functioneren.
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