Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Dermanysuss gallinae attacks humans. Mind the gap!
    Cafiero, Maria Assunta ; Barlaam, Alessandra ; Camarda, Antonio ; Radeski, Miroslav ; Mul, Monique ; Sparagano, Olivier ; Giangaspero, Annunziata - \ 2019
    Avian Pathology 48 (2019)sup1. - ISSN 0307-9457 - p. S22 - S34.
    dermatitis - diagnosis - Europe - future needs - humans - management

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite primarily known as a pest of domestic and wild birds. It occasionally feeds on a range of mammals, and, more importantly, is of growing concern in human medicine. This review highlights mite attacks on people working with poultry, and updates the increasing incidence of dermanyssosis in urban environments in Europe. Although several cases of dermanyssosis have been documented, there are a number of reasons why diagnosis of D. gallinae infestations in humans is likely to be underestimated. Firstly, medical specialists are not well aware of D. gallinae infestations in humans. There is also a lack of collaboration with specialists from other disciplines. The problem is compounded by misdiagnoses and by the lack of diagnostic tools. We review the literature on human dermanyssosis cases in Europe, and also provide information on the epidemiology, clinical, histo-pathological and immunological aspects of dermanyssosis. We stress the need for improved recognition of this challenging infestation in humans, and provide straightforward recommendations for health practitioners, starting with collection of the correct anamnestic information and including appropriate management methods for case recognition and resolution. Finally, we indicate the most urgent areas to be addressed by future research. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSDermanyssus gallinae is of growing concern in human medicine. Most physicians are not well aware of dermanyssosis in humans. Bio-epidemiological and clinical aspects of this ectoparasitosis are highlighted. Practical key actions for diagnosis and correct management of infestation in humans are provided.

    Pooling of genital swabs for detection by PCR of Taylorella equigenitalis, the cause of contagious equine metritis
    Mawhinney, I. ; Errington, J. ; Stamper, N. ; Torrens, N. ; Engelsma, M.Y. ; Roest, H.I.J. - \ 2019
    Equine Veterinary Journal 51 (2019)2. - ISSN 0425-1644 - p. 227 - 230.
    diagnosis - horse - infection - validation

    Background: Sets of genital swabs are routinely taken from horses to screen for the presence of Taylorella equigenitalis, the cause of contagious equine metritis. Typically, two to four different sites are swabbed at a time and tested by culture or PCR. Objectives: This study explored the feasibility of pooling these swabs for a single PCR test per animal instead of testing each swab individually. Study design: In vitro. Methods: PCR signal strengths (Ct values) from 149 historical PCR positive genital swabs, together with historical data on the number of swabs in a set expected to be positive, were used to assess the suitability of pooling for screening horses for T. equigenitalis infection in the population at large. Twenty-four sets of four equine genital swabs were tested. The sets were prepared in the laboratory using one or more swabs positive for T. equigenitalis from naturally infected cases. Positive and negative swabs were selected to reflect a typical range of PCR Ct values expected in field cases of T. equigenitalis infection. These pools were tested by an established PCR to assess the impact and suitability of a PCR test on pooled swabs compared to individual swab testing, by comparing the Ct values. Results: Pooling one positive swab with three negative swabs produced a small drop in Ct value but all pools were still clearly positive. Main limitations: Large numbers of field positive horses are not available, but the proof of concept approach with laboratory prepared pools shows the method is applicable to field cases. Conclusions: It was concluded that pooling of swabs would confer no appreciable drop in the ability to detect a positive animal compared to individual swab testing; pooling is therefore a suitable alternative to individual swab testing with reduced costs. The Summary is available in Spanish – see Supporting Information.

    Comparing four diagnostic tests for Giardia duodenalis in dogs using latent class analysis
    Uiterwijk, Mathilde ; Nijsse, Rolf ; Kooyman, Frans N.J. ; Wagenaar, J.A. ; Mughini-Gras, Lapo ; Koop, Gerrit ; Ploeger, Harm W. - \ 2018
    Utrecht University
    giardiasis - canine - prevalence - diagnosis - Bayesian analysis
    Background To accurately diagnose giardiosis in dogs, knowledge of diagnostic test characteristics and expected prevalence are required. The aim of this work was to estimate test characteristics (sensitivity and specificity) of four commonly used diagnostic tests for detection of Giardia duodenalis in dogs. Methods Fecal samples from 573 dogs originating from four populations (household dogs, shelter dogs, hunting dogs and clinical dogs) were examined with centrifugation sedimentation flotation (CSF) coproscopical analysis, direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA, Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia速), a rapid enzyme immunochromatographic assay (IDEXX SNAP Giardia速) and qPCR (SSU rDNA) for presence of G. duodenalis. Bayesian latent class analysis was used to determine test performance characteristics and to estimate G. duodenalis prevalence of each of the four dog populations. Results All tests were highly specific. IDEXX SNAP Giardia速 showed the highest specificity (99.6%) and qPCR the lowest (85.6%). The sensitivities were much more variable, with qPCR showing the highest (97.0%) and CSF the lowest (48.2%) sensitivity. DFA was more sensitive than IDEXX SNAP Giardia速, but slightly less specific. Prevalences of G. duodenalis differed substantially between populations, with the hunting dogs showing the highest G. duodenalis prevalence (64.9%) and the household dogs the lowest (7.9%). Conclusions This study identifies qPCR as a valuable screening tool because of its high sensitivity, whereas methods using microscopy for cyst identification or cyst wall detection should be used in situations where high specificity is required. G. duodenalis is a prevalent gastro-intestinal parasite in Dutch dogs, especially in dogs living in groups (hunting and shelter dogs) and clinical dogs.
    EU-approved rapid tests might underestimate bovine spongiform encephalopathy infection in goats
    Meloni, Daniela ; Bozzetta, Elena ; Langeveld, Jan P.M. ; Groschup, Martin H. ; Goldmann, Wilfred ; Andrèoletti, Olivier ; Lantier, Isabelle ; Keulen, Lucien Van; Bossers, Alex ; Pitardi, Danilo ; Nonno, Romolo ; Sklaviadis, Theodoros ; Ingravalle, Francesco ; Peletto, Simone ; Colussi, Silvia ; Acutis, Pier Luigi - \ 2017
    Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 29 (2017)2. - ISSN 1040-6387 - p. 232 - 236.
    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy - diagnosis - EU - goats - rapid tests - scrapie - sensitivity - surveillance
    We report the diagnostic sensitivity of 3 EU-approved rapid tests (ELISAs; 1 from IDEXX and 2 from Bio-Rad) for the detection of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases in goats. Ninety-eight goat brainstem samples were tested. All the rapid tests had 100% specificity and ≥80% sensitivity, with the IDEXX test significantly more sensitive than the 2 Bio-Rad tests. All tests detected 100% of samples from goats with clinical scrapie, but missed 8% (IDEXX) to 33% (Bio-Rad SG) of samples from preclinical goats. Importantly, only IDEXX picked up all samples from clinical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-infected goats, whereas the other 2 rapid tests missed 15% (Bio-Rad SG) to 25% (Bio-Rad SAP). These results show that a fraction of preclinical scrapie infections are likely missed by EU surveillance, with sensitivity of detection strongly dependent on the choice of the rapid test. Moreover, a significant proportion of clinical BSE infections are underestimated by using either Bio-Rad test. Assuming that the same sensitivity on preclinical goats would also occur in BSE-infected goats, our data suggest that IDEXX is likely the most sensitive test for detecting preclinical field cases of BSE infection in goats, although with an 8% failure rate. These results raise some concerns about the reliability of current EU surveillance figures on BSE infection in goats.
    Optimizing odor identification testing as quick and accurate diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease
    Mahlknecht, Philipp ; Pechlaner, Raimund ; Boesveldt, Sanne ; Volc, Dieter ; Pinter, Bernardette ; Reiter, Eva ; Müller, Christoph ; Krismer, Florian ; Berendse, Henk W. ; Hilten, Jacobus J. van; Wuschitz, Albert ; Schimetta, Wolfgang ; Högl, Birgit ; Djamshidian, Atbin ; Nocker, Michael ; Göbel, Georg ; Gasperi, Arno ; Kiechl, Stefan ; Willeit, Johann ; Poewe, Werner ; Seppi, Klaus - \ 2016
    Movement Disorders 31 (2016)9. - ISSN 0885-3185 - p. 1408 - 1413.
    diagnosis - olfactory dysfunction - Parkinson's disease - parkinsonism - tremor

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate odor identification testing as a quick, cheap, and reliable tool to identify PD. Methods: Odor identification with the 16-item Sniffin' Sticks test (SS-16) was assessed in a total of 646 PD patients and 606 controls from three European centers (A, B, and C), as well as 75 patients with atypical parkinsonism or essential tremor and in a prospective cohort of 24 patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (center A). Reduced odor sets most discriminative for PD were determined in a discovery cohort derived from a random split of PD patients and controls from center A using L1-regularized logistic regression. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed in the rest of the patients/controls as validation cohorts. Results: Olfactory performance was lower in PD patients compared with controls and non-PD patients in all cohorts (each P <0.001). Both the full SS-16 and a subscore of the top eight discriminating odors (SS-8) were associated with an excellent discrimination of PD from controls (areas under the curve ≥0.90; sensitivities ≥83.3%; specificities ≥82.0%) and from non-PD patients (areas under the curve ≥0.91; sensitivities ≥84.1%; specificities ≥84.0%) in all cohorts. This remained unchanged when patients with >3 years of disease duration were excluded from analysis. All 8 incident PD cases among patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder were predicted with the SS-16 and the SS-8 (sensitivity, 100%; positive predictive value, 61.5%). Conclusions: Odor identification testing provides excellent diagnostic accuracy in the distinction of PD patients from controls and diagnostic mimics. A reduced set of eight odors could be used as a quick tool in the workup of patients presenting with parkinsonism and for PD risk indication.

    Plantenvirussen in het vizier
    Stijger, I. ; Verbeek, M. - \ 2016
    Wageningen UR
    plantenvirussen - virusziekten - ziekteoverdracht - detectie - ziektedistributie - diagnose - bedrijfshygiëne - plant viruses - viral diseases - disease transmission - detection - disease distribution - diagnosis - industrial hygiene
    Aandacht wordt geschonken aan: voedingswater, micro-leven, rasverschillen, en oud stekmateriaal. Poster van PlantgezondheidEvent 12 maart 2015.
    Molendijk, L.P.G. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR, Plant Sciences Group
    akkerbouw - tuinbouw - veldgewassen - gewasbescherming - nematodenbestrijding - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - diagnose - arable farming - horticulture - field crops - plant protection - nematode control - cultural control - diagnosis
    Op vindt u alle relevante informatie om aaltjes op uw bedrijf te herkennen en te beheersen. Van zowel akkerbouw- als vollegrondsgroentegewassen is de informatie over aaltjes verzameld. U kunt een eigen aaltjesschema aanmaken met daarin de voor u belangrijke gewassen.
    Vreterij in consumptie-aardappelen : inventarisatie van vreterij op aardappelpercelen en in de bewaring
    Rozen, K. van; Huiting, H.F. - \ 2015
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, onderdeel van Wageningen UR, Business Unit PPO-agv - 49
    akkerbouw - aardappelen - diagnose - gewasbescherming - plagen - agriotes - athous - melolontha melolontha - phyllopertha horticola - naaktslakken - deroceras reticulatum - arion - agrotis - diplopoda - muizen - arable farming - potatoes - diagnosis - plant protection - pests - agriotes - athous - melolontha melolontha - phyllopertha horticola - slugs - deroceras reticulatum - arion - agrotis - diplopoda - mice
    In 2012 en 2013 is onderzoek verricht naar de symptomen en de impact van gaten in knollen. Percelen zijn bezocht om de mate van vraat aan de knollen te beoordelen en de oorzaak vast te stellen. Dit leverde schade op door het hele land. Oost-Nederland is de regio waar het meest onderzoek heeft plaatsgevonden. Daar zijn de meeste percelen bezocht en bemonsterd. De meeste schade werd veroorzaakt door ritnaalden. De symptomen zijn beschreven en afgebeeld. De symptomen zijn vergeleken met drycore, een aantasting wat ook gaatjes tot gevolg heeft. Enkele percelen met engerlingen en slakken zijn aangetroffen. Van enkele andere aantasters zijn de symptomen beschreven.
    Nieuw onderzoek naar de ziekte van Lyme
    Vliet, A.J.H. van; Wijngaard, K. van den; Bron, W.A. - \ 2015
    Nature Today (2015).
    tekenbeten - lyme-ziekte - diagnose - symptomen - erythema migrans - tekenbesmettingen - ziekten overgebracht door teken - borrelia burgdorferi - epidemiologische onderzoeken - tick bites - lyme disease - diagnosis - symptoms - erythema migrans - tick infestations - tickborne diseases - borrelia burgdorferi - epidemiological surveys
    Jaarlijks krijgen ongeveer 25.000 mensen de ziekte van Lyme. Dat blijkt uit nieuwe onderzoeksgegevens van het RIVM. Hoewel het aantal mensen bij wie jaarlijks de ziekte van Lyme wordt vastgesteld lijkt te stabiliseren, blijft het aantal nieuwe patiënten groot. De meeste mensen genezen na een antibioticakuur, maar 1.000 tot 2.500 mensen per jaar blijven langdurige klachten houden. Waarom de ene persoon deze klachten krijgt en de ander niet, is onbekend. Daarom start het onderzoek ‘LymeProspect’ per april 2015. Mensen die gaan beginnen met een antibioticakuur tegen de ziekte van Lyme kunnen zich aanmelden.
    PPS project: ontwikkeling diagnostiek plantenziekten Q en K
    Bonants, P.J.M. ; Ebskamp, M. ; Kock, M.J.D. de; Kooman, M. - \ 2015
    tuinbouw - plantenziekten - gewaskwaliteit - detectie - moleculaire diagnostiek - inspectie - kwaliteitscontroles - diagnose - gewasbescherming - protocollen - conferenties - horticulture - plant diseases - crop quality - detection - molecular diagnostics - inspection - quality controls - diagnosis - plant protection - protocols - conferences
    Doelstelling van dit project is de ontwikkeling van kostenefficiënte en gevalideerde moderne (moleculaire) methoden t.b.v. de diagnostiek plantenziekten (Q en K) voor de keuringsdiensten en NVWA, gebruikmakend van de meest innovatieve technologieën en strategieën.
    Plasma concentration of parasite DNA as a measure of disease severity in falciparum malaria
    Imwong, M. ; Woodrow, C. ; Hendriksen, I.C.E. ; Veenemans, J. ; Verhoef, J.C.M. - \ 2015
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 211 (2015)7. - ISSN 0022-1899 - p. 1128 - 1133.
    real-time pcr - plasmodium-falciparum - pfhrp2 concentration - malawian children - cerebral malaria - blood - assay - retinopathy - clearance - diagnosis
    In endemic areas malaria parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed the performance of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentration measurement in distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in African children and Asian adults. P. falciparum DNA concentrations were measured by real-time PCR in 224 African children (111 uncomplicated, 113 severe) and 211 Asian adults (100 uncomplicated, 111 severe) presenting with acute falciparum malaria. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma PfDNA concentrations in identifying severe malaria was 0.834 in children and 0.788 in adults, similar to that of plasma PfHRP2, and substantially superior to parasite density (p
    Impact of mitotic activity on the pathological substaging of pT1 cutaneous melanoma
    Waal, A.C. de; Harten-Gerritsen, A.S. van; Aben, K.K.H. ; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M. ; Rossum, M.M. van; Blokx, W.A.M. - \ 2014
    British journal of dermatology 170 (2014)4. - ISSN 0007-0963 - p. 874 - 877.
    lymph-node biopsy - thin melanoma - sentinel - positivity - guidelines - diagnosis
    Background In the transition from the sixth to the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system, mitotic activity was incorporated, while Clark level of invasion was abandoned. Objectives To investigate the effect of this change on the pathological tumour (pT) 1 substaging of primary cutaneous melanomas and the possible clinical implications. Methods Patients with pT1 melanomas, diagnosed in the period January 2003 to March 2011, were selected from a population-based cohort study on cutaneous melanoma in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The pT1 melanomas were systematically reviewed by an expert pathologist and classified according to both the sixth and the seventh editions of the AJCC staging system. The shift of melanomas between pT1 substages, classified according to the two staging systems, was determined. Results In total, 260 pT1 melanomas were included. Overall 28% (57/207) of all pT1a melanomas shifted to pT1b when classified according to the new seventh staging classification, because of the presence of mitoses. Some 32% (17/53) of all pT1b melanomas shifted to pT1a. The percentage of pT1b melanomas relative to all pT1 melanomas increased from 20% to 36%. Conclusions The addition of mitotic activity to the pathological staging system, according to the seventh edition of the AJCC staging system, resulted in a considerable change in the classification of thin cutaneous melanomas. This shift has clear clinical implications, as it is advised in the Dutch guideline that patients with pT1b melanoma should be offered a sentinel lymph node biopsy.
    Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of important pig viral diseases in Bhutan
    Monger, V.R. ; Stegeman, J.A. ; Koop, G. ; Dukpa, K. ; Tenzin, T. ; Loeffen, W.L.A. - \ 2014
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 117 (2014)1. - ISSN 0167-5877 - p. 222 - 232.
    classical swine-fever - influenza-a h1n1 - vaccination policy - antigenic drift - virus - infection - diagnosis - prrs
    A cross-sectional serological study was conducted in Bhutan between October 2011 and February 2012 to determine the prevalence of antibodies to classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus (SIV) subtype H1N1 and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV). Furthermore, risk factors for the seropositive status were investigated. Antibodies to SIV, subtype H1N1 (likely pandemic H1N1 2009) were detected in 49% of the pigs in the government farms, and 8% of the village backyard pigs. For PCV2, these percentages were 73% and 37% respectively. For CSFV, the percentages were closer together, with 62% and 52% respectively. It should be taken into consideration that vaccination of piglets is routine in the government herds, and that piglets distributed to backyard farms are also vaccinated. No direct evidence of CSFV infections was found, either by clinical signs or virus isolation. Antibodies to PRRSV and Aujeszky's disease, on the other hand, were not found at all. Risk factors found are mainly related to practices of swill feeding and other biosecurity measures. For CSFV, these were swill feeding (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.01–4.99) and contact with neighbour's pigs (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.13–0.75). For PCV2 this was lending of boars for local breeding purposes (OR = 3.30, 95% CI: 1.43–7.59). The results of this study showed that PCV2 and SIV infections are important in pigs in Bhutan and thus appropriate control strategies need to be designed and applied which could involve strict regulation on the import of live pigs and vaccination against these diseases.
    Evaluation of two commercial, rapid, ELISA kits testing or scrapie in retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes in sheep
    Kittelberger, R. ; McIntuyre, L. ; Watts, S. ; MacDiarmid, S. ; Hannah, M.J. ; Jenner, J. ; Bueno, R. ; Swainsbury, R. ; Langeveld, J.P.M. ; Keulen, L.J.M. van; Zijderveld, F.G. van; Wemheuer, W.M. ; Richt, J.A. ; Sorenson, S.J. ; Pigott, C.J. ; O'Keefe, J.S. - \ 2014
    New Zealand Veterinary Journal 62 (2014)6. - ISSN 0048-0169 - p. 343 - 350.
    natural scrapie - prion protein - immunohistochemical detection - new-zealand - prp - accumulation - diagnosis - genotypes - tissues - brain
    AIMS: To estimate the number of cases of scrapie that would occur in sheep of different prion protein (PrP) genotypes if scrapie was to become established in New Zealand, and to compare the performance of two commercially available, rapid ELISA kits using ovine retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN) from non-infected and infected sheep of different PrP genotypes. METHODS: Using published data on the distribution of PrP genotypes within the New Zealand sheep flock and the prevalence of cases of scrapie in these genotypes in the United Kingdom, the annual expected number of cases of scrapie per genotype was estimated, should scrapie become established in New Zealand, assuming a total population of 28 million sheep. A non-infected panel of RLN was collected from 737 sheep from New Zealand that had been culled, found in extremis or died. Brain stem samples were also collected from 131 of these sheep. A second panel of infected samples comprised 218 and 117 RLN from confirmed scrapie cases that had originated in Europe and the United States of America, respectively. All samples were screened using two commercial, rapid, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy ELISA kits: Bio-Rad TeSeE ELISA (ELISA-BR), and IDEXX HerdChek BSE-Scrapie AG Test (ELISA-ID). RESULTS: If scrapie became established in New Zealand, an estimated 596 cases would occur per year; of these 234 (39%) and 271 (46%) would be in sheep carrying ARQ/ARQ and ARQ/VRQ PrP genotypes, respectively. For the non-infected samples from New Zealand the diagnostic specificity of both ELISA kits was 100%. When considering all infected samples, the diagnostic sensitivity was 70.4 (95% CI=65.3-75.3)% for ELISA-BR and 91.6 (95% CI=88.2-94.4)% for ELISA-ID. For the ARQ/ARQ genotype (n=195), sensitivity was 66.2% for ELISA-BR and 90.8% for ELISA-ID, and for the ARQ/VRQ genotype (n=107), sensitivity was 81.3% for ELISA-BR and 98.1% for ELISA-ID. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the ELISA-ID kit demonstrated a higher diagnostic sensitivity for detecting scrapie in samples of RLN from sheep carrying scrapie-susceptible PrP genotypes than the ELISA-BR kit at comparable diagnostic specificity.
    Diagnose bijenziekten in de regio
    Cornelissen, B. - \ 2014
    Bijenhouden 8 (2014)6. - ISSN 1877-9786 - p. 24 - 24.
    bijenhouderij - bijenziekten - onderzoek - bemonsteren - werkgroepen - teams - diagnose - regionale centra - beekeeping - bee diseases - research - sampling - working groups - teams - diagnosis - central places
    Voor imkers onderzoekt bijen@wur al jaren bijen- en broedmonsters op een aantal veel voorkomende ziekten. In de laatste 20 jaar zijn bijna 3000 monsters onderzocht. Het herkennen van de symptomen van ziekten blijft een expertise van Bijen@wur, terwijl het beter zou zijn als bijenhouders dat zelf zouden kunnen. Om deze kennis beschikbaar te maken voor bijenhouders, is er dit jaar voor een andere opzet gekozen
    Bordetella pertussis: an underreported pathogen in pediatric respiratory infections, a prospective cohort study
    Brink, G. van den; Wishaupt, J.O. ; Douma, J.C. ; Hartwig, N.G. ; Versteegh, F.G.A. - \ 2014
    Bmc Infectious Diseases 14 (2014). - ISSN 1471-2334 - 10 p.
    suspected pertussis - holmesii dna - illness - diagnosis - children - tests
    Background: The incidence of pertussis has been increasing worldwide. In the Netherlands, the seroprevalence has risen higher than the reported cases, suggesting that laboratory tests for pertussis are considered infrequently and that even more pertussis cases are missed. The objective of our study was to determine the frequency of pertussis in clinically unsuspect cases compared to suspect cases with the intention of finding clinical predictors. Methods: The present prospective cohort study was part of a controlled clinical trial evaluating the impact of molecular diagnostics on clinical decision making in pediatric respiratory infections, performed during 2 winter seasons. For this study, in the first season pertussis was only tested in case of clinical suspicion, in the second season, pertussis was also tested without clinical suspicion. Multivariate and univariate analysis were performed using SPSS 18 and Statistical software ‘R’. Results: In the two seasons respectively 22/209 (10,5%) and 49/373 (13,1%) cases were clinically suspected of pertussis. Bordetella pertussis was detected by real time RT-PCR in respectively 2/22 (9,1%) and 7/49 (14,3%) cases. In the second season an additional 7 cases of pertussis were found in clinically unsuspected cases (7/257 = 2,7%). These additional cases didn’t differ in clinical presentation from children without a positive test for pertussis with respect to respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: Pertussis in children sometimes mimics viral respiratory tract infections. If pertussis diagnostics are based on clinical suspicion alone, about 1 in 5 cases (19%) is missed. Despite widely accepted clinical criteria, paroxysmal cough is not a good predictor of pertussis. To prevent spreading, physicians should include B. pertussis in routine diagnostics in respiratory tract infections. Keywords: Bordetella pertussis, Whooping cough, Respiratory tract infections, Polymerase chain reaction, Child
    Long-term performance and fouling analysis of full-scale direct nanofiltration (NF) installations treating anoxic groundwater
    Beyer, F. ; Rietman, B.M. ; Zwijnenburg, A. ; Brink, P. van den; Vrouwenvelder, J.S. ; Jarzembowska, M. ; Laurinonyte, J. ; Stams, A.J.M. ; Plugge, C.M. - \ 2014
    Journal of Membrane Science 468 (2014). - ISSN 0376-7388 - p. 339 - 348.
    surface-water treatment - reverse-osmosis - membrane systems - pretreatment - ro - realization - innovation - diagnosis
    Long-term performance and fouling behavior of four full-scale nanofiltration (NF) plants, treating anoxic groundwater at 80% recovery for drinking water production, were characterized and compared with oxic NF and reverse osmosis systems. Plant operating times varied between 6 and 10 years and pretreatment was limited to 10 µm pore size cartridge filtration and antiscalant dosage (2–2.5 mg L-1) only. Membrane performance parameters normalized pressure drop (NPD), normalized specific water permeability (Kw) and salt retention generally were found stable over extended periods of operation (>6 months). Standard acid–base cleanings (once per year or less) were found to be sufficient to maintain satisfying operation during direct NF of the described iron rich (=8.4 mg L-1) anoxic groundwaters. Extensive autopsies of eight NF membrane elements, which had been in service since the plant startup (6–10 years), were performed to characterize and quantify the material accumulated in the membrane elements. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), total organic carbon (TOC) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements revealed a complex mixture of organic, biological and inorganic materials. The fouling layers that developed during half to one year of operation without chemical cleaning were very thin (
    DHA Serum Levels Were Significantly Higher in Celiac Disease Patients Compared to Healthy Controls and Were Unrelated to Depression
    Hees, N.J.M. van; Giltay, E.J. ; Geleijnse, J.M. ; Janssen, N. ; Does, A.J.W. van der - \ 2014
    PLoS ONE 9 (2014)5. - ISSN 1932-6203
    gluten-free diet - fatty-acid-composition - major depression - body-composition - children - omega-3-fatty-acids - adolescents - prevalence - disorders - diagnosis
    Objectives: Celiac disease (CD), a genetically predisposed intolerance for gluten, is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD). We investigated whether dietary intake and serum levels of the essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) found in fatty fish play a role in this association. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 71 adult CD patients and 31 healthy volunteers, matched on age, gender and level of education, who were not using n-3 PUFA supplements. Dietary intake, as assessed using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire, and serum levels of EPA and DHA were compared in analyses of covariance, adjusting for potential confounders. Serum PUFA were determined using gas chromatography. Results: Mean serum DHA was significantly higher in CD patients (1.72 mass%) than controls (1.28 mass%) after multivariable adjustment (mean diff. 0.45 mass%; 95% CI: 0.22-0.68; p = 0.001). The mean intake of EPA plus DHA did not differ between CD patients and controls after multivariable adjustment (0.15 and 0.22 g/d, respectively; p = 0.10). There were no significant differences in intake or serum levels of EPA and DHA between any of the CD patient groups (never depressed, current MDD, minor/partially remitted MDD, remitted MDD) and controls. Conclusions: Patients on a long term gluten-free diet had similar intakes of EPA plus DHA compared to controls. Contrary to expectations, DHA serum levels were significantly higher in CD patients compared to healthy controls and were unrelated to MDD status.
    Factors associated with Culicoides Obsoletus complex spp.-specific IgE reactivity in Icelandic horses and Shetland ponies
    Schurink, A. ; Meide, N.M.A. van der; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Ducro, B.J. ; Tijhaar, E.J. - \ 2014
    The Veterinary Journal 201 (2014). - ISSN 1090-0233 - p. 395 - 400.
    insect bite hypersensitivity - equine ige - netherlands - antibodies - diagnosis - allergens - extract
    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common allergic skin disease in horses, caused by biting insects of the Culicoides spp. In The Netherlands, Culicoides spp. of the Obsoletus complex are the most important midges involved in IBH. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify associations between several endogenous (host) and exogenous (environmental) factors and immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivity against Obsoletus complex-derived whole body extract or seven recombinant allergens, measured by ELISA. Data from 143 Icelandic horses and 177 Shetland ponies were analysed using multivariable models. In addition, the relationship between IgE reactivity and severity of clinical signs in IBH-affected horses was examined. Positive correlations were found between Obsoletus complex-specific IgE and severity of clinical signs. Disease status (IBH affected or control), breed and the interaction between IBH status and breed were significantly associated with IgE reactivity against several Obsoletus complex allergens. Significantly greater IgE reactivity was seen in IBH-affected horses compared to controls. The differences in IgE values between cases and controls were most pronounced in Icelandic horses. Shetland pony controls had significantly greater IgE reactivity compared to Icelandic horse controls, while differences in IgE values comparing Shetland pony cases and Icelandic horse cases were not significant. Severity of clinical signs and IgE reactivity in IBH-affected horses against several Obsoletus complex allergens appeared to be related. Consideration of the factors associated with Obsoletus complex-specific IgE in horses might further improve interpretation and accuracy of IgE ELISA test results within these breeds, although further research is required.
    Schmallenberg virus : technical and scientific studies
    Poel, W.H.M. van der - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen UR - 67
    dierpathologie - schmallenbergvirus - epidemiologie - pathogenese - transmissie - vectoren - diagnose - reverse transcriptase pcr - serologie - wilde dieren - huisdieren - kalveren - lammeren - koeien - schapen - animal pathology - schmallenberg virus - epidemiology - pathogenesis - transmission - vectors - diagnosis - reverse transcriptase pcr - serology - wild animals - domestic animals - calves - lambs - cows - sheep
    Schmallenberg virus primarily infects domestic and wild ruminants. Cattle and sheep seem to be the most susceptible species. Goats, pigs and camelids seem to be less susceptible. In pregnant cattle and sheep, the virus can infect multiple organs of the un-borne fetus. However, this infection often does not cause major lesions and infrequently leads to malformations.
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