Salt Tolerance Mechanisms of Plants
Zelm, Eva Van; Zhang, Yanxia ; Testerink, Christa - \ 2020
Annual Review of Plant Biology 71 (2020). - ISSN 1543-5008 - p. 403 - 433.
ABA - auxin - developmental plasticity - ionic stress - osmotic stress - salinity
Crop loss due to soil salinization is an increasing threat to agriculture worldwide. This review provides an overview of cellular and physiological mechanisms in plant responses to salt. We place cellular responses in a time- and tissue-dependent context in order to link them to observed phases in growth rate that occur in response to stress. Recent advances in phenotyping can now functionally or genetically link cellular signaling responses, ion transport, water management, and gene expression to growth, development, and survival. Halophytes, which are naturally salt-tolerant plants, are highlighted as success stories to learn from. We emphasize that (a) filling the major knowledge gaps in salt-induced signaling pathways, (b) increasing the spatial and temporal resolution of our knowledge of salt stress responses, (c) discovering and considering crop-specific responses, and (d) including halophytes in our comparative studies are all essential in order to take our approaches to increasing crop yields in saline soils to the next level.
Developmental plasticity and evolutionary explanations
Uller, Tobias ; Feiner, Nathalie ; Radersma, Reinder ; Jackson, Illiam S.C. ; Rago, Alfredo - \ 2020
Evolution & Development 22 (2020)1-2. - ISSN 1520-541X - p. 47 - 55.
developmental plasticity - explanation - idealization - plasticity-first evolution - reaction norm
Developmental plasticity looks like a promising bridge between ecological and developmental perspectives on evolution. Yet, there is no consensus on whether plasticity is part of the explanation for adaptive evolution or an optional “add-on” to genes and natural selection. Here, we suggest that these differences in opinion are caused by differences in the simplifying assumptions, and particular idealizations, that enable evolutionary explanation. We outline why idealizations designed to explain evolution through natural selection prevent an understanding of the role of development, and vice versa. We show that representing plasticity as a reaction norm conforms with the idealizations of selective explanations, which can give the false impression that plasticity has no explanatory power for adaptive evolution. Finally, we use examples to illustrate why evolutionary explanations that include developmental plasticity may in fact be more satisfactory than explanations that solely refer to genes and natural selection.
Alternative Oxidase (AOX) Senses Stress Levels to Coordinate Auxin-Induced Reprogramming From Seed Germination to Somatic Embryogenesis—A Role Relevant for Seed Vigor Prediction and Plant Robustness
Mohanapriya, Gunasekaran ; Bharadwaj, Revuru ; Noceda, Carlos ; Costa, José Hélio ; Kumar, Sarma Rajeev ; Sathishkumar, Ramalingam ; Thiers, Karine Leitão Lima ; Santos Macedo, Elisete ; Silva, Sofia ; Annicchiarico, Paolo ; Groot, Steven P.C. ; Kodde, Jan ; Kumari, Aprajita ; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis ; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit - \ 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (2019). - ISSN 1664-462X
developmental plasticity - endophytes - environmental stress - metabolic biomarker - plant performance prediction - seed technology
Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the most striking and prominent example of plant plasticity upon severe stress. Inducing immature carrot seeds perform SE as substitute to germination by auxin treatment can be seen as switch between stress levels associated to morphophysiological plasticity. This experimental system is highly powerful to explore stress response factors that mediate the metabolic switch between cell and tissue identities. Developmental plasticity per se is an emerging trait for in vitro systems and crop improvement. It is supposed to underlie multi-stress tolerance. High plasticity can protect plants throughout life cycles against variable abiotic and biotic conditions. We provide proof of concepts for the existing hypothesis that alternative oxidase (AOX) can be relevant for developmental plasticity and be associated to yield stability. Our perspective on AOX as relevant coordinator of cell reprogramming is supported by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses and gross metabolism data from calorespirometry complemented by SHAM-inhibitor studies on primed, elevated partial pressure of oxygen (EPPO)–stressed, and endophyte-treated seeds. In silico studies on public experimental data from diverse species strengthen generality of our insights. Finally, we highlight ready-to-use concepts for plant selection and optimizing in vivo and in vitro propagation that do not require further details on molecular physiology and metabolism. This is demonstrated by applying our research & technology concepts to pea genotypes with differential yield performance in multilocation fields and chickpea types known for differential robustness in the field. By using these concepts and tools appropriately, also other marker candidates than AOX and complex genomics data can be efficiently validated for prebreeding and seed vigor prediction
Perinatal inhibition of NF-KappaB has long-term antihypertensive and renoprotective effects in fawn-hooded hypertensive rats
Koeners, Maarten P. ; Wesseling, Sebas ; Sánchez, Manuel ; Braam, Branko ; Joles, Jaap A. - \ 2016
American Journal of Hypertension 29 (2016)1. - ISSN 0895-7061 - p. 123 - 131.
blood pressure - developmental plasticity - glomerulosclerosis - hypertension - nuclear factor-kappa B - renal hemodynamics
BACKGROUND Inhibition of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) is beneficial in various models of hypertension and renal disease. We hypothesized first that NFκB inhibition during renal development ameliorates hereditary hypertensive renal disease and next whether this was mediated via suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α). METHODS AND RESULTS Prior to the development of renal injury in fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH) rats, a model of hypertension, glomerular hyperfiltration, and progressive renal injury, NFkB activity, measured by nuclear protein expression of NFkB subunit p65, was enhanced twofold in 2-day-old male and female FHH kidneys as compared to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats (P <0.05). Treating FHH dams with pyrrolidine di thio carbamate (PDTC), an NFκB inhibitor, from 2 weeks before birth to 4 weeks after birth diminished NFkB activity in 2-day-FHH offspring to 2-day-WKY levels (P <0.01). Perinatal PDTC reduced systolic blood pressure from 20 weeks onwards by on average 25mm Hg (P <0.001) and ameliorated proteinuria (P <0.05) and glomerulosclerosis (P <0.05). In kidneys of 2-day-, 2-week-, and adult offspring of PDTC-treated FHH dams, PGC-1α was induced on average by 67% (quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)) suggesting that suppression of this factor by NFkB could be involved in renal damage. Follow-up experiments with perinatal pioglitazone (Pio), a PPARγ agonist, failed to confer persistent antihypertensive or renoprotective effects. CONCLUSIONS Perinatal inhibition of enhanced active renal NFκB in 2-day FHH had persistent antihypertensive and renoprotective effects. However, this was not the case for PPARγ stimulation. NFkB stimulation is therefore involved in renal damage in the FHH model of proteinuric renal disease by pathways other than via PPARγ.
The epigenetic turn: Some notes about the epistemological change of perspective in biosciences
Nicolosi, G. ; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P. - \ 2012
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (2012)3. - ISSN 1386-7423 - p. 309 - 319.
developmental plasticity - systems - biology - science
This article compares two different bodies of theories concerning the role of the genome in life processes. The first group of theories can be indicated as referring to the gene-centric paradigm. Dominated by an informational myth and a mechanistic Cartesian body/mind and form/substance dualism, this considers the genome as an ensemble of discrete units of information governing human body and behavior, and remains hegemonic in life sciences and in the public imagination. The second body of theories employs the principle of the extraordinary plasticity of the (body-)organism and emphasizes the value of the (body-)organism-environment mutual interchange, known as ‘the epigenetic approach’. This approach is outlined, showing a gradual, paradigmatic shift from the genecentric towards an epigenetic approach can be observed in the ‘scientific landscape’ over the last 20 years. The article concludes by formulating the argument that this ‘epigenetic turn’ in life sciences has some important implication for renewing epistemological basis of social sciences
Translating environmental gradients into discontinuous reaction norms via hormone signalling in a polyphenic butterfly
Oostra, V. ; Jong, M.A. de; Invergo, B.M. ; Kesbeke, F. ; Wende, F. ; Brakefield, P.M. ; Zwaan, B.J. - \ 2011
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 278 (2011)1706. - ISSN 0962-8452 - p. 789 - 797.
bicyclus-anynana - phenotypic plasticity - developmental plasticity - drosophila-melanogaster - starvation resistance - artificial selection - eyespot size - evolution - responses - canalization
Polyphenisms—the expression of discrete phenotypic morphs in response to environmental variation—are examples of phenotypic plasticity that may potentially be adaptive in the face of predictable environmental heterogeneity. In the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, we examine the hormonal regulation of phenotypic plasticity that involves divergent developmental trajectories into distinct adult morphs for a suite of traits as an adaptation to contrasting seasonal environments. This polyphenism is induced by temperature during development and mediated by ecdysteroid hormones. We reared larvae at separate temperatures spanning the natural range of seasonal environments and measured reaction norms for ecdysteroids, juvenile hormones (JHs) and adult fitness traits. Timing of peak ecdysteroid, but not JH titres, showed a binary response to the linear temperature gradient. Several adult traits (e.g. relative abdomen mass) responded in a similar, dimorphic manner, while others (e.g. wing pattern) showed a linear response. This study demonstrates that hormone dynamics can translate a linear environmental gradient into a discrete signal and, thus, that polyphenic differences between adult morphs can already be programmed at the stage of hormone signalling during development. The range of phenotypic responses observed within the suite of traits indicates both shared regulation and independent, trait-specific sensitivity to the hormone signal.