Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile
    Carter Leal, L.M. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink; Helmut Saatkamp. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578173 - 171
    business economics - rural development - development policy - agricultural development - regional development - livestock farming - farmers - chile - south america - bedrijfseconomie - plattelandsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsbeleid - landbouwontwikkeling - regionale ontwikkeling - veehouderij - boeren - chili - zuid-amerika
    Is sustainable development of semi-subsistence mixed crop-livestock systems possible? : an integrated assessment of Machakos, Kenya
    Valdivia, R.O. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tammo Bult, co-promotor(en): J. Antle; Jetse Stoorvogel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578272 - 233
    sustainable development - development economics - livestock - cash crops - agriculture - mixed farming - development policy - policy - rural areas - poverty - farming - kenya - east africa - duurzame ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingseconomie - vee - marktgewassen - landbouw - gemengde landbouw - ontwikkelingsbeleid - beleid - platteland - armoede - landbouw bedrijven - kenya - oost-afrika

    Sub-Saharan Africa countries face the challenge of reducing rural poverty and reversing the declining trends of agricultural productivity and the high levels of soil nutrient depletion. Despite of numerous efforts and investments, high levels of poverty and resource degradation persist in African agriculture. The Millennium Development Goals Report (MDGR) states that the majority of people living below the poverty line of $1.25 a day belong to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia. About two thirds of the global rural population lives in mixed crop-livestock systems (CLS), typical of SSA, where interactions between crops and livestock activities are important for the subsistence of smallholders. CLS are characterized by high degree of biophysical and economic heterogeneity, complex and diversified production system that frequently involves a combination of several subsistence and cash crops and livestock. Increasing crop productivity is clearly a key element to improve living standards and to take these people out of poverty. However, agricultural productivity in most of SSA has been stagnant or increased slowly. In addition, the likely negative impacts of climate change on agriculture have accentuated the vulnerability of smallholders.

    The international research community has once more the eyes on SSA with the recently proposed post-2015 MDGs, the Sustainable Development Goals that emphasize the need to achieve sustainable development globally by 2030 by promoting economic development, environmental sustainability, good governance and social inclusion. Governments and scientists are making considerable efforts to develop strategies that include structural transformations of the different sectors of the economy in search of the recipe to achieve the SDGs. Most of these strategies are based on policy and technology interventions that seek to achieve the “win-win” outcomes and move from the usual “tradeoffs” between poverty-productivity-sustainability to synergies. A key message of this thesis is that achieving the goal of sustainable development in semi-subsistence African agriculture will require better understanding of the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle: why high poverty and resource degradation levels persist in African agriculture. I hypothesize that the answer to this puzzle lies, at least in part, in understanding and appropriately analyzing key features of semi-subsistence crop-livestock systems (CLS) typical of Sub-Saharan Africa. The complexity and diversity of CLS often constrain the ability of policy or technology interventions to achieve a “win-win” outcome of simultaneously reducing poverty while increasing productivity sustainably (i.e., avoiding soil nutrient losses).

    This thesis focuses on the Machakos Region in Kenya. Machakos has been the center of many studies looking at soil fertility issues and its implications for poverty and food security, including the well-known study by Tiffen et al. (1994). Recently, the Government of Kenya developed the Kenya Vision 2030, a long-term development strategy designed to guide the country to meet the 2015 MDGs and beyond. The agricultural sector is recognized as one of the economic actors that can lead to reduce poverty if appropriate policies are in place. For the Vision 2030, the key is to improve smallholder productivity and promote non-farm opportunities. The Vision 2030 was used to assess if the implementation of some of the proposed plans and policies can lead to a sustainable agriculture for smallholders in the Machakos region.

    This thesis describes and uses the Tradeoff Analysis Model (TOA), an integrated modeling approach designed to deal with the complexities associated to production systems such as the CLS and at the same time, quantify economic and sustainability indicators for policy tradeoff analysis (e.g., poverty indexes and measures of sustainability). The TOA was linked to Representative Agricultural Pathways and Scenarios to represent different future socio-economic scenarios (based on the Vision 2030) to assess the impacts of policy interventions aimed to move agricultural systems towards meeting sustainable development goals.

    One important finding is that the complex behavior of CLS has important implications for the effectiveness of policy interventions. The Machakos analysis provides important findings regarding the implementation and effectiveness of policy interventions addressing poverty and sustainability in Africa and other parts of the developing world. The analysis shows that policy interventions tend to result in much larger benefits for better-endowed farms, implying that farm heterogeneity results in differential policy impacts and that resilience of agricultural systems is likely to be highly variable and strongly associated with heterogeneity in bio-physical and economic conditions. The results shows that a combination of these interventions and strategies, based on the GoK Vision 2030 and the Machakos County plans, could solve the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle in this region. The pathway from tradeoffs to synergies (win-win) seems to be feasible if these interventions and strategies are well implemented, however the analysis also shows that some villages may respond better to these strategies than others. The analysis suggests that these interventions may actually benefit most the areas with better initial endowments of soils and climate.

    The analysis also suggested that prices (e.g., maize price) play a key role in the assessment of policy interventions. There is an increasing recognition that analysis of economic and environmental outcomes of agricultural production systems requires a bottom-up linkage from the farm to market, as well as top-down linkage from market to farm. Hence, a two-way linkage between the TOA model and a partial equilibrium market model (ME) was developed. The TOA model links site-specific bio-physical process models and economic decision models, and aggregate economic and environmental outcomes to a regional scale, but treats prices as exogenous. The resulting TOA-ME allows the effects of site-specific interactions at the farm scale to be aggregated and used to determine market equilibrium. This in turn, can be linked back to the underlying spatial distribution of economic and environmental outcomes at market equilibrium quantities and prices. The results suggest that market equilibrium is likely to be important in the analysis of agricultural systems in developing countries where product and input markets are not well integrated, and therefore, local supply determines local prices (e.g., high transport costs may cause farm-gate prices be set locally) or where market supply schedules are driven not only by prices but also by changes in farm characteristics in response to policy changes, environmental conditions or socio-economic conditions. The results suggest that the market equilibrium price associated to a policy intervention could be substantially different than the prices observed without the market equilibrium analysis, and consequently could play an important role in evaluating the impacts of policy or technology interventions.

    As mentioned above, climate change poses a long-term threat for rural households in vulnerable regions like Sub-Saharan Africa. Policy and technology interventions can have different impacts under climate change conditions. In this thesis the likely economic and environmental impacts of climate change and adaptations on the agricultural production systems of Machakos are analyzed.

    Climate change impact assessment studies have moved towards the use of more integrated approaches and the use of scenarios to deal with the uncertainty of future condition. However, several studies fall short of adequately incorporating adaptation in the analysis, they also fall short of adequately assessing distributional economic and environmental impacts. Similarly, climate change is likely to change patterns of supply and demand of commodities with a consequent change in prices that could play an important role in designing policies at regional, national and international levels. Therefore, a market equilibrium model should also be incorporated in the analysis to assess how markets react to changing prices due to shifts in supply and demand of commodities. The TOA-ME was used to incorporate the elements mentioned above to assess the impacts of climate change. Using data from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) with three emission scenarios (SRES, 2000) to estimate the climate change projections, these projections were used to perturb weather data used by a crop simulation model to estimate the productivity effects of climate change. Land use change and impacts on poverty and nutrient depletion at the market equilibrium were then assessed using the TOA-ME model.

    The simulation was carried out for three scenarios, which are a combination of socio-economic and climate change scenarios: a baseline scenario that represents current socio-economic conditions and climate conditions, a climate change and current socio-economic scenarios (i.e., future climate change with no policy or technology intervention), and a climate change and future socio economic conditions which are a consequence of rural development policies.

    Our findings show that in this particular case, the changes on precipitation, temperature and solar radiation do not show a significant difference among the selected emission scenarios. However, the variability is significant across GCMs. The effects of climate change on crop productivity are negative on average. These results show that policy and technology interventions are needed to reduce this region’s vulnerability. Furthermore, the socio-economic scenarios based on policy and technology interventions presented in the case study would be effective to offset the negative effect of climate change on the sustainability (economical and environmental) of the system across a range of possible climate outcomes represented by different GCMs. Finally, the results show that ignoring market equilibrium analysis can lead to biased results and incorrect information for policy making, in particular for the scenario based on policy and technology interventions.

    One of the major conclusions of the thesis are that policy interventions aimed to deal with poverty and sustainability can have unintended consequences if they are not accompanied by a set of policy strategies and investments. For example, increasing the maize price can result in substitution from subsistence crops to maize, without much increase in nutrient inputs, thus increasing soil nutrient losses. The analysis shows that improving soil nutrient balances by increasing fertilizer and manure use is critically important, but is not enough to move the system to a sustainable path.

    There is no one factor that can reverse the negative nutrient balances and move the system towards sustainability. Rather, a broad-based strategy is required that stimulates rural development, increases farm size to a sustainable level, and also reduces distortions and inefficiencies in input and output markets that tend to discourage the use of sustainable practices. The Machakos case shows that a combination of these interventions and strategies, based on the GoK Vision 2030 and the Machakos County plans, could solve the poverty-productivity-sustainability puzzle in this region.

    Programa Nacional de Agrologística : informe 4: Hoja de Ruta 2018
    Ravensbergen, P. ; Langelaan, H.C. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 102
    logistics - agroindustrial sector - supply chain management - development policy - planning - objectives - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - ketenmanagement - ontwikkelingsbeleid - planning - doelstellingen - mexico
    National Agrologistics Program : report 4: 2018 Roadmap
    Ravensbergen, P. ; Langelaan, H.C. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 102
    logistics - agroindustrial sector - supply chain management - development policy - planning - objectives - mexico - logistiek - agro-industriële sector - ketenmanagement - ontwikkelingsbeleid - planning - doelstellingen - mexico
    Mobiles for agricultural development : exploring trends, challenges and policy options for the Dutch government
    Danes, M.H.G.I. ; Jellema, A. ; Janssen, S.J.C. ; Janssen, H. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2501) - 25
    landbouwontwikkeling - mobiele toepassingen - kleine landbouwbedrijven - informatieverspreiding - landbouwvoorlichting - ontwikkelingsbeleid - nederland - agricultural development - mobile applications - small farms - diffusion of information - agricultural extension - development policy - netherlands
    Currently many initiatives for m-Agri Apps for smallholder development are taking place. The effectiveness and sustainability of the development is promising, however factual evidence of its impact on livelihood improvements is still rare. As a whole the development of m-Agri Apps is mainly stimulated by donor incentives. Among different stakeholders there is the wish to collaborate more and exchange knowledge on: good practises, setting up learning communities, developing m-Agri Apps with open software, making existing data available, developing locally scaled agricultural content and connecting the poorest to mobile networks. Chances lay in better involvement of the agribusiness sector, which gets currently more and more involved with the smallholder communities around the world.
    Upscaling the impact of sustainability certification initiatives; Enabling conditions and policy recommendations for regional development
    Waarts, Y.R. ; Judge, L.O. ; Brons, J.E. ; Ruijter de Wildt, M.J.M. de; Ingram, V.J. - \ 2013
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI report 2013-046) - ISBN 9789086156511 - 80
    agrarische economie - duurzame ontwikkeling - certificering - regionale ontwikkeling - ketenmanagement - ontwikkelingsbeleid - agricultural economics - sustainable development - certification - regional development - supply chain management - development policy
    Sustainability certification is seen by many as an important means to make supply chains more sustainable. Even though there is some robust evidence on farm-level impacts of certification, and more studies are underway, very little information is available on regional level impacts of certification initiatives. In this study, we offer recommendations to governments, businesses, standard-setting bodies and civil society organisations to help contribute to improvements in impact. Three research questions have been addressed: 1. What impact of initiatives, positive and negative, on farm level but especially on regional level, has been documented on the environment, the society and the economy in production areas? 2. Which contextual factors and regional conditions are required or have proven instrumental for the scaling up of impact and catalysing regional impacts? 3. What can certification initiatives, governments, businesses, international organisations and NGOs do to ensure that the abovementioned conditions are created, supported and promoted? In this study, we refer to the impacts on the regional level as impacts which result from farm-level or local level impacts. To answer the above questions, we reviewed literature sources and conducted semi-structured interviews with stakeholders involved in coffee, cocoa, soy and palm oil supply chains.
    Resilience in rural social-ecological systems : a spatially explicit agent-based modelling approach
    Schouten, M.A.H. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wim Heijman; Paul Opdam, co-promotor(en): Martijn van der Heide. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734969 - 142
    ruimtelijke economie - ruimtelijke modellen - plattelandsontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsbeleid - europese unie - landschap - platteland - agrarisch natuurbeheer - nederland - landbouwbeleid - spatial economics - spatial models - rural development - development policy - european union - landscape - rural areas - agri-environment schemes - netherlands - agricultural policy

    Rural areas are increasingly changed by drivers on large spatial scales such as economic globalization and climate change. These international drivers may bring forth abrupt disturbances, such as high output price peaks and falls, water floods and droughts, and massive outbreaks of animal diseases which negatively affect a rural areas’ environmental and socio-economic development. To understand such effects, approaches are needed that consider rural areas from a complex system perspective, taking into account the interdependence between ecological and socio-economic dynamics. Therefore, in this thesis rural areas are considered as a social-ecological system (SES), characterized by strong links between the social and the ecological component, and by multiple interactions across spatial and temporal scales. The behaviour of such a complex system is highly unpredictable, and the effects of disturbances therefore highly uncertain. In this context, resilience has been promoted as a concept to guide and direct the management of SESs. Resilience is a system property that reflects the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance, undergo change, and retain the same essential functions, structure, identity and feedbacks. So far, resilience has often been explored as a metaphorical or theoretical construct. However, to be able to use the concept in the management of rural SESs, it needs to be made operational and measurable. The objective of this thesis is to explore how the concept of resilience can be operationalized and implemented into the management of rural social-ecological systems. This general objective can be divided into two sub goals. The first objective aims to identify criteria that can be considered as indicators for a rural SESs resilience. The second objective aims at assessing the behaviour of these indicators in an experimental setting, capturing the complex dynamics of rural SESs by means of a spatially explicit agent-based model[1]. In this way, management advice can be provided that takes the coevolving nature of rural SESs into account and supports strategies to cope with uncertainty.

    In Chapter 2 criteria are developed for a policy objectives evaluation framework that analyses how rural development policies contribute to the resilience of rural areas. Each criterion is described in its rural social-ecological context and specifications are proposed that make each of the criteria applicable in judging and evaluating policy measures for developing resilience in rural SESs. The framework is applied to European rural development policies, specifically focusing on the spending of compulsory modulation budget. The case study signalled the strengths and weaknesses of the framework with respect to the coherence and distinctiveness of the used criteria.

    In Chapter 3 a spatially explicit rural agent-based model (named SERA) is developed which aims at evaluating how rural policy interventions affect farmers, their land use and the landscape of which they are a part. Using the criteria proposed in Chapter 2, the model provides a way to evaluate how the contribution of these policies to resilience could be made effective, while imposing disturbances to the system. The model constitutes a virtual rural region, comprised by a large number of individually acting farms that operate with each other and with parts of their environment. The model initializes with empirical data on individual farms and existing agricultural spatial structures. According to their behavioural model, the individual farm agents evolve subject to their state of attributes and to changes in their environment.

    Chapter 4 investigates the sensitivity of the model output to changes in parameters. In this way, the parameters that are the key drivers of the model results are discovered. A mixed methodological approach is used, simulating uncertainties one-at-a-time and then together in a Monte Carlo simulation using random sampling. This mixed methodological approach provides understanding in the model’s behaviour by revealing non-linear relations between parameters and outputs, interactions between parameters and possible conditional terms.

    Chapter 5 discusses the implementation of the model for assessing ecological resilience under different policy scenarios in the case study area Winterswijk. The model is used to explore how farmers decisions to include biodiversity conservation in their enterprise are affected by fluctuating market conditions, and how they respond to two different policy scenarios aiming at biodiversity conservation. The first policy scenario includes a fixed compensatory payment per hectare, irrespective of the location and spatial configuration of the parcel in the landscape. In the second policy scenario spatially dependent payments are given, depending on the contribution of parcels to species habitat networks. Results show that during periods of large price falls, farmers have the tendency to switch to biodiversity conservation contracts as they try to secure their income. Parcel size, quality and distance to the homestead show to be decisive characteristics in the decision making process. Furthermore, it is shown that whenever policy makers aim at achieving the highest amount of contracted hectares, a fixed payment is preferable. Whenever they aim at the highest contribution to ecological resilience, they should switch to spatially dependent payments.

    Chapter 6 explores potentials and limitations of operationalizing resilience in rural SESs through measurable indicators. The resilience criteria proposed in Chapter 2 are translated into measurable indicators and their behaviour in a rural SES in times of disturbances is tested using the agent-based model discussed in Chapter 3. The approach is illustrated by comparing two management regimes, namely self-governance and hierarchical governance, in two experiments aiming at conserving biodiversity in the case study area Winterswijk. The first experiment focuses on agri-environment schemes, compensating farmers to preserve biodiversity. The second experiment concerns the compulsory 7% Ecological Focus Areas measure, which is part of the European Commission proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy for the 2014-2020 period. The model and the proposed resilience indicators can assist rural policy makers to evaluate to what extend management strategies contribute to resilience in rural SESs.

    Chapter 7 provides a discussion of the findings from Chapter 2-6 and provides a reflection of the scientific added value of the collection of chapters and what their main messages are to the rural policy makers and managers.This thesis contributes to scientific literature by operationalizing the concept of resilience for use as a management concept in rural SESs.Only few studies empirically operationalize resilience in agent-based simulations, and this approach builds on existing literature by including indicators that covered the interdisciplinary character of the rural SES,not limiting the scope to ecological indicators only. The spatially explicit agent-based model builds on existing ABMs used to operationalize resilience by emphasizing more on the economic, ecological and social dimensionsof rural SESs, including a more realistic natural environment and capturing more social interactions between actors. Furthermore, the output of the model was validated in a sensitivity analysis comparing one-at-a-time and Monte Carlo approaches; this showed the added value of combined approaches for the understanding of nonlinearities and interactions in the model.

    To rural policy makers and managers, this thesis provides arguments for acknowledging resilience in the policy making process, while accepting sustainable development of rural areas as a main framework for decision-making in the EU. The resilience criteria proposed in this thesis can provide a starting point for discussion among policy makers, managers, scientists and rural stakeholders about which aspects of the system are of vital importance for the survivability of rural SESs in times of disturbances, and need policy support. The spatially explicit agent-based model can subsequently serve as a useful tool to explore the contribution of potential rural policy scenarios to the resilience of the rural SES, while disturbances are imposed.

    The purification of aid : an ethnography of Dutch partnership policy and (broken) dreams of development
    Gastel, J.N. van - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Monique Nuijten. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461731050 - 151
    ontwikkelingshulp - nederland - ontwikkelingsbeleid - beleidsprocessen - vennootschappen - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsprojecten - development aid - netherlands - development policy - policy processes - partnerships - development - development projects
    This thesis explores the shift from ownership to partnership policy in Dutch development aid. It is an ethnography based on participant observation during several periods between 2001 and 2006 in the Ministry’s headquarters in The Hague and the Dutch embassy in developing country Z. The aim of this research is neither to criticize nor to defend development aid. It does not address the issue of whether partnership policy is effective or if the implementation of this policy is efficient. Instead, this thesis explores policy practices to answer the question of how practitioners try to realize development through aid. It is argued that the current writings conceive development aid as a rational, instrumental policy process and ignores the practices of aid practitioners and, therefore, do not help us understand policy processes. Hence, this thesis develops a theoretical framework that pays attention to aid practitioners’ work and tries to understand how they make sense of development aid. This thesis points out that policy studies should pay attention to dreams of development, which are imaginary orders of an ideal world in which life is good. It shows that ownership and partnership policies express different dreams of development. Then, it shows how aid practitioners try to realize dreams of development through aid and, consequently, how development aid is shaped by different dreams of development. The theoretical framework developed in this thesis conceives policy processes as involving translation and purification practices. Translation is the mobilization and tying together of people, organizations, things, and interests. Purification is the keeping apart of people, organizations, and things because it is believed that they have fundamentally different interests. Hence, this thesis follows the trajectory of partnership from being a policy notion to becoming a public-private partnership project (PPP-project) with the Dutch pharmaceutical company in country Z. In this trajectory the focus is on the different dreams of development that are expressed in and aspired through partnership and the translation and purification processes that make possible or hamper the travelling of partnership. This study of partnership policy combines both the approach of ‘‘studying through”, by following the policy of partnership through time and space, and of ‘‘studying up”, by exploring the aid practices of ministerial officials as a professional elite. The studying of an elite has implications for the methodology of the study. To carry out the research, I had to sign a statement of confidentiality that says no state secrets can be made public. Therefore, this thesis does not reveal any material that is marked as classified in the ministry, but it does write about practices in the aid bureaucracy that are considered by many aid practitioners as public secrets, that is what is generally known about the practices of the state but cannot be articulated in official documents. This thesis contends that writing about the practices of the aid bureaucracy that are part of the state can make a valuable contribution to the debate on development aid. It can explain what keeps the aid bureaucracy together despite the fact that it is not a homogeneous, coherent entity and explicate what makes up development if it isn’t a well-defined, singular goal. The passages quoted in this thesis are both from official and unofficial documents and they also include e-mails between officials in the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The documents and e-mails on the PPP-project were filed in the official archives of the PPP-project in the Dutch Embassy in country Z. These e-mail exchanges are used to show how projects like the PPP are discussed and how practices of translation and purification are negotiated, resisted, and justified in the Ministry. For reasons of confidentiality, all people have been given fictional names except for the Dutch ministers for Development Cooperation. Furthermore, to protect the embassy staff, this thesis talks about the country where the PPP-project should be realized as country Z. Likewise, the Dutch pharmaceutical company is referred to as Pharmaco. The organization of the book is as follows: Chapter 1 describes the academic debate on partnership in development aid. It points out the limitations of the dominant analyses for our understanding of policy processes in development aid and provides a theoretical framework that can address these issues. Chapter 2 shows that studies of development aid should pay more attention to the dreams, ideals, values, fears, and beliefs that the aid policies express. Subsequently, this chapter explores the dreams of development of the three Dutch Ministers for Development Cooperation, Jan Pronk, Eveline Herfkens, and Agnes van Ardenne, over the period of 1989 until 2005. These dreams of development can be understood from the descriptions of the key events and important encounters in each minister’s life. The dreams of development can be traced in their policies; they are expressed in the symbolic language of ownership and partnership. Pronk used the concept of ownership to express a dream that takes into account power relations, while Van Ardenne’s concept of partnership expresses a dream that aims to unite people. Then, whereas Pronk and Herfkens communicate their dream of development in a technical-scientific way, Van Ardenne uses a personal and political way of communicating her dream of development. Because officials who have been trained in academia and worked for many years under Pronk and Herfkens, they have believe that partnership is a buzzword. Chapter 3 explores the assembling of a public-private partnership project (PPP-project) with the Dutch pharmaceutical company Pharmaco. It explains how in this project various actors with different dreams of development and aspirations in life are tied together in the PPP-project. The chapter describes how a project proposal designed to realize the dream of making contraceptives available and affordable worldwide is translated and transformed by a ministerial official to fit Minister Van Ardenne’s dream of development. It is explained why the person who designed that initial project, feels that his project has been ‘‘hijacked” by the Dutch ministry and why he, nonetheless, joins the project when Pharmaco invites him. Chapter 4 analyzes the transportation of the PPP-project from the headquarters in The Hague to country Z. It explores how an assessment team of representatives of the ministerial headquarters in The Hague and of Pharmaco select a country for the realization of the PPP-project. Then, it explains that the choice for country Z is based on where support for the project is thought to be highest and opposition minimal. It is shown that the selection process goes together with the contextualization of the PPP-project. Thus, this chapter shows that a project is not implemented in a context. Rather, a context is created around a project. Then, transportation implies the transformation of both the project and the context of a project. Chapter 5 shows how ministerial officials in the headquarters in The Hague and in the Dutch embassy in country Z discuss the PPP-project. The officials negotiate whether or not this PPP is a development project and how it can be transformed into one. Thus, they debate the sense or nonsense of the translations made by a ministerial official in the headquarters and argue if and how the PPP-project should be purified from Pharmaco’s interest in profit. We see in this that besides dreams of development, career aspirations, concerns for reputation, and ideas of what it means to be a good ministerial official also play a role in the negotiation on translation and purification of the PPP-project. Chapter 6 presents the main findings of this research and their theoretical implications. It concludes that the dividing policy processes into policy making and policy implementation is a theoretical misunderstanding as this thesis shows that policy processes consists of translation and purification practices, Yet, this model of policy making versus implementation is also a used as an argument by officials to legitimize particular translations and decline other interpretations. Furthermore, this thesis claims that only when we take dreams of development seriously, we can find a way out of the current cynicism in development aid.
    Does international sustainability certification support regional biodiversity conservation objectives? : the case of rooibos production and Fynbos conservation in South-Africa
    Waarts, Y.R. ; Kuit, M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Market, chains and sustainable development strategy & policy paper 21) - ISBN 9789461734747 - 14
    biodiversiteit - certificering - natuurbescherming - conservering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - fijnbos (zuid afrika) - zuid-afrika - afrika - ontwikkelingsbeleid - beleid - milieu - biodiversity - certification - nature conservation - conservation - sustainability - fynbos - south africa - africa - development policy - policy - environment
    Trainer's manual on climate change adaptation and development : integrating climate change in policy making for sustainable development in agriculture and natural resources management
    Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M. ; Geene, J. van; Gordijn, F. ; Jaspers, A.M.J. ; Argaw, M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation (Working paper / Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation ) - ISBN 9789085859673 - 136
    ontwikkelingsstudies - ontwikkelingsbeleid - duurzame ontwikkeling - landbouw - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - klimaatverandering - ontwikkelingslanden - klimaatadaptatie - lerarenopleiding - kennisoverdracht - development studies - development policy - sustainable development - agriculture - natural resources - resource management - climatic change - developing countries - climate adaptation - teacher training - knowledge transfer
    Thinking Beyond Credit
    Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 2010
    Farming Matters 26 (2010)2. - ISSN 2210-6499 - p. 36 - 39.
    landbouwontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsbeleid - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - krediet - kredietbeleid - agricultural development - economic development - development policy - development programmes - credit - credit policy
    Credit is often seen as an indispensable vehicle for the poor to get out of poverty, or as the tool that allows farmers to get access to new technologies, to increase productivity and their incomes. But many existing credit programmes often undermine farmers’ independence, tie them into dependency relationships, and oblige them to take all the risk. There are better ways to help farmers build their own resource base and independence
    Shocks, civil war and economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Nillesen, E.E.M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): P. Verwimp. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856597 - 134
    economische ontwikkeling - oorlog - conflict - instellingen - ontwikkelingshulp - ontwikkelingsbeleid - overheidsbeleid - burundi - centraal-afrika - minst ontwikkelde landen - ontwikkelingslanden - ontwikkelingseconomie - institutionele economie - governance - economic development - war - conflict - institutions - development aid - development policy - government policy - burundi - central africa - least developed countries - developing countries - development economics - institutional economics - governance
    Foreign aid, low institutional quality and civil wars are associated with slow economic development in many Sub-Sahara African countries. I aim to identify causal relations and mechanisms that explain significant correlations. I use both macro- and micro-economic data and show that results are not necessarily far apart.
    I assess the influence of foreign aid using macro-level data of 30 Sub-Saharan African countries. Opponents argue that foreign aid corrupts, and will end up in the hands of a small elite. Institutional quality (e.g. corruption) will hence deteriorate, thereby adversely affecting economic growth. Even worse, the inflow of foreign exchange can presumably induce civil warfare or prolong existing wars. My outcomes suggest that aid reduces corruption the next year. Consistent with several accounts from small-scale development programs, impacts however disappear once donors reduce monitoring efforts.
    What about an alleged relation between foreign aid and civil war? Foreign aid does not influence the probability that a war will start but reduces the probability that ongoing wars continue the next year. The result on war start-ups speaks against the idea that aid motivates rebels that want to “grab” the money by getting into power. This cross-national (macro) result is consistent with micro-level results I find for rebellion in Burundi. Variation in appropriable export rents shows no robust relation with rebellion. Lower incomes however do promote rebellion; fighting may then suddenly become an attractive alternative to farming.
    The micro-level data from Burundi also allow examining people’s behaviour after warfare. Wars are destructive, but exposure to war violence appears to improve social relations within communities and promote investment in risky, more profitable, cash crops. These results could be interpreted as evidence of rapid (macro)-economic post-war recovery as recently observed in Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Mozambique and Angola.
    The dissertation challenges some conventional beliefs about key themes in development economics and policy. The results may help rethink researchers, policy-makers and donors about future paths to sound development.
    Demografische veranderingen en ontwikkelingssamenwerking
    Ruijter, A. ; Berendsen, B.S.M. ; Borren, S. ; Etty, T. ; Loon, F.D. van; Mennes, L.B.M. ; Niehof, A. ; Velden, A. van der; Voorhoeve, J.J.C. ; Zoomers, E.B. - \ 2009
    Den Haag : AIV (Adviesraad Internationale Vraagstukken) (Adviezen / Adviesraad Internationale Vraagstukken nr. 66) - 53
    demografie - sociale verandering - populatiegroei - ontwikkelingsbeleid - ontwikkelingslanden - nederland - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - sociale problemen - demography - social change - population growth - development policy - developing countries - netherlands - development cooperation - social problems
    Políticas públicas como objecto social: Imaginando el bien público en el desarollo rural latinoamericano
    Arce, A.M.G. ; Blanco, G. ; Hurtado Paz y Paz, K.M. - \ 2008
    Guatemala : Flacso - ISBN 9789993972570 - 300
    plattelandsontwikkeling - politiek - regering - overheidsbeleid - ontwikkelingsbeleid - markteconomie - sociale ontwikkeling - latijns-amerika - rural development - politics - government - government policy - development policy - market economics - social development - latin america
    Africa, Agriculture, Aid
    Kuyvenhoven, A. - \ 2008
    NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 55 (2008)2. - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 93 - 112.
    ontwikkelingsbeleid - ontwikkelingshulp - afrika - ontwikkelingslanden - plattelandsontwikkeling - agrarische economie - landbouwontwikkeling - intensivering - innovatie adoptie - ontwikkelingseconomie - development policy - development aid - africa - developing countries - rural development - agricultural economics - agricultural development - intensification - innovation adoption - development economics - sustainable land-use - poverty traps
    In a world that is developing fast, Africa¿s relative stagnation is a human tragedy that challenges the development profession. Although climate and geography, and their effect on local institutions, are not in Africa¿s favour, inappropriate policies (including neglect of agriculture) and weak institutions figure more prominently in the explanation of slow growth. Recent evidence, however, points to accelerated growth in many parts of Africa. Analysis of agriculture shows that adverse effects of nature can be handled effectively, that efforts to develop and apply technologies for intensification in a variety of farming systems are under way, but that sustained adoption by the mass of smallholders has not sufficiently taken place. For that to happen, a variety of time- and location-specific complementary actions - both public and private - are needed, based on a right mix of disciplinary knowledge. With positive changes in governance and a revival of agricultural priorities in Africa, favourable conditions are emerging for renewed and better targeted external aid to support agricultural development.
    Opportunities for protected horticulture in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates
    Wijnands, J.H.M. ; Maaswinkel, R.H.M. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    teelt onder bescherming - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - agrarische structuur - landbouwsituatie - verenigde arabische emiraten - saoedi-arabië - ontwikkelingsbeleid - doelstellingen - economische analyse - investeringsplannen - glastuinbouw - ontwikkelingseconomie - protected cultivation - farm development - agricultural structure - agricultural situation - united arab emirates - saudi arabia - development policy - objectives - economic analysis - investment planning - greenhouse horticulture - development economics
    The authorities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are making great efforts to diversify the economy, they wish to develop other sources of income to compensate for declining oil revenues. The scarcity of water gives cause to the need for its more efficient use, and for this reason protected horticulture is receiving a great deal of attention in both countries. The greenhouse industry contributes to sustainable development, creates appealing jobs for the indigenous population, and is compatible with the trend towards an increased demand for higher quality and safe food. Dutch knowledge and technology could provide support to the required developments in both countries
    FLEGT beyond T : exploring the meaning of 'Governance' concepts for the FLEGT process
    Bodegom, A.J. van; Klaver, D.C. ; Schoubroeck, F.H.J. van; Valk, O.M.C. van der - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research centre - 56
    bestuur - regering - overheidsbeleid - bosbeleid - bosbedrijfsvoering - ontwikkelingsbeleid - centraal-afrika - europese unie - governance - administration - government - government policy - forest policy - forest management - development policy - central africa - european union - governance
    The FLEGT process is about the EU action plan on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade. This study focuses on the Governance aspects of FLEGT and was commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature ad Food Quality of The Netherlands. There is a need to gain more insight into the definitions of 'governance' which apply to the forest sector. To this end, it is useful to analyse and catalogue the most important and widely used definitions in order to help create a common understanding among national and international stakeholders.
    Partners in peace : discourses and practices of civil-society peacebuilding
    Leeuwen, M. van - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049562 - 252
    oorlog - conflict - sociale onrust - preventie - internationale samenwerking - ontwikkelingsbeleid - hedendaagse samenleving - sudan - rwanda - burundi - democratische republiek kongo - guatemala - peace building - vrede - maatschappelijk middenveld - internationale conflicten - politieke conflicten - sociaal conflict - conflictmanagement - war - conflict - social unrest - prevention - international cooperation - development policy - contemporary society - sudan - rwanda - burundi - congo democratic republic - guatemala - peacebuilding - peace - civil society - international conflicts - political conflicts - social conflict - conflict management
    This study looks into images, and assumptions, of civil-society peacebuilding and its support by international development organizations, and how this relates to politics and practices of peacebuilding on the ground. It is built principally on a series of case studies of peacebuilding interventions and organizations working in southern Sudan, Burundi and the African Great Lakes Region, and Guatemala. This study underscores the importance of implicit assumptions in contemporary peacebuilding work. International support to civil-society peacebuilding is often guided by simplified notions on conflict and the potential roles of civil society in bringing about peace. To arrive at better peacebuilding practices, it is necessary to know more about what civil society is, how it works, and how the assumptions motivating its support work out in practice. This requires exploring the everyday peacebuilding practices of civil-society organizations. In particular, attention needs be given to the organizing practices of peacebuilding organizations, how they operate and develop, to the different meanings attributed to peacebuilding by the diverse parties involved, and to how understanding peacebuilding is part of organizational politics.
    In fieldwork and analysis, I applied an actor-oriented approach. Such an approach helps to clarify how policies and interventions of organizations result from the everyday practices of organizations and the people and authorities of the communities where they implement their programs. A core notion in this study is discourse, referring to collective practices of ordering or ‘framing’ in the minds of actors, who make sense of their experiences through coherent schemes. Discourses are often seen as implying power: as dominant traditions of looking at the world which eliminate alternative visions, or as affecting social relations through diverse ways. Organizations may use discourses strategically, for example, to legitimize interventions. Discourse can be highly political, promoting particular agendas for development.
    While acknowledging the power of discourse, this study focuses on discourse as a cognitive process. To be able to operate and to respond to the complexity of conflict and peacebuilding, development organizations simplify reality. But simplifying reality always implies that parts of reality are lost or remain underexposed. In the case studies, I reflect on the consequences of simplification, and explore how development organizations can better take account of the necessary simplifications they make. In practice, it is often difficult to separate the cognitive exercise of ordering from the politics of ordering - the two often interact or go closely together. Simplification always implies political choices by prioritizing certain problems and interpreting particular interventions as the most appropriate. The study argues that to understand ordering requires giving equal attention to the several attributes of discourse. This research approach is elaborated upon in chapter 1.
    Chapter 1 also reflects on my experiences with an interactive research approach. Through such an interactive approach, I aimed to develop a sense of ownership over questions and recommendations by the civil-society organizations involved in the research and so enhance their peacebuilding work. In my experience, an interactive approach enhances the depth of ethnography and analysis of findings. Carrying out research with (instead of only on) organizations facilitates relations of trust and witnessing organizing practices from within organizations, and enables discussing findings with research partners. It stands out in this study that rather than a research methodology, the interactive character of research should be seen as an intention. The extent to which research becomes interactive cannot be planned, nor assured by the adoption of particular interactive methodologies. Rather, the interactive character of research develops with the advancement of collaboration. Crucial to this process is mutual commitment, which depends on the flexibility of the research and research partners, the expected benefits for the participants, the extent to which expectations are satisfied along the way, and the enthusiasm of individual participants. The interactive character of research is also affected by organizational changes and changing interests. Practically, this means that a researcher needs to ensure that space for participation and non-participation is maintained throughout the process.
    The subsequent two chapters analyse international discourses and policies of peacebuilding, and look at a general level at how organizations make sense of conflict. Chapter 2 analyzes how over the 1990s, peacebuilding discourses developed that attributed a major role to civil society in realizing peace. Though seeming consensus on peacebuilding evaporated with the anti-terrorist policies after 9/11, and peacebuilding roles taken on by international NGOs and local civil-society organizations were reclaimed by donor governments and multi-lateral agencies, many international and local organizations continued to be involved in peacebuilding. Nonetheless, consensus on what peacebuilding should look like remains absent. Development actors differ considerably in prioritizing particular domains, and do not agree on the sequencing and interdependence of particular interventions. Moreover, practices of civil-society peacebuilding implicitly build on strong assumptions about the roles civil society, the state and international actors should play in peacebuilding and governance.
    Chapter 3 analyses how those policy trends and emerging discourses regarding peacebuilding and civil society are reflected in the work of particular international development organizations. The chapter demonstrates that peacebuilding is not just an opportunistically applied policy label but has acquired different meanings in practice. Definitions of peacebuilding in policy strategies reflect the different backgrounds of organizations. At the same time, local conditions set limits and pose specific opportunities for peacebuilding. The chapter illustrates that rather than that international development organizations change their practices when new discourses come into fashion and replace previous ones, practices of organizations follow slower. Newer and older discourses continue to be relevant in the practices of organizations. This provides room for manoeuvre to organizations who find in this multiple grounds to legitimize a large range of intervention strategies. Policies are an ongoing process, and are shaped along the way by diverse participants, a theme that is elaborated upon also in the next chapters.
    The remainder of the study discusses case studies of the everyday practices of civil-society peacebuilding in a variety of countries. Chapter 4 analyses the organizing practices of a local women’s peace organization in southern Sudan. The case underscores how the practice of policy making and implementation is more related to the internal dynamics of an organization than to the planned objectives of the intervention. The chapter highlights that to better understand civil-society peacebuilding we need qualitative approaches that give central attention to dynamics of peace organizations. These include the history of an organization and the context in which it develops, the way conflict is experienced in the every day life of local people, the way how actors in and around organizations give meaning to the organization and its practices, and the politics of organizations. The chapter outlines such an approach, presenting five properties of local peace organizations that need be taken into account when supporting local peacebuilding.
    The next two case studies look in particular at how the framing of conflict situations works through in interventions. Chapter 5 analyses how conflict and peacebuilding in the Great Lakes Region are increasingly framed in regional terms. In practice, however, local and international organizations have difficulty in analysing the regional character of conflict and arriving at collaborative regional strategies. Moreover, local civil-society organizations are deeply embedded in the politics of regional conflict. Consequently, the shift to regional peacebuilding approaches remains more theoretical than practical. A regional framing of conflict helps to understand conflict, but fails to inform intervention practice.
    Chapter 6 discusses the consequences of understanding land disputes in Burundi as short term problem, resulting from the massive return of refugees and displaced to their home communities. This particular framing of land disputes urged international and local organizations to initiate programmes for strengthening the capacities of local conflict resolving institutions. The case material shows that though the return of refugees was a factor in disputes about land, there is a lot of continuity between conflict-related and regular land disputes in Burundi. Many land disputes require first and foremost solutions at the political level, rather than at the local level. Moreover, the question was whether the strengthening of local dispute resolving mechanisms would enhance their legitimacy and accessibility, and could guarantee the protection of vulnerable people. While a framing of local land disputes in terms of an emergency helped to define interventions, this framing neglected the long-term, structural character of many land disputes.
    Chapter 7 tackles the question of what the official ending of violence implies for the roles, policies and practices of civil-society organizations. It discusses how Guatemalan civil-society organizations deal with agrarian conflict, ten years after the 1996 peace agreements. The case study shows how international organizations tend to assume that the peace agreements implied a switch to a peaceful situation, in which state institutions function, and civil society can effectively participate in the democratic process. This imagining makes them to assume that civil society now has to switch from protest to proposal, and to neglect the slow process of societal transformation in a post-conflict setting. The chapter argues that the pace and extent of societal transformation has a strong influence on how organizations can develop. It also illustrates that framing conflict and intervention is a continuous process, in which organizational politics play an important role. Finally, the chapter raises some questions on the overall roles of the international community in realizing peace. It argues that the increasing global influence on national governance processes effectively diminishes the power of local citizens to demand accountability from their governments for the processes of change initiated.
    Chapter 8, the conclusion of the study, argues the importance of looking at the everyday practices of peacebuilding. It points out how international discourses on civil-society peacebuilding have resonated in the policies of international development organizations. Over the last fifteen years many organizations have come to reflect on how their programmes contribute to peaceful societies. What emerged was not a circumscribed and shared peacebuilding agenda, but a shared preoccupation with the impacts of diverse interventions on peace and conflict. The precise reasons why organizations apply the term, what peacebuilding does and how it works cannot be read from mandates and policy documents. It requires one to look at the everyday politics and practices of organizations. The meaning of peacebuilding results from everyday negotiations of staff-members and stakeholders at different levels in the aid-chain, each with their own interests and perspectives. To understand peacebuilding, one needs to understand the history of organizations and individual staff members, and the multiple identities and realities organizations represent to the people participating in them, and explore the roles of both organizational politics and conflict politics in defining interventions.
    The conclusion also poses pertinent questions on the assumptions underlying contemporary peacebuilding work, in particular on the roles of civil society and governance. The particular roles civil-society organizations may play in peacebuilding and their most effective contributions to governance strongly depend on local conditions, and on how those influence organizations. International development organizations tend to have particular images of what civil society should do and look like and are eager to support only those organizations fitting their image. International support to local civil society needs to take more account of prevailing forms of governance and the history and development of civil society in a particular context.
    Finally, the conclusion lines out different processes through which organizations arrive at particular framings of the reality in which they operate. Such framings simplify reality in ways that create possibilities for intervention or restrict them. Framing involves cognitive processes of ordering and creating routine, as much as organizational politics. Organizations tend to separate emergency from normality, to focus on techniques of intervention, and to interpret contexts and peacebuilding interventions according to their own frames of reference and particular expertise. At the same time, organizational politics –intentionally or unintentionally– play a strong role in ordering. Organizations promote particular representations of reality that are in line with their possibilities for intervention, and that legitimize them to intervene, and that present their interventions in a-political terms.
    The chapter underscores the high expectations international organizations often have of their intervention. The study points to the need to observe modesty and connect to local agendas. Rather than to work on grand schemes of peacebuilding and taking the lead in societal transformation, they need to be partners in peace.


    Government Procurements Policies in Bolivia: creating a learning environment for smallholder value chains to serve more demanding markets
    Ton, G. ; Mendoza, M. - \ 2007
    London : Regovering Markets Consortium
    kleine landbouwbedrijven - toegevoegde waarde - leren - overheidsbeleid - ontwikkelingsbeleid - toegang - markten - bolivia - ontwikkelingseconomie - small farms - value added - learning - government policy - development policy - access - markets - bolivia - development economics
    Evaluatie Stabiliteitsfonds 2004 en 2005
    Frerks, G.E. ; Klem, B. - \ 2007
    Amsterdam/Wageningen : BartKlemResearch / Wageningen Universiteit - 92
    ontwikkelingshulp - stabiliteit - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsbeleid - herstel - preventie - conflict - oorlog - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - beoordeling - ontwikkelingslanden - nederland - vrede - reconstructie - development aid - stability - development - development policy - rehabilitation - prevention - conflict - war - non-governmental organizations - development programmes - assessment - developing countries - netherlands - peace - reconstruction
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