Tumour necrosis factor allele variants and their association with the occurrence and severity of malaria in African children: a longitudinal study
Gichohi-Wainaina, W.N. ; Boonstra, A. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Demir, A.Y. ; Veenemans, J. ; Verhoef, H. - \ 2015
Malaria Journal 14 (2015). - ISSN 1475-2875 - 11 p.
plasmodium-falciparum malaria - tnf-alpha promoter - cerebral malaria - linkage disequilibrium - rheumatoid-arthritis - diabetes-mellitus - polymorphisms - gene - disease - hla
Background Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is central to the immune response to Plasmodium infection. Its plasma concentration is influenced by allele variants in the promoter region of TNF. The study’s objectives were to assess TNF allele variants (TNF-1031 , TNF-308 ): (1) modulation of malaria rates in young Tanzanian children; (2) modulation of the severity of malaria as indicated by haemoglobin concentrations at the time of presentation with febrile episodes; and (3) the association between Plasmodium infection and haemoglobin concentration in symptomless parasite carriers. Methods Data from a placebo-controlled trial in which 612 Tanzanian children aged 6–60 months with height-for-age z-score in the range -3 SD to 1.5 SD was utilised. Those with Plasmodium infection at baseline were treated with artemether-lumefantrine. An episode of malaria was predefined as current Plasmodium infection with an inflammatory response (axillary temperature =37.5°C or whole blood C-reactive protein concentration =8 mg/L) in children reported sick. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern assessment as well as haplotype analysis was conducted using HAPLOVIEW. Cox regression models used in the primary analysis accounted for multiple episodes per child. Results Genotyping of 94.9% (581/612) children for TNF-1031 (TNF-1031 T>C); allele frequency was 0.39. Corresponding values for rs1800629 (TNF-308 G>A) were 95.4% (584/612) and 0.17. Compared to the wild type genotype (TT), malaria rates were increased in the TNF-1031 CC genotype (hazard ratio, HR [95% CI]: 1.41 [1.01¿1.97] and 1.31 [0.97¿1.76] for crude analysis and adjusting for pre-specified baseline factors, respectively) but decreased in those with the TNF-308 AA genotype (corresponding HR: 0.13 [0.02¿0.63] and 0.16 [0.04¿0.67]). These associations were weaker when analysing first episodes of malaria (P value -0.59 and 0.38, respectively). No evidence that allele variants of TNF-1031 and TNF-308 affected haemoglobin concentration at first episode of malaria, or that they modified the association between Plasmodium infection and haemoglobin concentrations at baseline was observed.
The effect of alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity and glycemic status: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies
Schrieks, I.C. ; Heil, A.L.J. ; Hendriks, H.F.J. ; Mukamal, K.J. ; Beulens, J.W.J. - \ 2015
Diabetes Care 38 (2015). - ISSN 0149-5992 - p. 723 - 732.
randomized controlled-trial - high-density-lipoprotein - life-style intervention - red wine polyphenols - body-mass index - lipid-metabolism - glycated hemoglobin - diabetes-mellitus - white wine - moderate
OBJECTIVE Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This reduced risk might be explained by improved insulin sensitivity or improved glycemic status, but results of intervention studies on this relation are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies investigating the effect of alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity and glycemic status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS PubMed and Embase were searched up to August 2014. Intervention studies on the effect of alcohol consumption on biological markers of insulin sensitivity or glycemic status of at least 2 weeks' duration were included. Investigators extracted data on study characteristics, outcome measures, and methodological quality. RESULTS Fourteen intervention studies were included in a meta-analysis of six glycemic end points. Alcohol consumption did not influence estimated insulin sensitivity (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.08 [-0.09 to 0.24]) or fasting glucose (SMD 0.07 [-0.11 to 0.24]) but reduced HbA1c (SMD -0.62 [-1.01 to -0.23]) and fasting insulin concentrations (SMD -0.19 [-0.35 to -0.02]) compared with the control condition. Alcohol consumption among women reduced fasting insulin (SMD -0.23 [-0.41 to -0.04]) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (SMD 0.16 [-0.04 to 0.37]) but not among men. Results were similar after excluding studies with high alcohol dosages (>40 g/day) and were not influenced by dosage and duration of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS Although the studies had small sample sizes and were of short duration, the current evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may decrease fasting insulin and HbA1c concentrations among nondiabetic subjects. Alcohol consumption might improve insulin sensitivity among women but did not do so overall.
Vitamin D and cognition in older adults: an update of recent findings
Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2015
Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 18 (2015)1. - ISSN 1363-1950 - p. 11 - 16.
mental-state-examination - mild alzheimers-disease - alpha-lipoic acid - mediterranean diet - controlled-trial - medical food - secondary analyses - diabetes-mellitus - older-people - nursing-home
Purpose of review: Ageing is a generally known risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. Underlying mechanisms are expected to be multifactorial, but the exact causes are still elusive. This article reviews the potential role of vitamin D in brain function by presenting an overview of recently published mechanistic, rodent as well as human studies. Recent findings: There is emerging evidence that suggests a beneficial role for vitamin D in brain physiology, for instance by the promotion of neurotransmission, neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, amyloid clearance and the prevention of neuronal death. In addition, several observational studies have shown associations between higher serum vitamin D concentrations and better cognitive performance. To date, imaging studies and randomized controlled trials are scarce, but these studies are expected to fulfil a crucial role towards a better understanding on vitamin D-mediated brain processes in the future. Summary: Despite accumulating evidence supporting a role of vitamin D in brain function, only a handful of human trials have been performed. Consequently, the question whether the association between vitamin D, cognitive decline and dementia is causal cannot be sufficiently answered yet.
Iron metabolism is prospectively associated with insulin resistance and glucose intolerance over a 7-year follow-up period: the CODAM study
Wlazlo, N. ; Greevenbroek, M.M.J. van; Ferreira, I. ; Jansen, E.H.J.M. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Kallen, C.J.H. van der; Schalkwijk, C.G. ; Bravenboer, B. ; Stehouwer, C.D.A. - \ 2015
Acta Diabetologica 52 (2015)2. - ISSN 0940-5429 - p. 337 - 348.
beta-cell function - serum ferritin - diabetes-mellitus - syndrome desir - fatty liver - risk - transferrin - stores - men - inflammation
Objectives Several markers of iron metabolism have been associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in cross-sectional studies. However, prospective data on these associations are scarce, and it is currently unclear in which tissues iron metabolism may contribute to IR. Therefore, we investigated whether markers of iron metabolism were associated with IR in muscle, liver, and adipocytes, and with glucose intolerance over a 7-year follow-up period. Design and methods Serum ferritin, transferrin, total iron, non-transferrin-bound iron, and transferrin saturation were determined at baseline of a prospective cohort study in 509 individuals (60 % men, age 59 ± 6.9 years, body mass index 28.5 ± 4.3). Both at baseline and after a 7-year follow-up (n = 386), measures of glucose, insulin (during glucose tolerance tests), and non-esterified fatty acids were obtained. Using generalized estimating equations, we investigated associations between baseline iron markers and indices of muscle, liver, and adipocyte insulin resistance (adipocyte IR), as well as glucose intolerance, over the 7-year period. Results Over a 7-year period, baseline serum ferritin (per 10 µg/L increase) was positively associated with homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) [ß = 0.77 % (95 % CI 0.50–1.03)], hepatic insulin resistance (hepatic IR) [ß = 0.39 % (0.23–0.55)], adipocyte IR [ß = 1.00 % (0.65–1.35)], and AUCglucose [ß = 0.32 % (0.18–0.46)] after adjustment for several covariates, including inflammatory markers (all p <0.001). Similarly, serum transferrin (per 0.1 g/L) was associated with HOMA2-IR [ß = 2.66 % (1.55–3.78)], hepatic IR [ß = 1.16 % (0.47–1.85)], adipocyte IR [ß = 3.75 % (2.27–5.25)], and AUCglucose [ß = 1.35 % (0.74–1.96)] over 7 years. Conclusions Iron metabolism and related factors may contribute to IR in muscle, liver, and adipocytes, eventually leading to impaired glucose metabolism and hyperglycaemia.
Glycated hemoglobin measurement and prediction of cardiovascular disease
Angelantonio, E. Di; Gao, P. ; Khan, H. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2014
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 311 (2014)12. - ISSN 0098-7484 - p. 1225 - 1233.
statistical-methods - diabetes-mellitus - risk score - task-force - glucose - guidelines - metaanalysis - mortality - adults
(For a complete list of authors see The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration in the Article Information) Importance The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. Objective To determine whether adding information on HbA1c values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Design, Setting, and Participants Analysis of individual-participant data available from 73 prospective studies involving 294¿998 participants without a known history of diabetes mellitus or CVD at the baseline assessment. Main Outcomes and Measures Measures of risk discrimination for CVD outcomes (eg, C-index) and reclassification (eg, net reclassification improvement) of participants across predicted 10-year risk categories of low (
Short-term effects of glucose and sucrose on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people
Zwaluw, N.L. van der; Rest, O. van de; Kessels, R.P.C. ; Groot, C.P.G.M. de - \ 2014
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 36 (2014)5. - ISSN 1380-3395 - p. 517 - 527.
participants aged 24-81 - blood-glucose - normative data - older-adults - memory performance - diabetes-mellitus - subjective memory - enhancement - humans - carbohydrate
In this study we determined the short-term effects of a glucose drink and a sucrose drink compared to a placebo on cognitive performance and mood in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints using a randomized crossover study design. In total, 43 nondiabetic older adults with self-reported memory complaints were included. Drinks consisted of 250 ml with dissolved glucose (50 g), sucrose (100 g), or a mixture of artificial sweeteners (placebo). Multiple neuropsychological tests were performed and were combined by means of z scores into four cognitive domains: episodic memory, working memory, attention and information (processing speed), and executive functioning. Mood was assessed with the short Profile of Mood Status (s-POMS) questionnaire. Blood glucose concentrations were measured at five time points to divide participants into those with a better or poorer blood glucose recovery. Performance on the domain of attention and information processing speed was significantly better after consuming the sucrose drink (domain score of 0.06, SD = 0.91) than after the placebo drink (–0.08, SD = 0.92, p = .04). Sucrose had no effect on the other three domains, and glucose had no effect on any of the domains compared to the placebo. When dividing participants into poorer or better glucose recoverers, the beneficial effect of sucrose on attention and information processing speed was only seen in participants with a poorer recovery. After sucrose consumption, depressive feelings and tension were slightly higher than after the placebo. To conclude, 100 g sucrose, but not 50 g glucose, optimized attention and information processing speed in the short term in this study in elderly people with subjective, mild memory complaints.
Distinct associations of complement C3a and its precursor C3 with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease
Hertle, E. ; Greevenbroek, M.M.J. van; Arts, I.C.W. ; Kallen, C.J.H. van der; Geijselaers, S.L.C. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Jansen, E.H. ; Schalkwijk, C.G. ; Stehouwer, C.D.A. - \ 2014
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 111 (2014)6. - ISSN 0340-6245 - p. 1102 - 1111.
coronary-artery-disease - acylation-stimulating protein - intima-media thickness - low-grade inflammation - metabolic syndrome - anaphylatoxins c3a - insulin-resistance - diabetes-mellitus - endothelial-cells - cigarette-smoke
Complement C3 is a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanism is currently unknown. We determined the associations of the anaphylatoxin C3a, the activation product of C3, and of C3 itself with estimates of atherosclerosis and CVD. We studied associations of C3a and C3 with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), ankle-arm blood pressure index (AAIx) and CVD in cross-sectional analyses among 545 participants of the Cohort on Diabetes and Atherosclerosis Maastricht (CODAM) study (61% men, 59.4 ± 6.9 years) and examined effect modification by smoking. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses with adjustments for age, sex, glucose metabolism status, lipids, adiposity, renal function, blood pressure, pack-years smoked, physical activity, use of medication and investigated mediation by inflammation. C3a was independently associated with cIMT (ß=0.032 mm, [95% confidence interval: 0.004; 0.060]) and AAIx (ß=-0.022, [-0.043; –0.001]), but C3 was not. Effect modification by smoking was only observed for CVD (Psmoking*C3a=0.008, Psmoking*C3=0.018), therefore these associations were stratified for smoking behaviour. Both C3a (odds ratio [OR] =2.96, [1.15; 7.62]) and C3 (OR =1.98, [1.21; 3.22]) were independently associated with CVD in heavy smokers. The association of C3 with CVD was independent of C3a. Low-grade inflammation did partially explain the association of C3a with AAIx, but not the other observed associations. This suggests that C3a and C3 have distinct roles in pathways leading to CVD. C3a may promote atherosclerosis and additionally advance CVD in heavy smokers. Conversely, C3 may be associated with CVD in heavy smokers via pathways other than atherosclerosis.
The Maillard reaction and pet food processing: effects on nutritive value and pet health
Rooijen, C. van; Bosch, G. ; Poel, A.F.B. van der; Wierenga, P.A. ; Alexander, L. ; Hendriks, W.H. - \ 2013
Nutrition Research Reviews 26 (2013)2. - ISSN 0954-4224 - p. 130 - 148.
glycation end-products - distillers dried grains - age-related-changes - slope-ratio assay - available lysine - amino-acid - diabetes-mellitus - extrusion-cooking - model systems - growing-pigs
The Maillard reaction, which can occur during heat processing of pet foods or ingredients, is known to reduce the bioavailability of essential amino acids such as lysine due to the formation of early and advanced Maillard reaction products (MRP) that are unavailable for utilisation by the body. Determination of the difference between total and reactive lysine by chemical methods provides an indication of the amount of early MRP present in foods, feeds and ingredients. Previous research reported that the difference between total and reactive lysine in pet foods can be up to 61·8 %, and foods for growing dogs may be at risk of supplying less lysine than the animal may require. The endogenous analogues of advanced MRP, advanced glycation endproducts, have been associated with age-related diseases in humans, such as diabetes and impaired renal function. It is unknown to what extent advanced MRP are present in pet foods, and if dietary MRP can be associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes and impaired renal function in pet animals. Avoidance of ingredients with high levels of MRP and processing conditions known to favour the Maillard reaction may be useful strategies to prevent the formation of MRP in manufactured pet food. Future work should further focus on understanding the effects of ingredient choice and processing conditions on the formation of early and advanced MRP, and possible effects on animal health.
Energy-sensing Factors Coactivator Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor gamma Coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1 alpha) and AMP-activated Protein Kinase Control Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Liver INDUCTION OF INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST
Buler, M. ; Aatsinki, S.M. ; Skoumal, R. ; Komka, Z. ; Toth, M. ; Kerkela, R. ; Georgiadi, A. ; Kersten, A.H. ; Hakkola, J. - \ 2012
Journal of Biological Chemistry 287 (2012)3. - ISSN 0021-9258 - p. 1847 - 1860.
endoplasmic-reticulum stress - necrosis-factor-alpha - insulin-resistance - skeletal-muscle - hepatic gluconeogenesis - caloric restriction - metabolic syndrome - diabetes-mellitus - nuclear receptors - human obesity
Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with chronic, low grade inflammation. Moreover, regulation of energy metabolism and immunity are highly integrated. We hypothesized that energy-sensitive coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1 alpha) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may modulate inflammatory gene expression in liver. Microarray analysis revealed that PGC-1 alpha up-regulated expression of several cytokines and cytokine receptors, including interleukin 15 receptor alpha (IL15R alpha) and, even more importantly, anti-inflammatory interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1Rn). Overexpression of PGC-1 alpha and induction of PGC-1 alpha by fasting, physical exercise, glucagon, or cAMP was associated with increased IL1Rn mRNA and protein expression in hepatocytes. Knockdown of PGC-1 alpha by siRNA down-regulated cAMP-induced expression of IL1Rn in mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, knockdown of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) attenuated IL1Rn induction by PGC-1 alpha. Overexpression of PGC-1 alpha, at least partially through IL1Rn, suppressed interleukin 1 beta-induced expression of acute phase proteins, C-reactive protein, and haptoglobin. Fasting and exercise also induced IL15R alpha expression, whereas glucagon and cAMP resulted in reduction in IL15R alpha mRNA levels. Finally, AMPK activator metformin and adenoviral overexpression of AMPK up-regulated IL1Rn and down-regulated IL15R alpha in primary hepatocytes. We conclude that PGC-1 alpha and AMPK alter inflammatory gene expression in liver and thus integrate energy homeostasis and inflammation. Induction of IL1Rn by PGC-1 alpha and AMPK may be involved in the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction and putative anti-inflammatory effects of metformin.
Adult height and the risk of cause-specific death and vascular morbidity in 1 million people: individual participant meta-analysis
Feskens, E.J.M. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2012
International Journal of Epidemiology 41 (2012)5. - ISSN 0300-5771 - p. 1419 - 1433.
cause-specific mortality - coronary-heart-disease - childhood socioeconomic circumstances - body-mass index - cancer-risk - cardiovascular-disease - diabetes-mellitus - men - women - associations
Background The extent to which adult height, a biomarker of the interplay of genetic endowment and early-life experiences, is related to risk of chronic diseases in adulthood is uncertain. Methods We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for height, assessed in increments of 6.5¿cm, using individual–participant data on 174¿374 deaths or major non-fatal vascular outcomes recorded among 1¿085¿949 people in 121 prospective studies. Results For people born between 1900 and 1960, mean adult height increased 0.5–1¿cm with each successive decade of birth. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and year of birth, HRs per 6.5¿cm greater height were 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.96–0.99) for death from any cause, 0.94 (0.93–0.96) for death from vascular causes, 1.04 (1.03–1.06) for death from cancer and 0.92 (0.90–0.94) for death from other causes. Height was negatively associated with death from coronary disease, stroke subtypes, heart failure, stomach and oral cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mental disorders, liver disease and external causes. In contrast, height was positively associated with death from ruptured aortic aneurysm, pulmonary embolism, melanoma and cancers of the pancreas, endocrine and nervous systems, ovary, breast, prostate, colorectum, blood and lung. HRs per 6.5¿cm greater height ranged from 1.26 (1.12–1.42) for risk of melanoma death to 0.84 (0.80–0.89) for risk of death from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. HRs were not appreciably altered after further adjustment for adiposity, blood pressure, lipids, inflammation biomarkers, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption or socio-economic indicators. Conclusion Adult height has directionally opposing relationships with risk of death from several different major causes of chronic diseases
Comparison of fatty acid proportions in serum cholesteryl esters among people with different glucose tolerance status: The CoDAM study
Woudenbergh, G.J. van; Kuijsten, A. ; Kallen, C.J. ; Greevenbroek, M.M. ; Stehouwer, C.D. ; Blaak, E.E. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2012
Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 22 (2012). - ISSN 0939-4753 - p. 133 - 140.
dietary-fat - diabetes-mellitus - desaturase activities - insulin sensitivity - erythrocyte-membranes - metabolic syndrome - relative validity - adipose-tissue - plasma - women
Background and aim - Altered fatty acid patterns in blood may be associated with insulin resistance and related disorders. We investigated whether serum proportions of cholesteryl fatty acids and desaturase activity are associated with glucose tolerance status and insulin resistance. Methods and results - Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study among 471 Dutch participants aged =40 years. Individual fatty acids in serum cholesteryl esters were determined and endogenous conversions by desaturases were estimated from product-to-precursor ratios. Proportions of fatty acids were compared among participants with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose metabolism and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Partial Spearman correlation coefficients between fatty acids and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Adjustments were made for lifestyle and nutritional factors. The proportions of total saturated, mono-unsaturated, trans- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids did not differ significantly between groups, but several individual fatty acids did; the proportions of C18:0 and C20:3n6 were higher, whereas those of C18:1n7 and C20:4n6 were lower in participants with type 2 diabetes compared with those with normal glucose tolerance. Activity of ¿5-desaturase, that is, ratio of C20:4n6 to C20:3n6, was lower (p <0.01) in participants with type 2 diabetes (7.4) than with normal glucose tolerance (8.4). HOMA-IR was correlated positively with ¿9-desaturase activity (r = 0.11, p <0.01) and inversely with ¿5-desaturase activity (r = -0.21, p <0.01). Conclusion - The observed lower ¿5-desaturase activity in participants with type 2 diabetes and its inverse association with HOMA-IR suggest that changes in fatty-acid metabolism may play a role in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes
Beta-carotene Reduces Body Adiposity of Mice Via BCMO1
Amengual, J. ; Gouranton, E. ; Helden, Y.G.J. ; Keijer, J. ; Kramer, E.H.M. - \ 2011
PLoS ONE 6 (2011)6. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 13 p.
trans-retinoic acid - proliferator-activated receptors - vitamin-a production - diabetes-mellitus - gene-expression - metabolizing enzyme - leptin expression - serum carotenoids - nuclear receptors - ppar-gamma
Evidence from cell culture studies indicates that ß-carotene-(BC)-derived apocarotenoid signaling molecules can modulate the activities of nuclear receptors that regulate many aspects of adipocyte physiology. Two BC metabolizing enzymes, the BC-15,15'-oxygenase (Bcmo1) and the BC-9',10'-oxygenase (Bcdo2) are expressed in adipocytes. Bcmo1 catalyzes the conversion of BC into retinaldehyde and Bcdo2 into ß-10'-apocarotenal and ß-ionone. Here we analyzed the impact of BC on body adiposity of mice. To genetically dissect the roles of Bcmo1 and Bcdo2 in this process, we used wild-type and Bcmo1-/- mice for this study. In wild-type mice, BC was converted into retinoids. In contrast, Bcmo1-/- mice showed increased expression of Bcdo2 in adipocytes and ß-10'-apocarotenol accumulated as the major BC derivative. In wild-type mice, BC significantly reduced body adiposity (by 28%), leptinemia and adipocyte size. Genome wide microarray analysis of inguinal white adipose tissue revealed a generalized decrease of mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ¿ (PPAR¿) target genes. Consistently, the expression of this key transcription factor for lipogenesis was significantly reduced both on the mRNA and protein levels. Despite ß-10'-apocarotenoid production, this effect of BC was absent in Bcmo1-/- mice, demonstrating that it was dependent on the Bcmo1-mediated production of retinoids. Our study evidences an important role of BC for the control of body adiposity in mice and identifies Bcmo1 as critical molecular player for the regulation of PPAR¿ activity in adipocytes
Shared genetic variance between the features of the metabolic syndrome: Heritability studies
Povel, C.M. ; Boer, J.M.A. ; Feskens, E.J.M. - \ 2011
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 104 (2011)4. - ISSN 1096-7192 - p. 666 - 669.
insulin-resistance - environmental-factors - diabetes-mellitus - hispanic children - blood-pressure - family - adiponectin - obesity - traits - components
Heritability estimates of MetS range from approximately 10%–30%. The genetic variation that is shared among MetS features can be calculated by genetic correlation coefficients. The objective of this paper is to identify MetS feature as well as MetS related features which have much genetic variation in common, by reviewing the literature regarding genetic correlation coefficients. Identification of features, that have much genetic variation in common, may eventually facilitate the search for pleitropic genetic variants that may explain the clustering of MetS features. A PubMed search with the search terms “(metabolic syndrome OR insulin resistance syndrome) and (heritability OR genetic correlation OR pleiotropy)” was performed. Studies published before 7th July 2011, which presented genetic correlation coefficients between the different MetS features and genetic correlation coefficients of MetS and its features with adipose tissue-, pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic biomarkers were included. Nine twin and 19 family studies were included in the review. Genetic correlations varied, but were strongest between waist circumference and HOMA-IR (r2: 0.36 to 0.79, median: 0.50), HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (r2: - 0.05 to - 0.59, median - 0.45), adiponectin and MetS (r2: - 0.32 to - 0.43; median - 0.38), adiponectin and insulin (r2: - 0.10 to - 0.60; median - 0.30) and between adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol (r2: - 0.22 to - 0.51, median - 0.29). In conclusion, heritability studies suggest that genetic pleiotropy exist especially between certain MetS features, as well as between MetS and adiponectin. Further research on actual genetic variants responsible for the genetic pleiotropy of these combinations will provide more insight into the etiology of MetS. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Pancreas Protective Effect of Button Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (JE Lange) Imbach (Agaricomycetidae) Extract on Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Dia betes
Yamac, M. ; Kanbak, G. ; Zeytinoglu, M. ; Senturk, H. ; Bayramoglu, G. ; Dokumacioglu, A. ; Griensven, L.J.L.D. van - \ 2010
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 12 (2010)4. - ISSN 1521-9437 - p. 379 - 389.
antioxidant defense - diabetes-mellitus - oxidative stress - glucose toxicity - ergothioneine - prevalence - tissue - cells
In the present study we describe the effects of hot water extract of the culinary-medicinal button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, on the symptoms of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Sprague Dawley rats. A. bisporus extract at the doses of 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day were orally applied to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for a period of 7 days after the onset of the diabetes. Food and water intake and body weight were recorded daily. Upon sacrifice, histological studies were performed on pancreas tissues, and biochemical parameters such as glucose, insulin superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde and catalase were measured of all experimental groups. The serum glucose levels significantly decreased after oral administration at the dose of 400 mg/kg bw per day by 29.68% with A. bisporus extract. Furthermore, the serum insulin levels in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were increased to 78.50% at the extract dose of 400 mg/kg bw per day. Also, catalase activities and malondialdehyde levels decreased to values slightly above the normal animal control. The most obvious and surprising change was, however, the increase in cellularity of the Langerhans islets of the pancreas and their apparent repopulation with beta cells. We conclude that the oral application of high doses of A. bisporus extract may result in decreased severity of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rat.
The glycemic elemental profile of trichosanthes dioica: a LIBS-based study
Rai, P.K. ; Chatterji, S. ; Rai, N.K. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Watal, G. - \ 2010
Food Biophysics 5 (2010)1. - ISSN 1557-1858 - p. 17 - 23.
diabetes-mellitus - insulin - antioxidants - management - succinate - glucose
The scientific evaluation of the antidiabetic efficacy of aqueous extract of Trichosanthes dioica fruits on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats is being presented. The graded doses of the extract, viz., 500, 750, 1,000, and 1,250 mg/kg body weight (bw), were administered orally, and it was observed that the blood glucose concentration decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The dose of 1,000 mg/kg bw showed the maximum fall of 23.8% and 19.1% in blood glucose level (BGL) during fasting BGL and glucose tolerance test (GTT) studies, respectively, of nondiabetic rats. Whereas in the case of subdiabetic and mild diabetic models, the same dose showed reduction in BGL of 22.0% and 31.4% during GTT. The study also involves the first use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a sensitive analytical tool to detect the elemental profile responsible for the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of T. dioica fruits that exhibits the antidiabetic activity. High intensities of Ca, Mg, and Fe indicate large concentrations of these elements in the extract, since according to Boltzmann’s distribution law, intensities are directly proportional to concentrations. The higher concentrations of these glycemic elements, viz. Ca, Mg, and Fe, are responsible for the antidiabetic potential of T. dioica as well as other plant already reported by our research group.
ß-carotene conversion products and their effects on adipose tissue
Tourniaire, F. ; Gouranton, E. ; Lintig, J. von; Keijer, J. ; Bonet, M.L. ; Amengual, J. ; Lietz, G. ; Landrier, J.F. - \ 2009
Genes & Nutrition 4 (2009)3. - ISSN 1555-8932 - p. 179 - 187.
dietary vitamin-a - trans-retinoic acid - nutrition examination survey - 3rd national-health - diabetes-mellitus - in-vivo - plasma-concentrations - serum carotenoids - intestinal-absorption - insulin-resistance
Recent epidemiological data suggest that ß-carotene may be protective against metabolic diseases in which adipose tissue plays a key role. Adipose tissue constitutes the major ß-carotene storage tissue and its functions have been shown to be modulated in response to ß-carotene breakdown products, especially retinal produced after cleavage by ß-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO1), and retinoic acid arising from oxidation of retinal. However, the possibility exists that ß-carotene in its intact form can also affect adipocyte function. Development of a knock out model and identification of a loss-of-function mutation have pointed out BCMO1 as being probably the sole enzyme responsible for provitamin A conversion into retinal in mammals. The utilisation of BCMO1-/-mice should provide insights on ß-carotene effect on its own in the future. In humans, intervention studies have highlighted the huge interindividual variation of ß-carotene conversion efficiency, possibly due to genetic polymorphisms, which might impact on response to ß-carotene. This brief review discusses the processes involved in ß-carotene conversion and the effect of cleavage products on body fat and adipose tissue function
Dietary Patterns and Glucose Tolerance Abnormalities in Chinese Adults
He, Y. ; Ma, G. ; Zhai, F. ; Li, Y. ; Hu, Y. ; Feskens, E.J.M. ; Yang, X. - \ 2009
Diabetes Care 32 (2009)11. - ISSN 0149-5992 - p. 1972 - 1976.
diabetes-mellitus - food-consumption - glycemic index - meat intake - type-2 - risk - women - men - fat - perspective
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of the dietary pattern with the presence of newly diagnosed glucose tolerance abnormalities among Chinese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 20,210 adults aged 45–69 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were included. Information on dietary intake was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were used to identify the food factors and dietary pattern clusters. RESULTS Four dietary pattern clusters were identified (“Green Water,” “Yellow Earth,” “Western Adopter,” and “New Affluence”). The prevalence of glucose tolerance abnormalities ranged from 3.9% in the Green Water to 8.0% in the New Affluence. After adjustment for area, age, sex, current smoking, and physical activity, subjects in the Yellow Earth cluster (prevalence ratio 1.22 [95% CI 1.04–1.43]) and New Affluence cluster (2.05 [1.76–2.37]) had significantly higher prevalence rates compared with those for the Green Water cluster. After further adjustment for BMI and waist-to-height ratio, the elevated risk in the New Affluence remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Dietary patterns and food factors are associated with the presence of glucose tolerance abnormalities in China, even independent of obesity. A New Affluence diet is an important modifiable risk factor, which needs attention from the prevention point of view
Serum Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Concentration and Its Ratio to Serum Retinol Are Associated with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Components in Children
Aeberli, I. ; Molinari, L. ; Spinas, G. ; Lehmann, R. ; Allemand, D. l'; Zimmermann, M.B. - \ 2007
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 92 (2007)11. - ISSN 0021-972X - p. 4359 - 4365.
vitamin-a-deficiency - protein-calorie malnutrition - for-disease-control - binding-protein - insulin-resistance - prealbumin concentrations - subclinical inflammation - peroxisome proliferator - activated receptors - diabetes-mellitus
Objective: The objective of the study was to measure serum RBP4, serum retinol (SR), the RBP4-to-SR molar ratio, and dietary VA intakes in normal-weight and overweight children and investigate the relationship of these variables to IR, subclinical inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome in this age group. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted in Northern Switzerland. Patients: Patients included 6- to 14-yr-old normal-weight, overweight, and obese children (n = 79). Main Outcome Measures: Body mass index, body fat percentage, waist-to-hip ratio, dietary VA intakes, serum RBP4, and SR were determined. IR was assessed using fasting insulin and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, and components of the metabolic syndrome and indices of subclinical inflammation were measured. Results: Only 3% of children had low VA status. Independent of age, VA intakes, and C-reactive protein, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio were significant predictors of RBP4, SR, and RBP4/SR. Independent of adiposity, RBP4 and RBP4/SR were significantly correlated with serum triglycerides, and RBP4/SR was correlated with fasting insulin. The RBP4-to-SR ratio more strongly correlated with components of the metabolic syndrome than serum RBP4. Conclusion: Independent of subclinical inflammation and vitamin A intakes, serum RBP4 and the RBP4-to-SR ratio are correlated with obesity, central obesity, and components of the metabolic syndrome in prepubertal and early pubertal children.
Absence of an adipogenic effect of rosiglitazone on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes: increase of lipid catabolism and reduction of adipokine expression
Wang, P. ; Renes, J. ; Bouwman, F. ; Bunschoten, A. ; Mariman, E. ; Keijer, J. - \ 2007
Diabetologia 50 (2007)3. - ISSN 0012-186X - p. 654 - 665.
activated receptor-gamma - white adipose-tissue - ppar-gamma - insulin-resistance - gene-expression - mitochondrial biogenesis - diabetes-mellitus - thiazolidinediones - differentiation - obesity
Aims/hypothesis: The thiazolidinedione (TZD) rosiglitazone is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-¿ agonist that induces adipocyte differentiation and, hence, lipid accumulation. This is in apparent contrast to the long-term glucose-lowering, insulin-sensitising effect of rosiglitazone. We tested whether the action of rosiglitazone involves specific effects on mature adipocytes, which are different from those on preadipocytes. Materials and methods: Differentiated mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used as an in vitro model. Transcriptomics, proteomics and assays of metabolism were applied to assess the effect of rosiglitazone in different insulin and glucose conditions. Results: Rosiglitazone does not induce an increase, but rather a decrease in the lipid content of mature adipocytes. Analysis of transcriptome data, confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and measurements of lipolysis, indicates that an altered energy metabolism may underlie this change. The pathway analysis shows a consistent picture dominated by lipid catabolism. In addition, we confirmed at both mRNA level and protein level that rosiglitazone represses adipokine expression and production, except for genes encoding adiponectin and apolipoprotein E. Moreover, transcriptome changes indicate that a general repression of genes encoding secreted proteins occurs. Conclusions/ interpretation: Our findings suggest that the change of adiposity as seen in vivo reflects a shift in balance between the different effects of TZDs on preadipocytes and on mature adipocytes, while the changes in circulating adipokine levels primarily result from an effect on mature adipocytes
Insulin modulates the secretion of proteins from mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes: a role for transcriptional regulation of processing
Wang, P. ; Keijer, J. ; Bunschoten, J.E. ; Bouwman, F. ; Renes, J. ; Mariman, E. - \ 2006
Diabetologia 49 (2006)10. - ISSN 0012-186X - p. 2453 - 2462.
heparan-sulfate proteoglycans - extracellular-matrix - diabetes-mellitus - cells - metabolism - expression - resistance - molecules - apoptosis - pathways
Aims/hypothesis Under conditions of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, fat cells are subjected to increased levels of insulin, which may have a major impact on the secretion of adipokines. Materials and methods Using transcriptomics and proteomics, we investigated how insulin affects the transcription and protein secretion profile of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Results We found that insulin has a significant impact on protein secretion of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, transcription is not the major regulation point for these secreted proteins. For extracellular matrix components, our data suggest that the mRNA level of processing enzymes, but not of target proteins, is the regulating point at which insulin stimulates secretion and function of the relevant proteins. Among these enzymes, we report a novel finding, namely that sulfatase 2 gene is regulated by insulin, which may induce a functional change in cultured adipocytes. Conclusions/interpretation We propose that enhancement of protein processing and secretion rather than transcription of the secreted protein genes is part of the strategic role of insulin in the induction of cellular responses