Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    The Birth, Growth and Death of Intertidal Soft-Sediment Bivalve Beds: No Need for Large-Scale Restoration Programs in the Dutch Wadden Sea
    Meer, Jaap van der; Dankers, Norbert ; Ens, Bruno J. ; Stralen, Marnix van; Troost, Karin ; Waser, Andreas M. - \ 2019
    Ecosystems 22 (2019)5. - ISSN 1432-9840 - p. 1024 - 1034.
    Crassostrea gigas - demography - Mytilus edulis - overfishing - proportional hazard - recovery - restoration - survival analysis

    Recruitment and fate of all 1436 mussel and oyster beds of the Dutch Wadden Sea were studied for the period 1999–2013. Cox’s proportional hazard rate model with covariates such as orbital speed, exposure time and bed size and type showed that large, low-lying beds that experience a low orbital speed live longer. Yet the most striking result was that oyster and mixed beds have a much lower hazard rate than pure mussel beds. Simulation studies, using the observed recruitment series, which was very variable, and the estimated survival curves, showed large variability in total bed area, implying that the present area, though lower than before, does not point to a systematic deviation from the pre-1990 situation, that is, the situation before intensive fisheries on these intertidal beds and the disappearance of them around 1990. Claims that bivalve bed recovery is impossible without restoration efforts are premature and not supported by our analysis. On the contrary, the observed high survival rate of mixed and oyster beds and the expectation that such beds will predominate in the near future can easily result in larger future bed coverage than what has been measured before.

    Predicting the abundance of forest types across the eastern United States through inverse modelling of tree demography
    Vanderwel, Mark C. ; Rozendaal, Danaë M.A. ; Evans, Margaret E.K. - \ 2017
    Ecological Applications 27 (2017)7. - ISSN 1051-0761 - p. 2128 - 2141.
    CAIN - demography - forest dynamics - global change - inverse modelling - range modelling - species distribution

    Global environmental change is expected to induce widespread changes in the geographic distribution and biomass of forest communities. Impacts have been projected from both empirical (statistical) and mechanistic (physiology-based) modelling approaches, but there remains an important gap in accurately predicting abundance across species' ranges from spatial variation in individual-level demographic processes. We address this issue by using a cohort-based forest dynamics model (CAIN) to predict spatial variation in the abundance of six plant functional types (PFTs) across the eastern United States. The model simulates tree-level growth, mortality, and recruitment, which we parameterized from data on both individual-level demographic rates and population-level abundance using Bayesian inverse modelling. Across a set of 1 grid cells, we calibrated local growth, mortality, and recruitment rates for each PFT to obtain a close match between predicted age-specific PFT basal area in forest stands and that observed in 46,603 Forest Inventory and Analysis plots. The resulting models produced a strong fit to PFT basal area across the region (R2 = 0.66-0.87), captured successional changes in PFT composition with stand age, and predicted the overall stem diameter distribution well. The mortality rates needed to accurately predict basal area were consistently higher than observed mortality, possibly because sampling effects led to biased individual-level mortality estimates across spatially heterogeneous plots. Growth and recruitment rates did not show consistent directional changes from observed values. Relative basal area was most strongly influenced by recruitment processes, but the effects of growth and mortality tended to increase as stands matured. Our study illustrates how both top-down (population-level) and bottom-up (individual-level) data can be combined to predict variation in abundance from size, environmental, and competitive effects on tree demography. Evidence for how demographic processes influence variation in abundance, as provided by our model, can help in understanding how these forests may respond to future environmental change.

    Strong families and declining fertility : a comparative study of family relations and reproductive careers in Soviet Ukraine
    Hilevych, Yuliya - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hilde Bras; Theo Engelen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579385 - 191
    families - demography - family environment - family size - sociology of the family - contraception - ukraine - gezinnen - demografie - gezinsmilieu - gezinsgrootte - gezinssociologie - contraceptie - oekraïne

    This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine and other European republics of the Soviet Union, and some even define the period after the 1960s as the start of a latent depopulation in this part of Europe. However, this fertility decline that had already begun to manifest itself in the early 1920s gained speed within only a few generations as those who were born in families of six siblings in the 1920s and 1930s had only two children themselves in the 1950s, the 1960s and the 1970s.

    Previous research has discussed these demographic changes on a macro-level for the Soviet and post-Soviet periods by typically linking these changes to the processes of modernisation and transformation. However, this singular focus on structural changes ignores the fact that relationships between people also adjust to politico-economic changes according to the social and family values that al- ready exist in society. As a result, old and new social (in)equalities, both outside and within the household, (re-) emerge alongside the politico-economic modernisation, which, in tandem, contribute to the formation of different demographic realities on a micro-level and different fertility trends on a macro-level. In this respect, social relationships should be seen as playing an intermediary role in the interplay between the formation of interpersonal inequalities and the politico- economic reality. Because they surround our everyday lives and choices, social relationships form a coherent social structure that helps us to interpret, to under- stand and to adjust to everyday reality, including state legal regulations, political ideology, and economic crises. The primary aim of this dissertation is to study the effects of family relationships and their continuities on changes in reproductive behaviour through a comparative regional perspective in Ukraine during the post-war fertility decline.The role of social relationships in reproductive behaviour is particularly important in the specific context of Ukraine as well as in the broader context of Eastern Europe, where family relationships have provided welfare in critical situations, such as childbearing, childcare and elderly care, both in the past and today. Sim- ilar to Southern Europe, the prevalence of strong family ties in Eastern Europe is also often connected to the high fertility rates in the pre-transitional context and to the rapid fertility decline to the lowest-low level in the 1990s and 2000s. The lowest-low fertility phenomenon is often referred to as a paradox of strong family and low fertility. Moreover, in the context of Ukraine, where regional dif- ferences remain pronounced in many aspects of social life, regional variations in fertility could also be linked to local family values. Considering this, the main research questions that I address in this dissertation are the following: (1) How did family and social relationships influence individual reproductive careers in Soviet Ukraine from around the 1950s to the 1970s? (2) How can local family systems and their associated power dynamics and social interdependencies help to understand fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine? Focusing on these post-war decades is also relevant for our understanding of historical and contemporary fertility decline in this part of Europe because these three decades were significant for the beginning of the Cold War, general liberalisation of the regime and the introduction of some family policies that are still enacted today.

    On the theoretical level, I frame the empirical analysis of family and social influences on individual reproductive careers in a broader framework of local con- tinuities in family relationships and values, the so-called family systems. In this respect, individual reproductive careers are studied as processual characteristics of reproductive behaviour and long life experiences and include such life events as marriage, entrance into parenthood, abortion and birth control, and transition to second birth. By social influences I understand the ‘process by which attitudes, values or behaviour of an individual are determined by the attitudes, values or behaviour of others with whom he or she interacts’ (Bernardi, 2003, p. 535). I examine different patterns of social relationships, such as those between spouses, generations, siblings and peers. Based on the social influences stemming from family and social relationships, I try to characterise different power relationships and other social interdependencies underlying these relationships, which I then connect to the context of local family systems.

    On the methodological level, this study is based on the analysis of various qual- itative methods, such as in-depth biographical interviews, life history calendars (LHC) and family photographs. The interviews were collected in two Ukrainian borderland cities: Lviv in western Ukraine and Kharkiv in eastern Ukraine. These sites allowed me to compare how family relationships were historically organised in Ukraine and how they actually shaped the informants’ reproductive decisions. This study also uses archival demographic data and secondary ethnographic materials as supplementary sources.

    The empirical findings of this dissertation discuss different transitions of individual reproductive careers, namely marriage, entrance into parenthood, birth control and abortion, and transitions to second and later births, all of which I discuss in the context of family and peer relationships. In Soviet Ukraine, the transition to marriage was characterised by strong parental control over men’s and women’s pre-marital practices and sometimes also marital decisions. This strong parental control before marriage was not without consequences, as it seems to have created an imaginary dependency of children on their parents not only be- fore but also after marriage, which I associate with the persistence of paternalistic intergenerational values in family relationships in the two localities.

    Similarly, the entrance into parenthood was also surrounded by frequent parental assistance, particularly when a couple tried to postpone their entrance into par- enthood. This pattern was also reinforced by the social learning from peers among the Kharkiv informants and social contagion from siblings(in-law) among the Lviv informants. That said, the actual decision to give birth was connected to the ex- pectations of help with childcare in the future. In this respect, I observed that if after the marriage a couple resided separately from their parents, they would also take greater responsibility for childcare, and grandparental support became an additional and temporary option, as it often was in Lviv. However, when spouses resided with either set of parents, they also tended to rely more on the parents in terms of childcare, which I more often observed in Kharkiv and less in Lviv.

    These differences in dynamics of spousal and intergenerational relationships between the two localities became even more pronounced around abortion and birth control decisions and their practices after first birth. Spousal cooperation in birth control decision-making played an important role in how women exercised their agency in these decisions and which birth control methods the couple used and how effectively they used them. In couples where spouses communicated about birth control and abortion decisions, the women had fewer abortions, as was often the case in Lviv. These women did not feel the need to exercise their agency, as the husbands took over the responsibility of both birth control and abortion. When abortion was practiced as a routine method to limit family size, spouses did not communicate about birth control and abortion, as was the case in Kharkiv. In this situation, birth control was the husband’s responsibility and abortion was the wife’s. These women sought abortions to fulfil their own goals and, at the same time, to maintain the dominant patriarchal order in marital relationships as they understood it.

    These differences in spousal cooperation with regard to birth control seem to have had direct implications for the transition to second and later births in the two localities. In Lviv, spouses continued to negotiate the timing of second and third births and the childcare arrangements, while still mainly relying on each other in these matters. In doing so, the Lviv informants often adopted a traditional male-breadwinning model, which allowed spouses to share the costs of childcare: husbands were responsible for material costs and wives for the emotional and instrumental costs. However, some women resumed working part-time or worked on jobs with more flexible working schedules after their child’s birth, and then spouses divided the material and instrumental costs of childcare more equally and without a traditional gender bias. In either case, the accumulated costs of childcare were often shared between spouses. This strategy often allowed couples to combine childcare after their first and second/third child, which seems to have been reinforcing for many couples in Lviv to adopt a shorter birth spacing strategy. In Kharkiv, in contrast, the timing of second and later births and childcare were mainly the women’s responsibility. Some continued to rely on grandparental support even after starting to reside separately. However, this support was not always available due to different factors such as the few possibilities for multi- generational co-residence or parental health issues. When women received little intergenerational and spousal support, they tended to delay transition to second birth until they felt more secure. Additionally, women in Kharkiv seem to have learned from each other’s experiences about the benefits of this strategy. As such, the adoption of the waiting strategy seems to have resulted in a more prolonged interval between first and second births, sometimes ten to fifteen years, which in other studies is defined as postponement as opposed to spacing. However, those women who did not meet the deadline for parenthood because they were still feeling too insecure to proceed with another birth never had a second child.

    Overall, my findings illustrate that the ways in which family relationships were organised over the life course formulated different responses in the two local- ities to the emerging socio-economic conditions. Subsequently, these differences in responses were reflected in regional reproductive strategies. I suggest that these differences in responses have to do with the intrafamilial dependencies in the two localities: more couple-oriented (horizontal intrafamilial interdependen- cies) in Lviv and generations-oriented (vertical intrafamilial interdependencies) in Kharkiv. I also observe continuity in these two social interdependencies with the historical family systems and the intrafamilial (in)equalities produced within them in the past, namely a mix of nuclear-stem family system in Lviv and a joint family system in Kharkiv. In the early life, strong intergenerational connections characterising both family systems seem to have promoted early and universal entrance into marriage and parenthood in the past and during the Soviet time. Additionally, the Soviet family policy adopted many of these paternalistic and pronatalist values on the level of legal regulations, which meant that this re-productive ideology was reinforced within and outside the family. In later life, however, the intrafamily interdependencies start to differ in the two contexts, and this aspect is crucial to understand regional patterns in fertility decline. During the Soviet time, even though socio-economic constraints created more or less sim- ilar structural uncertainties in the both localities, these structural factors did not equally challenge intrafamilial interdependencies between spouse and generations. Subsequently, these local intrafamilial interdependencies resulted in different re- productive strategies on the micro-level and in their reflection on the macro-level fertility trends.

    Altogether, these findings provide a fruitful ground for formulating future hy- potheses to be tested on larger and representative population samples. They also formulate important clues for policy makers by suggesting that a more relativist perspective that incorporates intrafamilial social inequalities and communication strategies is needed to regulate the issues of fertility decline and subsequently the process of population ageing, the latter of which may soon become a vital issue in this part of the world as well.

    Family systems and fertility : fertility behaviour in Europe from a network perspective
    Moenkediek, Bastian - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hilde Bras; J. de Kok. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577978 - 278
    demography - families - human fertility - network analysis - europe - demografie - gezinnen - menselijke vruchtbaarheid - netwerkanalyse - europa
    Ruimte voor de toekomst in het landelijk gebied : trendverkenning 2020-2030 voor gemeenten met veel landelijk gebied /
    Nieuwenhuizen, W. ; Gies, T.J.A. ; Och, R.A.F. van; Rooij, L.L. de - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2628) - 81
    plattelandsomgeving - tendensen - gemeenten - platteland - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouw - demografie - werkgelegenheid - recreatie op het platteland - rural environment - trends - municipalities - rural areas - rural development - agriculture - demography - employment - rural recreation
    Hoe het landelijk gebied er in 2040 uit zal zien, weet niemand. Toch is een aantal trends aan te wijzen dat nu al zichtbaar is en voor een groot deel de richting zal bepalen waarin het zich gaat ontwikkelen. Het landelijk gebied wordt steeds meer een multifunctionele leef- en werkomgeving, waarbinnen initiatieven van burgers en bedrijven oplossingen aandragen voor lokale problemen. Schaalvergroting van (agrarische) bedrijven en voorzieningen gaat gelijk op met een toename van kleinschalige en lokale initiatieven van burgers en bedrijven. Technologische innovatie kan de bedrijvigheid en de leefbaarheid in het landelijk gebied vergroten. Tot slot is een toename van extreme gebeurtenissen mogelijk door klimaatverandering of de uitbraak van dierziekten. Dit rapport beschrijft een aantal van de belangrijkste trends voor gemeenten met veel landelijk gebied. De trends worden besproken aan de hand van verschillende thema's.
    The fate of populations of Euterpe oleracea harvested for palm heart in Colombia
    Vallejo, M.I. ; Galeano, G. ; Bernal, R. ; Zuidema, P. - \ 2014
    Forest Ecology and Management 318 (2014). - ISSN 0378-1127 - p. 274 - 284.
    understory palm - leaf harvest - forest - extraction - management - demography - dynamics - sustainability - arecaceae - responses
    Palm heart is an important non-timber forest product obtained from various palm species in tropical forests. We studied the effect of four decades of palm heart extraction from the clonal palm Euterpe oleracea at the southern Pacific coast of Colombia. We monitored populations that had been subject to a range of harvest intensities and used measured vital rates (survival, growth, sexual and clonal reproduction) to construct population matrix models. We then used these models to simulate several harvest scenarios and to project the population dynamics for the next 50 years. Our projections suggest that the currently implemented intensive harvest regimes - which involve up to four harvests per year - result in dramatic demographic changes, primarily affecting seedlings and adults. In addition, current harvest regimes affect the future supply of palm heart, which is projected to drop sharply during the first years following harvest and fails to recover unless a number of stems are spared. Our simulations indicate that the most sustainable scenarios involve annual harvest between 50% and 75% of all harvestable stems, without any removal of small shoots from the clumps. Implementation of this regime must be accompanied by other management practices, including planning harvestable areas, marking the stems to be cut during subsequent harvests, assigning harvesters to specific areas, and leaving harvest residues as mulch around clumps. The degradation of populations of E. oleracea directly affects livelihoods of local people, by reducing cash income from palm heart sales and by reducing availability of palm fruits, a locally important food resource. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    using genetic profiles of african forest elephants to infer population structure, movements, and habitat use in a conservation and development landscape in gabon
    Eggert, L.S. ; Buij, R. ; Lee, M.E. ; Campbell, P. ; Dallmeier, F. ; Fleischer, R.C. ; Alonso, A. ; Maldonado, J. - \ 2014
    Conservation Biology 28 (2014)1. - ISSN 0888-8892 - p. 107 - 118.
    loxodonta-africana - savanna elephants - protected areas - national-park - relatedness - demography - patterns - crisis - loci
    Conservation of wide-ranging species, such as the African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), depends on fully protected areas and multiple-use areas (MUA) that provide habitat connectivity. In the Gamba Complex of Protected Areas in Gabon, which includes 2 national parks separated by a MUA containing energy and forestry concessions, we studied forest elephants to evaluate the importance of the MUA to wide-ranging species. We extracted DNA from elephant dung samples and used genetic information to identify over 500 individuals in the MUA and the parks. We then examined patterns of nuclear microsatellites and mitochondrial control-region sequences to infer population structure, movement patterns, and habitat use by age and sex. Population structure was weak but significant, and differentiation was more pronounced during the wet season. Within the MUA, males were more strongly associated with open habitats, such as wetlands and savannas, than females during the dry season. Many of the movements detected within and between seasons involved the wetlands and bordering lagoons. Our results suggest that the MUA provides year-round habitat for some elephants and additional habitat for others whose primary range is in the parks. With the continuing loss of roadless wilderness areas in Central Africa, well-managed MUAs will likely be important to the conservation of wide-ranging species.
    Testing models of speciation from genome sequences: divergence and asymmetric admixture in Island Southeast Asian Sus species during the Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations
    Frantz, L.A.F. ; Madsen, O. ; Megens, H.J.W.C. ; Groenen, M. ; Lohse, H. - \ 2014
    Molecular Ecology 23 (2014)22. - ISSN 0962-1083 - p. 5566 - 5574.
    last glacial period - pig genomes - quaternary - evolution - reveals - domestication - demography - inference - sundaland - history
    In many temperate regions, ice ages promoted range contractions into refugia resulting in divergence (and potentially speciation), while warmer periods led to range expansions and hybridization. However, the impact these climatic oscillations had in many parts of the tropics remains elusive. Here, we investigate this issue using genome sequences of three pig (Sus) species, two of which are found on islands of the Sunda-shelf shallow seas in Island South-East Asia (ISEA). A previous study revealed signatures of interspecific admixture between these Sus species (Genome biology, 14, 2013, R107). However, the timing, directionality and extent of this admixture remain unknown. Here, we use a likelihood-based model comparison to more finely resolve this admixture history and test whether it was mediated by humans or occurred naturally. Our analyses suggest that interspecific admixture between Sunda-shelf species was most likely asymmetric and occurred long before the arrival of humans in the region. More precisely, we show that these species diverged during the late Pliocene but around 23% of their genomes have been affected by admixture during the later Pleistocene climatic transition. In addition, we show that our method provides a significant improvement over D-statistics which are uninformative about the direction of admixture.
    Paradoxale modernisering : Ede, 1945-1995: groot geworden, herkenbaar gebleven
    Bloembergen-Lukkes, J.R. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pim Kooij, co-promotor(en): Anton Schuurman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571433 - 365
    geschiedenis - modernisering - politiek - economie - demografie - cultuur - onderwijs - migratie - ruimtelijke ordening - sociologie van vrijetijdsbesteding - lokale geschiedenis - veluwe - nederland - history - modernization - politics - economics - demography - culture - education - migration - physical planning - sociology of leisure - local history - veluwe - netherlands


    Paradoxical Modernization

    Ede, 1945-1995: Grew big, remained recognizable

    After the Second World War, like many other municipalities in the Netherlands and elsewhere in the Western World, Ede experienced a period of rapid economic and population growth, of mobility, increase in scale, urbanization, better education, professionalization, individualization and democratization. Developments that may be summarized in the word modernization. I wondered if modernization is an exogenous process and did it more or less just happen, or is it a planned process or something in between. I decided that the best way to answer these questions was not to study the modernization process on a national level, but on a local level. There I hoped to find the answer on the question what possibilities people have to define their own community.

    I choose the municipality of Ede as my case study for the next reasons. After 1945, the Ede municipal executive opted for growth: economic, population and employment growth. In 1962, the municipal executive formulated a goal to welcome its 100,000 resident by the year 2000, which represented a doubling of the population since the end of the war. Ede was to be transformed into the city of Ede. This milestone of 100,000 inhabitants was reached as early as 1996, 60,000 of whom lived in Ede town. In order to achieve this goal, action was needed on several fronts. The rapid growth achieved was not the result of a policy plan handed down by central government. Ede was not one of the designated development areas. Ede was not regarded as an underdeveloped area requiring a top- down targeted approach for accelerated industrialization and modernization. On the other hand, in 1945, Ede was still clearly a rural community and the town centre clearly showed characteristics of a village society. So the rapid growth meant changes in different policy sectors.

    Ede easily attracted new residents and employment opportunities as a result of its strategic location in the middle of the Netherlands, its good infrastructure and sufficient space. What it did need, however, was the development of housing estates and industrial estates including the necessary infrastructure and the development and expansion of, for example, education facilities and leisure amenities. In a predominantly Protestant community, this raised questions about the persuasion of these types of amenities and led to debates on, if actually desirable, the type of socio-cultural policy most appropriate for local government. Rapid expansion of a community may be perceived as a threat to the characteristics of that society. This question made Ede an extra interesting subject for research. In the case of Ede it was justifiable to assume that tensions would have arisen between the rural and urban ambitions and between Christian and secular developments. The municipal authority is involved in the developments and decision-making process relating to all the elements of the public domain, which is why it was chosen as the focus for this research.

    The policy decisions required in the different areas to facilitate growth are by their nature intertwined. The construction of housing estates and business premises conflict with the interests of the agricultural sector and nature conservation. The arrival of new residents can change the social, political and religious composition of the population, resulting in consequences for how society is organized and for the future local political constellation and vice versa. Every decision must take what has occurred in other areas into account and will, in turn, have consequences for adjacent domains. For these reasons a choice was made for modernization as theoretical concept. Chapter one contains a historiographical discussion of this concept and an elaboration of how this concept has been applied to this research. In line with Schuyt and Taverne, I have chosen not to provide modernization in advance with a specific interpretation by adding ‘controlled’, ‘contested’ or ‘reflexive’. For the research, four policy areas have been selected for further investigation: spatial planning, education, guest workers/migrants and leisure facilities. As an introduction to the chapters on the developments in Ede, chapter two contains a broad outline of the national developments in which the local developments took place. Subsequently, in chapter three I discuss the way in which the modernization process was made visible in the composition of the municipal executive, including its chairpersons over a period of fifty years. Politicians not only partly determine which choices are made in the modernization process, but are also subject to this process themselves both at party and individual level. In this sense, through its decisions the political establishment in no small way contributes to determining its own future and, in turn, the composition of the municipal council and executive. The choices for more or

    less growth, for public-authority or private-authority schools , for providing public amenities or not, et cetera influence who will choose Ede as a place of residence and work. In this way, secularization manifests itself in changes in the population composition and the demand for specific amenities, as well as at the level of the political composition of the municipal council and the individual councillors. As a result of the population growth, by 1966 the newcomers held the majority of the seats on the council. However, the original population of Ede managed to control the executive positions for much longer. Democratization, individualization and secularization led to an increase in the number of political parties represented on the council and enhanced pluralism. Compared to politics at national level, both women’s emancipation and the professionalization of councillors clearly had a delayed start. As was the case at national level the larger parties lost ground, although the SGP (Reformed Political Party) formed an exception in Ede.

    The main theme of chapter four is spatial planning. Ede has profited considerably from the migration of residents and employment opportunities from the Randstad. Ede’s central location put it in a strategic position to benefit from national developments on spatial planning. The size of the municipality ̶ Ede being one of the largest in the Netherlands ̶ , the good infrastructure and the presence of the Veluwe National Park made Ede a popular place of residence and business. This remained the case even after, from the start of the 1960s, the provincial and national governments tried to curb the drift to Ede. As a result of its many qualities, Ede was able to achieve its growth ambitions and disregard the limiting measures imposed by higher government levels. In relation to nature conservation, Ede stayed more in line because the municipal executive regarded the Veluwe National Park as one of the attractive aspects of living in Ede. In respect to agriculture, the municipal executive chose for, on the one hand, an uncompromising policy to develop housing and business premises at the expense of farmland, while, on the other hand, applying a non-interference policy for the agricultural sector and business operations. Both small farmers and the strong growth in intensive animal husbandry could count on an accommodating local government. It was the national government which, as a result of the high levels of environmental pollution, designated the Gelderland Valley as a Spatial Planning and Environment area (ensuring spatial planning was combined with the environmental aspects). This, in turn, forced the municipal authority to impose regulatory measures on the agricultural sector in its spatial planning policies.

    The policy choices in relation to the educational facilities are discussed in chapter five. What is conspicuous here is the clear commitment on the part of the Christian political parties to maintain the Christian character of the education. In the 1950s, this commitment could also count on the support of the Christian councillors representing the PvdA (Labour Party). It was not until the early 1960s that all the PvdA councillors supported the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy) in its struggle

    to increase the number of public-authority schools. In the meantime, Protestant Ede had managed, under the leadership of the ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) aldermen, to establish broad, and partly above municipality level, private-authority denominational schools. In achieving this, the ARP (Anti- Revolutionary Party) politicians were able to make use of their extensive network, which included national politicians. It was only in the early 1980s that secular Ede achieved a long-cherished goal with the opening of a public-authority neutral secondary school. The presence of a broad range of Protestant-Christian educational facilities is one of the explanations why Ede’s expansion did not lead to a drop, in percentage terms, of the Orthodox-Christian share of the vote. These parties were, however, practically always kept outside the coalition. Nevertheless, they managed to profit from the educational policies implemented by the coalition parties CHU (Christian Historical Union) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party), and later by the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal). These parties were not, however, rewarded for this policy as they were confronted with continuous and steady losses at the polls. Illustrative of this development was also the establishment in the 1970s of a number of Protestant Reformed primary schools and the establishment of a Protestant-Christian School Advisory Service in 1984. The long-term opposition to a more secular organization of society was also expressed in the opposition until the start of the 1970s to abolishing the dismissal of married teachers.

    Ede’s growth did not only bring an influx of new residents from the rest of the Netherlands to the Veluwe. The shortage of unskilled workers, which continued to increase during the 1960s in the Netherlands, also resulted in the arrival of guest workers in Ede. Chapter six discusses the attitude of the political establishment towards this population group, whose stay was initially expected to be only temporary. It quickly became apparent that their unfamiliarity with our country, language, customs and laws in combination with their low wages and, for the most part, low level of education gave rise to a need for social assistance and specific facilities. The municipal executive did not, however, make use of the possibility to participate in the Migrant Workers’ Assistance Foundation that was established in Gelderland in the 1960s and in which the municipal executives of Apeldoorn and Arnhem participated. The Ede municipal executive maintained the view, as did other places in the Netherlands, that the

    reception of this population group and the facilitating or provision of specific facilities was not the task of government —and most certainly not in the area of religion. In relation to this last point, the constitutional separation of church and state was invariably used as argumentation. Although, in practice in the Netherlands, and this includes Ede, up to that point had not been so strictly adhered to as was preached in Ede. It was only at the end of the 1970s that the first careful steps were taken to arrange for the required facilities. The municipal executive disregarded an official report in 1977 by Ede’s own Sociographical Department, in which migrant workers were considered one of the minority groups in the Netherlands and in which specific mention was made of the role of government in the origination of the problems confronting this population group. The decision of the national government in 1984 to transfer policy on minorities to local government forced the municipal executive to set down its own policy. When social unrest occurred surrounding the desire of and initiatives by the Moroccan and Turkish communities for their own place of prayer, the municipal executive slowly changed its attitude from a wait-and-see approach into an active approach in which a reasonably acceptable solution was sought in consultation with all the parties involved. The strong position of the SGP (Reformed Political Party) in local politics could present an explanation for the fact that in this period the extreme right in Ede, in contrast to national level, never achieved the electoral threshold.

    Growth also places demands on leisure facilities. In the previous topics, especially in relation to the educational facilities and the facilities for migrant workers, there was an ongoing discussion in the background about how big the role of government should be in society. In confessional circles, but also within the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy), an ideological preference prevailed for small government, meaning, where possible, the initiative should be left to the community or the individual respectively. Government spending on leisure activities was particularly sensitive in the Protestant-Christian parties. The SGP (Reformed Political Party), on principal, held the opinion that the government should not spend public money on these types of activities. The development of sport fields/sport halls and the accommodation of sports clubs could, however, count on the support of the majority of the council and certainly also of the municipal executive. In the 1950s and 1960s the aldermen of the PvdA (Labour Party), VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) were great sport enthusiasts. Subsidies for cultural activities were more sensitive as theatre and opera had been a taboo for a long time within segments of the Protestant- Christian parties and, particularly, within the SGP (Reformed Political Party). If it was, nevertheless, decided to provide funding to support organizations or initiatives, then it was chosen for a strong involvement by the municipality, for example through ownership and tenures. This was an attempt by the municipal executive to exercise more control over the operations and the use of subsidies. At the same time, the municipal executive had a preference for the commercial use of, for example, a swimming pool or a theatre because this presented the possibility of keeping the public funding to a minimum. Particularly this involvement in a commercial organization gave rise, once again, to criticism within the council and within the community because commercialism with the help of public money was considered inappropriate for government and unfair competition. Ultimately, in the middle of the 1980s, the municipal executive distanced itself from the commercial operations by awarding a fixed subsidy amount based on agreements relating to the services provided to the community.

    Reflecting on the fifty year period researched, two cut-off points can be established in the modernization process in Ede. The first period runs from 1945 to 1966 and is characterized by growth and tradition. The prevailing philosophy was that despite the choice for growth the Protestant-Christian character of the municipality should and could be maintained. This is illustrated in the development of a broad and above municipal level provision of private-authority Protestant-Christian educational facilities, in the commitment to non-interference in the agricultural sector including keeping the peasants, and in the conservative policy on developing cultural activities for the leisure sector.

    However, the growth did strengthened aspects such as secularization, professionalization, geographical and social mobility, individualization and democratization: the modernization process continually resulted in changes in society and in the population composition and was not solely restricted to what was desirable or planned.

    The second period runs to 1978 and can be characterized with the terms: change and debate.

    The municipal policy was examined more critically. For example, the city-forming plans were considered undesirable both by the original population and the newcomers. Maintaining the smallness and a more rural character proved to be attractive aspects for Ede. At the same time, the demand for a more pluralistic and broader provision of social and cultural activities increased. In this second period, the non-interference policy in relation to agricultural developments except in the case that agricultural lands were required for housing and business premises, encountered opposition when the negative effects of the continuous expansion in the intensive animal husbandry for the ecology and

    environment became more apparent. In addition, the arrival of migrant workers and with them Islam

    into this predominantly Protestant-Christian community became more problematic during this period. As a consequence of unemployment and family reunification, more pressure was put on the municipal authorities for assistance and the need for a place of prayer for the Muslim community strengthened.

    The societal and economic changes led to a more pluralistic political landscape. The six parties were confronted with increasing competition from new political parties, including the Boerenpartij (Farmers’ Party) which was the first to profit from the discontent. Only the SGP

    (Reformed Political Party) managed to hold onto its share of the vote. The third period is characterized by the development of a new political situation and the search for a new political balance. The municipal executive was forced by the national government to curb the intensive animal husbandry.

    The ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) had to part with the education portfolio and, finally, Ede got a public-authority neutral secondary school, the Pallas Athene. It was a long journey, but the Muslim community also received its own place of prayer. At a time when societal opposition to the building of a mosque appeared to favour the national extreme-right political parties and movements, the municipal executive opted to work with the Muslim groups to find a solution acceptable to all parties. The municipality distanced itself from the business operations in how it financed organizations such as swimming pools, the theatre and events such as the Week of the Heather.

    What are the answers to my questions I posed in the beginning: is modernization at the local level more of less an exogenous process, can it be planned, or have local politicians enough opportunities to make a difference? When compared to the national developments it holds true for Ede that the 1950s was certainly a dynamic period, but it is also true to say that a Protestant-Christian community such as Ede required more time to shape its growth ambition so that old and new, conservative and progressive, and religious and secular could achieve a new balance and compromise. The changes were neither imposed from outside nor according to plan. The paradoxical outcome of the modernization process is that it has led to the further convergence of the local with the national developments, but it has at the same time ensured the survival of local characteristics.

    Partially, these are characteristics that have consciously been or were able to be preserved by politicians, such as the predominantly Protestant-Christian education facilities and a conservative policy towards the socio-cultural domain. This policy has not, per definition, turned out favourably for the supporting political parties. It was the SGP (Reformed Political Party) and not the governing parties CHU (Christian Historical Union) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) (and later the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal) that managed to hold onto its voters, even though the Protestant-Christian character of the municipality was the reason why a segment of the newcomers chose for Ede. Their votes did not strengthen the confessional parties at the centre of the political spectrum; it was precisely the orthodox element that benefitted, which was illustrated by the arrival of the RPF (Reformed Political Federation/GPV (Reformed Political Union). Other characteristic elements are independent of the local political policy and have ensured that Ede has become and remains a desirable place of residence and business. Its central location on the Veluwe, the good infrastructure, and the size of the municipality stimulated and made growth possible. Ede was a municipality with adequate facilities and the amenities it lacked could be found in the nearby Randstad and Arnhem.

    The Veluwe National Park also forms a large, green and tranquil back garden.

    Modernization was not imposed upon Ede, contrary to what Van Deursen notes in the case of Katwijk. Even so no controlled modernization for Ede, as Van Vegchel describes for Emmen. Like Zwemer states for Zeeland, local politics in Ede has been able to make a difference within the national developments and governmental guidelines. The national government only intervened and imposed their policy at the moment local political choices led to negative effects beyond the municipal boundaries. In accordance with the findings of Schuyt and Taverne the development in Ede was not the result of a ‘grand design’, not even of local politicians. Ede shows quite nice the paradox of modernization. Despite the creation of uniformity in the ongoing process of national integration and globalization, the paradox is that contradictory movements are possible that contribute to ensuring that the unique character of the area can be preserved, even if this characterization is also subject to change.

    Perceptions of Village Dogs by Villagers and Tourists in the Coastal Region of Rural Oaxaca, Mexico
    Ruiz Izaguirre, E. ; Eilers, C.H.A.M. - \ 2012
    Anthrozoos 25 (2012)1. - ISSN 0892-7936 - p. 75 - 91.
    farm-animal welfare - roaming dogs - providence - demography - attitudes - bahamas - population - community - areas - urban
    The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of the village dog-keeping system, and of perceptions of dog-related problems by villagers and tourists, in the coastal region of Oaxaca, Mexico. We conducted a survey of the inhabitants of three villages (Mazunte, Puerto Angel, and Río Seco), whose main economic activities were tourism, fishing, and farming (n = 99), and a survey of tourists (n = 151). Dogs were the most commonly kept animals in all the villages. Cultural and economic aspects were reflected in dog-keeping practices. All dog owners allowed their dog(s) to roam free in the farming village (Río Seco), but not in the tourist villages (Mazunte and Puerto Angel). Significantly more dog owners in the tourist village of Mazunte mentioned companionship as a reason for keeping dogs than those in the farming village. All villagers perceived as a problem that there were too many dogs. The mean number of dogs per household was 1.8, and there were significantly more male dogs in the farming village than in the tourist villages. Efforts to control the dog population in the rural coastal region are aimed at rabies prevention or wildlife protection, whereas this study revealed that these issues were far less often mentioned by local people as other dog-related problems. Significantly more villagers in the tourist villages perceived there to be dog-welfare problems than those in the farming village. Significantly more North American and European tourists were concerned about dog welfare than Mexican tourists. Despite significant differences in dog-keeping between the tourist and farming villages, opinions of villagers in regard to dog breeding and methods of dog population control were similar. Villagers agreed on dog sterilization to control the dog population, but also considered that female dogs should breed at least once in their lifetime. Those living in tourist villages could benefit from improving dog welfare and implementing strategies to lessen the problems dogs cause tourists
    Adapt, move or perish : the interaction of genetics and demography in fragmented populations under climate change
    Cobben, M.M.P. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rolf Hoekstra; Paul Opdam, co-promotor(en): Rene Smulders; Jana Verboom-Vasiljev. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731999 - 132
    dendrocopos - habitats - habitatfragmentatie - biodiversiteit - populaties - klimaatverandering - adaptatie - genetica - demografie - modellen - verspreiding - dendrocopos - habitats - habitat fragmentation - biodiversity - populations - climatic change - adaptation - genetics - demography - models - dispersal
    In reactie op klimaatverandering verschuift van veel soorten het areaal, maar het is duidelijk dat dit voor lang niet alle soorten snel genoeg gaat. Habitatfragmentatie zal in het algemeen de noodzakelijke areaalverschuivingen vertragen. Er is geopperd dat de combinatie van areaalverschuivingen en de lokale aanpassing van soorten aan de veranderende omstandigheden hun overleving positief zal beïnvloeden
    Assessment of the status, development and diversification of fisheries-dependent communities: Urk Case Study Report
    Delaney, A.E. ; Hoefnagel, E.W.J. ; Bartelings, H. ; Oosterhout, J. van - \ 2010
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (EU Fish 2006 / 09. 2010) - 33
    vissersgemeenschappen - visserij - sociale verandering - sociale ontwikkeling - sociale gevolgen - sociale situatie - demografie - economische situatie - sociale economie - werkgelegenheid - flevoland - fishing communities - fisheries - social change - social development - social impact - social situation - demography - economic situation - socioeconomics - employment - flevoland
    This case study about Urk shows which social and economic challenges this traditional fishing community faces due to its specialization on just a few stocks, the increasing independence of a processing sector no longer reliant on it to supply locally caught fish, and culturally preferences in the way of life and ways of doing things, and the additional hardship of limited TACs, forced decommissioning, low stock prices, and high fixed costs (fuel costs).
    Scaling up phenotypic plasticity with hierarchical population models
    Jongejans, E. ; Huber, H. ; Kroon, H. de - \ 2010
    Evolutionary Ecology 24 (2010)3. - ISSN 0269-7653 - p. 585 - 599.
    life-history - arabidopsis-thaliana - plant performance - structured populations - evolutionary dynamics - trifolium-repens - shade-avoidance - vital-rates - demography - elasticities
    Individuals respond to different environments by developing different phenotypes, which is generally seen as a mechanism through which individuals can buffer adverse environmental conditions and increase their fitness. To understand the consequences of phenotypic plasticity it is necessary to study how changing a particular trait of an individual affects either its survival, growth, reproduction or a combination of these demographic vital rates (i.e. fitness components). Integrating vital rate changes due to phenotypic plasticity into models of population dynamics allows detailed study of how phenotypic changes scale up to higher levels of integration and forms an excellent tool to distinguish those plastic trait changes that really matter at the population level. A modeling approach also facilitates studying systems that are even more complex: traits and vital rates often co-vary or trade-off with other traits that may show plastic responses over environmental gradients. Here we review recent developments in the literature on population models that attempt to include phenotypic plasticity with a range of evolutionary assumptions and modeling techniques. We present in detail a model framework in which environmental impacts on population dynamics can be followed analytically through direct and indirect pathways that importantly incorporate phenotypic plasticity, trait-trait and trait-vital rate relationships. We illustrate this framework with two case studies: the population-level consequences of phenotypic responses to nutrient enrichment of plant species occurring in nutrient-poor habitats and of responses to changes in flooding regimes due to climate change. We conclude with exciting prospects for further development of this framework: selection analyses, modeling advances and the inclusion of spatial dynamics by considering dispersal traits as well.
    Simulating direct and indirect effects of climatic changes on rare perennial plant species in fragmented landscapes
    Korner, K. ; Treydte, A.C. ; Burkart, M. ; Jeltsch, F. - \ 2010
    Journal of Vegetation Science 21 (2010)5. - ISSN 1100-9233 - p. 843 - 856.
    population viability analysis - primula-veris - extinction debt - habitat fragmentation - gentiana-pneumonanthe - european climate - coupled model - land-use - management - demography
    Question: How does climate change influence plant species population dynamics, their time to extinction, and proportion of occupied habitats in a fragmented landscape? Location: Germany and Central European lowland. Methods: We apply a mechanistic general simulation model to test the response of plant functional types to direct and indirect effects of climate change. Three functional types were chosen to represent a set of well-studied perennial plant species: Juncus atratus, Gentiana pneumonanthe and Primula veris. We link local population dynamics within a heterogeneous, fragmented landscape context. "Species spheres", i.e. multi-dimensional parameter ranges rather than single parameter realizations, based on field and literature data served as proxy for life stage transition parameters. Four climatic scenarios summarizing different cumulative weather effects on demographic rates and different local disturbance frequencies were run. The model predicts "time to extinction" (TE) and "proportion of occupied habitat" (POH) as regional indicators for species extinction risk. Results: TE decreased for all species when weather conditions worsened, and even more so when the frequency of local destructive events additionally increased. However, management towards fewer disturbance events could buffer the negative effect of climate to some extent. The magnitude of these responses varied with species type. POH declined with an increase in bad weather as well as with increasing disturbance frequency. The better the climatic conditions, the less severe were disturbances on population performance. Conclusions: The "species spheres" proved to be a valuable approach for predictive trends. As climate change usually also implies destructive events such as land-use change, flooding or fire, our model on local and regional extinction risks can support conservation issues and management actions. © 2010 International Association for Vegetation Science.
    Demografie in de Natuurverkenning 2011 : achtergronddocument bij Natuurverkenning 2011
    Veeneklaas, F.R. ; Vader, J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 194) - 58
    landschap - recreatie - landgebruik - openluchtrecreatie - demografie - vestigingspatronen - prognose - natuur - landscape - recreation - land use - outdoor recreation - demography - settlement patterns - prognosis - nature
    Dit document dient als input voor de omgevingsscenario's van de Natuurverkenning 2011. Het behandelt de gevolgen voor natuur en landschap van demografische ontwikkelingen tot 2040. Die effecten verlopen via het ruimtebeslag door bebouwing, openluchtrecreatie en vestigingspatronen & woonvoorkeuren. Er is gebruik gemaakt van de regionale bevolkingsprognose van het CBS/PBL van 2009, met daaraan toegevoegd twee varianten voor migratie, Er is verder een vergelijking gemaakt met de CPB/RPB/MNP-studie Welvaart en Leefomgeving uit 2006.
    Demografie in de Natuurverkenning 2011
    Veeneklaas, F.R. ; Vader, J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 3) - 6
    demografie - recreatie - landgebruik - vestigingspatronen - demography - recreation - land use - settlement patterns
    Demografische ontwikkelingen hebben invloed op natuur en landschap. Met name via ruimtebeslag door bebouwing, recreatieve consumptie en vestigingspatronen. In WOt-paper 3 wordt ingegaan op een studie die is uitgevoerd om input te leveren voor de omgevingsscenario's van de Natuurverkenning 2010-2040. Naast de lichte bevolkingsgroei die wordt voorzien, bepalen ook welvaart, samenstelling en herkomst van de bevolking het ruimtebeslag. Door de vergrijzing zal er een grotere behoefte zijn aan groen in de directe woonomgeving en aan wandel- en fietsmogelijkheden. De woonlocatie wordt steeds minder bepaald door sociale en economische motieven en steeds meer door kwaliteit van de woonomgeving. De druk op de Randstad neemt toe en wonen op het platteland nabij de stad is in trek.
    Bevolkingsontwikkeling op het platteland, 1980-2025; Voorstudie
    Terluin, I.J. ; Godeschalk, F.E. ; Jansson, K.M. ; Verhoog, A.D. - \ 2010
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Onderzoeksveld internationaal beleid ) - ISBN 9789086154173 - 79
    demografie - veranderingen in de bevolking - prognose - platteland - nederland - statistiek - plattelandsontwikkeling - demography - population change - prognosis - rural areas - netherlands - statistics - rural development
    In deze studie wordt een verkenning gemaakt van de bevolkingsontwikkeling 2008-2025 in plattelandsgemeenten in Nederland. Daarbij wordt gebruik gemaakt van cijfers van de EU 27-lidstaten, over de jaren 1980-2025. Het blijkt dat de meeste plattelandsgemeenten te maken krijgen met een situatie van bevolkingskrimp. Om de verwachte bevolkingsgroei in Nederland in een breder perspectief te zetten, besteedt deze studie ook aandacht aan prognoses voor de wereldbevolking en de bevolkingsontwikkeling in lidstaten en regio's van de EU. Bevolkingskrimp kan kansen bieden als bestuurders de demografische omslag erkennen en erop inspelen.
    Frost and Forest Stand Effects on the Population Dynamics of Asplenium scolopendrium
    Bremer, P. ; Jongejans, E. - \ 2010
    Population Ecology 52 (2010)1. - ISSN 1438-3896 - p. 211 - 222.
    central new-york - perennial herbs - carduus-nutans - var americana - demography - netherlands - thistle - range - fern
    Our objective was to analyze which factors are critical for the dynamics of terrestrial Asplenium scolopendrium populations at the northern edge of its distribution. Therefore, a long-term study (1978–1999) on the performance and demography of this fern species has been carried out in three different forest stands (Picea sitchensis with Fagus sylvatica, P. sitchensis with thinning, and Fraxinus excelsior) in the Netherlands. We used the recorded demographic data to parameterize 37 transition matrices. The number of frost days in severe winters correlated closely with frond damage and resulted in increased mortality and retrogression. Landslip on the trench banks and intraspecific competition were also found to increase mortality. In the F. excelsior plot, plants grew faster and bigger, produced more fronds and formed a more closed fern cover than in the P. sitchensis stands, likely due to higher light levels. Life-table response experiments revealed that reproduction contributed greatly to the differences in projected population growth rates: reproduction was importantly higher in the F. excelsior and in the thinned P. sitchensis plots than in the P. sitchensis–F. sylvatica plot. These differences can be attributed to an initial difference in light climate and to the accumulation of F. sylvatica litter which reduced recruitment. Recruitment occurred on bare soil but also in open moss carpets. We expect that the fern Asplenium scolopendrium will profit at its northern distribution edge when severe winters will occur less frequently, which is one of the expectations for global climate change.
    Demografische veranderingen en ontwikkelingssamenwerking
    Ruijter, A. ; Berendsen, B.S.M. ; Borren, S. ; Etty, T. ; Loon, F.D. van; Mennes, L.B.M. ; Niehof, A. ; Velden, A. van der; Voorhoeve, J.J.C. ; Zoomers, E.B. - \ 2009
    Den Haag : AIV (Adviesraad Internationale Vraagstukken) (Adviezen / Adviesraad Internationale Vraagstukken nr. 66) - 53
    demografie - sociale verandering - populatiegroei - ontwikkelingsbeleid - ontwikkelingslanden - nederland - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - sociale problemen - demography - social change - population growth - development policy - developing countries - netherlands - development cooperation - social problems
    Eten van waarde : peiling consument en voedsel
    Bartels, J. ; Onwezen, M.C. ; Ronteltap, A. ; Fischer, A.R.H. ; Kole, A.P.W. ; Veggel, R.J.F.M. van; Meeusen, M.J.G. - \ 2009
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : [Werkveld 3, Consument en ketens] ) - 192
    consumentengedrag - consumentenonderzoeken - voedselkwaliteit - perceptie - demografie - humane voeding - consumer behaviour - consumer surveys - food quality - perception - demography - human feeding
    This report provides a description of a scientifically-funded instrument that measures and explains the perceptions (or 'thoughts') and behaviours (or 'actions') of consumers with regards to food quality values. A description of its application is presented to generate insights into how modern Dutch consumers think about food, what Dutch consumers actually buy and the relationship between perceptions and behaviours.
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