High Dietary Intake of Vegetable Protein Is Associated With Lower Prevalence of Renal Function Impairment: Results of the Dutch DIALECT-1 Cohort
Oosterwijk, Milou M. ; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S. ; Geleijnse, Johanna M. ; Bakker, Stephan J.L. ; Navis, Gerjan ; Binnenmars, S.H. ; Gant, Christina M. ; Laverman, Gozewijn D. - \ 2019
Kidney International Reports 4 (2019)5. - ISSN 2468-0249 - p. 710 - 719.
diabetes mellitus type 2 - diet - kidney function - lifestyle
Introduction: Dietary protein intake may influence development of renal function impairment in diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). We assessed the association between sources of protein and prevalence of renal function impairment. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were performed in baseline data of 420 patients of the DIAbetes and LifEstyle Cohort Twente-1 (DIALECT-1)study. Protein intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire, modified for accurate assessment of protein intake, including types and sources of protein. Renal function impairment was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula). Results: Among 420 patients with T2DM, 99 renal function impairment cases were identified. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used and adjusted for the main lifestyle and dietary factors. The prevalence ratios in the fully adjusted model were 1 (reference), 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44–1.27; P = 0.28)and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.23–0.98; P = 0.04)according to increasing tertiles of vegetable protein intake. For animal protein intake the prevalence ratios were 1 (reference), 1.10 (95% CI: 0.64–1.88; P = 0.74)and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.56–1.99; P = 0.87)according to increasing tertiles of intake. Theoretical replacement models showed that replacing 3 energy percent from animal protein by vegetable protein lowered the prevalence ratio for the association with renal function impairment to 0.20 (95% CI: 0.06–0.63; P = 0.01). Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that higher intake of vegetable protein was associated with a lower prevalence of renal function impairment, and theoretical replacement of animal protein with vegetable protein was inversely associated with renal function impairment among patients with T2DM.