Fungal Planet description sheets: 214–280
Crous, P.W. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Quaedvlieg, W. ; Bank, M. van der; Zhang, Y. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Guarro, J. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Wood, A.R. ; Alfenas, A.C. ; Braun, U. ; Cano-Lira, J.F. ; Garcia, D. ; Marin-Felix, Y. ; Alvarado, P. ; Andrade, J.P. ; Armengol, J. ; Assefa, A. ; Breeÿen, A. den; Camele, I. ; Cheewangkoon, R. ; Souza, J.T. De; Duong, T.A. ; Esteve-Raventós, F. ; Fournier, J. ; Frisullo, S. ; García-Jiménez, J. ; Gardiennet, A. ; Gené, J. ; Hernández-Restrepo, M. ; Hirooka, Y. ; Hospenthal, D.R. ; King, A. ; Lechat, C. ; Lombard, L. ; Mang, S.M. ; Marbach, P.A.S. ; Marincowitz, S. ; Montaño-Mata, N.J. ; Moreno, G. ; Perez, C.A. ; Pérez Sierra, A.M. ; Robertson, J.L. ; Roux, J. ; Rubio, E. ; Schumacher, R.K. ; Stchigel, A.M. ; Sutton, D.A. ; Tan, Y.P. ; Thompson, E.H. ; Vanderlinde, E. ; Walker, A.K. ; Walker, D.M. ; Wickes, B.L. ; Wong, P.T.W. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2014
Persoonia 32 (2014). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 184 - 306.
sp-nov - phylogeny reveals - eucalyptus-microfungi - host-associations - gene phylogeny - sequence data - diaporthales - morphology - gnomoniaceae - conioscypha
Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Cercosporella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Seiridium podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Pseudocercospora parapseudarthriae from Pseudarthria hookeri, Neodevriesia coryneliae from Corynelia uberata on leaves of Afrocarpus falcatus, Ramichloridium eucleae from Euclea undulata and Stachybotrys aloeticola from Aloe sp. (South Africa), as novel member of the Stachybotriaceae fam. nov. Several species were also described from Zambia, and these include Chaetomella zambiensis on unknown Fabaceae, Schizoparme pseudogranati from Terminalia stuhlmannii, Diaporthe isoberliniae from Isoberlinia angolensis, Peyronellaea combreti from Combretum mossambiciensis, Zasmidium rothmanniae and Phaeococcomyces rothmanniae from Rothmannia engleriana, Diaporthe vangueriae from Vangueria infausta and Diaporthe parapterocarpi from Pterocarpus brenanii. Novel species from the Netherlands include: Stagonospora trichophoricola, Keissleriella trichophoricola and Dinemasporium trichophoricola from Trichophorum cespitosum, Phaeosphaeria poae, Keissleriella poagena, Phaeosphaeria poagena, Parastagonospora poagena and Pyrenochaetopsis poae from Poa sp., Septoriella oudemansii from Phragmites australis and Dendryphion europaeum from Hedera helix (Germany) and Heracleum sphondylium (the Netherlands). Novel species from Australia include: Anungitea eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus leaf litter, Beltraniopsis neolitseae and Acrodontium neolitseae from Neolitsea australiensis, Beltraniella endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Phaeophleospora parsoniae from Parsonia straminea, Penicillifer martinii from Cynodon dactylon, Ochroconis macrozamiae from Macrozamia leaf litter, Triposporium cycadicola, Circinotrichum cycadis, Cladosporium cycadicola and Acrocalymma cycadis from Cycas spp. Furthermore, Vermiculariopsiella dichapetali is described from Dichapetalum rhodesicum (Botswana), Marasmius vladimirii from leaf litter (India), Ophiognomonia acadiensis from Picea rubens (Canada), Setophoma vernoniae from Vernonia polyanthes and Penicillium restingae from soil (Brazil), Pseudolachnella guaviyunis from Myrcianthes pungens (Uruguay) and Pseudocercospora neriicola from Nerium oleander (Italy). Novelties from Spain include: Dendryphiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus globulus, Conioscypha minutispora from dead wood, Diplogelasinospora moalensis and Pseudoneurospora canariensis from soil and Inocybe lanatopurpurea from reforested woodland of Pinus spp. Novelties from France include: Kellermania triseptata from Agave angustifolia, Zetiasplozna acaciae from Acacia melanoxylon, Pyrenochaeta pinicola from Pinus sp. and Pseudonectria rusci from Ruscus aculeatus. New species from China include: Dematiocladium celtidicola from Celtis bungeana, Beltrania pseudorhombica, Chaetopsina beijingensis and Toxicocladosporium pini from Pinus spp. and Setophaeosphaeria badalingensis from Hemerocallis fulva. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Alfaria from Cyperus esculentus (Spain), Rinaldiella from a contaminated human lesion (Georgia), Hyalocladosporiella from Tectona grandis (Brazil), Pseudoacremonium from Saccharum spontaneum and Melnikomyces from leaf litter (Vietnam), Annellosympodiella from Juniperus procera (Ethiopia), Neoceratosperma from Eucalyptus leaves (Thailand), Ramopenidiella from Cycas calcicola (Australia), Cephalotrichiella from air in the Netherlands, Neocamarosporium from Mesembryanthemum sp. and Acervuloseptoria from Ziziphus mucronata (South Africa) and Setophaeosphaeria from Hemerocallis fulva (China). Several novel combinations are also introduced, namely for Phaeosphaeria setosa as Setophaeosphaeria setosa, Phoma heteroderae as Peyronellaea heteroderae and Phyllosticta maydis as Peyronellaea maydis. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
Fungal Planet description sheets: 107-127
Crous, P.W. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Shivas, R.G. ; Burgess, T.I. ; Decock, C.A. ; Dreyer, L.L. ; Granke, L.L. ; Guest, D.I. ; Hardy, G.E.St.J. ; Hausbeck, M.K. ; Hüberli, D. ; Jung, T. ; Koukol, O. ; Lennox, C.L. ; Liew, E.C.Y. ; Lombard, L. ; McTaggart, A.R. ; Pryke, J.S. ; Roets, F. ; Saude, C. ; Shuttleworth, L.A. ; Stukely, M.J.C. ; Vánky, K. ; Webster, B.J. ; Windstam, S.T. ; Groenewald, J.Z. - \ 2012
Persoonia 28 (2012). - ISSN 0031-5850 - p. 138 - 182.
sp-nov - allied genera - south-africa - diaporthales - eucalyptus - genus - cryphonectriaceae - gnomoniaceae - reevaluation - evolutionary
Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Phytophthora amnicola from still water, Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi from Castanea sp., Pseudoplagiostoma corymbiae from Corymbia sp., Diaporthe eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus sp., Sporisorium andrewmitchellii from Enneapogon aff. lindleyanus, Myrmecridium banksiae from Banksia, and Pilidiella wangiensis from Eucalyptus sp. Several species are also described from South Africa, namely: Gondwanamyces wingfieldii from Protea caffra, Montagnula aloes from Aloe sp., Diaporthe canthii from Canthium inerne, Phyllosticta ericarum from Erica gracilis, Coleophoma proteae from Protea caffra, Toxicocladosporium strelitziae from Strelitzia reginae, and Devriesia agapanthi from Agapanthus africanus. Other species include Phytophthora asparagi from Asparagus officinalis (USA), and Diaporthe passiflorae from Passiflora edulis (South America). Furthermore, novel genera of coelomycetes include Chrysocrypta corymbiae from Corymbia sp. (Australia), Trinosporium guianense, isolated as a contaminant (French Guiana), and Xenosonderhenia syzygii, from Syzygium cordatum (South Africa). Pseudopenidiella piceae from Picea abies (Czech Republic), and Phaeocercospora colophospermi from Colophospermum mopane (South Africa) represent novel genera of hyphomycetes. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.
Re-evaluation of Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti and Cryptosporiopsis-like species occurring on Eucalyptus
Cheewangkoon, R. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Verkley, G.J.M. ; Hyde, K.D. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Gryzenhout, M. ; Summerell, B.A. ; Denman, S. ; Toanan, C. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2010
Fungal Diversity 44 (2010)1. - ISSN 1560-2745 - p. 89 - 105.
ribosomal dna-sequences - diaporthales - mycosphaerella - phylogeny - anamorphs - taxonomy - genera
Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti is a common follicolous pathogen of Eucalyptus species in tropical and temperate regions where these trees are grown in plantations. The taxonomy of C. eucalypti is confused by the fact that it is phylogenetically unrelated to the type species of Cryptosporiopsis (Cryptosporiopsis nigra = C. scutellata, Helotiales). The aim of this study was to resolve the taxonomic position of C. eucalypti based on morphology and phylogenetic inference. Thirty-two Eucalyptus leaf samples with symptoms typical of C. eucalypti infection were collected from 10 tropical and temperate countries across four continents. Cultures were established from single conidia, as well as from ascospores of a previously unreported teleomorph state. DNA sequences were obtained for the 28 S nrDNA, the internal transcribed spacers of the nrDNA operon, and beta-tubulin regions to determine generic and species-level relationships. DNA-sequence analysis showed that conidial and ascospore isolates of C. eucalypti have low intraspecific variation, although two collections from Australia and one from Uruguay represented two novel taxa. Based on the newly collected teleomorph stage, as well as the phylogenetic data, C. eucalypti is shown to represent a new genus closely related to Plagiostoma (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales) for which the names Pseudoplagiostoma gen. nov. and Pseudoplagiostomaceae fam. nov. (Diaporthales) are introduced. Two new species of Cryptosporiopsis (Dermateaceae, Helotiales) on Eucalyptus from Australia and California (USA) are also described.
Molecular phylogeny of Phoma and allied anamorph genera: towards a reclassification of the Phoma complex
Gruyter, J. de; Aveskamp, M.M. ; Woudenberg, J.H.C. ; Verkley, G.J.M. ; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2009
Mycological Research 113 (2009)4. - ISSN 0953-7562 - p. 508 - 519.
ribosomal dna-sequences - sirococcus-conigenus - mycosphaerella - genus - pleosporales - botryosphaeriaceae - paraconiothyrium - classification - diaporthales - gnomoniaceae
The present generic concept of Phoma is broadly defined, with nine sections being recognised based on morphological characters. Teleomorph states of Phoma have been described in the genera Didymella, Leptosphaeria, Pleospora and Mycosphaerella, indicating that Phoma anamorphs represent a polyphyletic group. In an attempt to delineate generic boundaries, representative strains of the various Phoma sections and allied coelomycetous genera were included for study. Sequence data of the 18S nrDNA (SSU) and the 28S nrDNA (LSU) regions of 18 Phoma strains included were compared with those of representative strains of 39 allied anamorph genera, including Ascochyta, Coniothyrium, Deuterophoma, Microsphaeropsis, Pleurophoma, Pyrenochaeta, and 11 teleomorph genera. The type species of the Phoma sections Phoma, Phyllostictoides, Sclerophomella, Macrospora and Peyronellaea grouped in a subclade in the Pleosporales with the type species of Ascochyta and Microsphaeropsis. The new family Didymellaceae is proposed to accommodate these Phoma sections and related anamorph genera. The present study demonstrated that Phoma radicina, the type species of Phoma sect. Paraphoma and Phoma heteromorphospora, the type species of Phoma sect. Heterospora can be assigned to the Phaeosphaeriaceae and Leptosphaeriaceae respectively.
Phylogeny and taxonomy of Phaeoacremonium and its relatives
Mostert, L. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pedro Crous, co-promotor(en): E.C.A. Abeln. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044604 - 249
diaporthales - pezizomycotina - deuteromycotina - fylogenie - taxonomie - phaeohyphomycose - humane ziekten - medische mycologie - determinatietabellen - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - diaporthales - pezizomycotina - deuteromycotina - phylogeny - taxonomy - keys - phaeohyphomycosis - human diseases - medical mycology - plant pathogenic fungi
Species of Phaeoacremonium are known vascular plant pathogens causing wilt and dieback of woody hosts. The most prominent diseases in which they are involved are Petri disease and esca, which occur on grapevines and are caused by a complex of fungi, including Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and several species of Phaeoacremonium . Various Phaeoacremonium species are also opportunistic on humans, where they are known to cause phaeohyphomycosis.
The genus Togninia was confirmed as the teleomorph of Phaeoacremonium by means of morphology, sexual compatibility, and DNA phylogeny. Subsequently, the genus Togninia was monographed along with its Phaeoacremonium anamorphs. Ten species of Togninia and 22 species of Phaeoacremonium were treated. Several new species of Togninia were found during the course of the study, namely T. argentinensis , T. austroafricana , T. krajdenii , T.parasitica , T.rubrigena and T. viticola . New species of Phaeoacremonium includePm. alvesii, Pm. amstelodamense,Pm. argentinense ,Pm. australiense,Pm. austroafricanum, Pm. griseorubrum,Pm.krajdenii,Pm. novae-zealandiae , Pm . iranianum ,Pm. scolyti, Pm. sphinctrophorum,Pm.subulatum,Pm. tardicrescens,Pm . theobromatisandPm. venezuelense . Species were identified based on their cultural and morphological characters, supported by DNA data derived from partial sequences of the actin and β-tubulin genes. Phylogenies of the SSU and LSU rRNA genes were used to determine whether Togninia has more affinity with the Calosphaeriales or the Diaporthales . These results confirmed that Togninia had a higher affinity to the Diaporthales than the Calosphaeriales . Examination of type specimens revealed that T.cornicola , T.vasculosa , T . rhododendri, T . minima var. timidula and T.villosa , were not members of Togninia . New combinations such as Calosphaeria cornicola,Calosphaeriarhododendri , Calosphaeriatransversa , Calosphaeriatumidula,Calosphaeriavasculosa and Jattaeavillosawere therefore proposed to accommodate these species.
The mating strategy of several Togninia species was investigated with ascospores obtained from fertile perithecia produced in vitro . Togninia argentinensis and T.novae-zealandiae have homothallic mating systems, whereas T. austroafricana , T. krajdenii , T. minima , T.parasitica , T. rubrigena and T. viticola are heterothallic. The species predominantly isolated from diseased grapevines are Pm. aleophilum , Pm. parasiticum and Pm. viticola . Perithecia of two of these species, T. minima and T. viticola , have been found on grapevines in the field, indicating that these species recombine in vineyards.
The genetic diversity among isolates of
Seven species of Togninia and 15 species of Phaeoacremonium were newly described during the course of this study. The data obtained in this study, as well as the newly developed dichotomous and online polyphasic keys will enable scientists to correctly identify all the known species and also provide a reference database to which new species can be added in future. The newly reported host ranges and distributions, together with pathogenicity data, will enable scientists to identify species of possible quarantine concern.
New genera in the Calosphaeriales: Togniniella and its anamorph Phaeocrella, and Calosphaeriophora as anamorph of Calosphaeria
Réblová, M. ; Mostert, L. ; Gams, W. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2004
Studies in Mycology 50 (2004)2. - ISSN 0166-0616 - p. 533 - 550.
ribosomal-rna structures - dna-sequences - phaeoacremonium - phylogeny - nov - diaporthales - diatrypaceae - fungi - genus - rdna
During a survey of perithecial ascomycetes in New Zealand, two collections of a Togninia-like fungus were made on decayed wood. In culture, colonies produced a Phaeoacremonium-like anamorph. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationships of the unknown fungus and its affinity to Togninia and other genera in the Calosphaeriales, sequences of nuclear LSU and SSU ribosomal DNA were obtained of several members of this order. These data, supported by morphological and cultural characteristics, confirm that the New Zealand fungus represents a new genus very close to Calosphaeria. The genus Togniniella is proposed here to accommodate these collections, while Phaeocrella is established for their anamorphs. Furthermore, Calosphaeria pulchella was found to form a distinct Acremonium-like anamorph in culture, for which the genus Calosphaeriophora is proposed. Pleurostoma with Pleurostomophora anamorphs is a sister genus to the above two genera, forming the Pleurostomataceae. Togninia with its Phaeoacremonium anamorphs, together with Jobellisia, are closer to the Diaporthales, and deserve the rank of family, for which Togniniaceae is proposed. The presence of significantly different anamorphs in the Calosphaeriales, as well as obvious differences in teleomorph morphology of species accommodated in Calosphaeria, suggest that both the Calosphaeriales and Calosphaeria as presently perceived, are polyphyletic.
Systematic reappraisal of Coniella and Pilidiella, with specific reference to species occurring on Eucalyptus and Vitis in South Africa
Niekerk, J.M. van; Groenewald, J.Z. ; Verkley, G.J.M. ; Fourie, P.H. ; Wingfield, M.J. ; Crous, P.W. - \ 2004
Mycological Research 108 (2004)3. - ISSN 0953-7562 - p. 283 - 303.
ribosomal dna-sequences - primer sets - diaporthales
The genus Pilidiella, including its teleomorphs in Schizoparme, has a cosmopolitan distribution and is associated with disease symptoms on many plants. In the past, conidial pigmentation has been used as a character to separate Pilidiella (hyaline to pale brown conidia) from Coniella (dark brown conidia). In recent years, however, the two genera have been regarded as synonymous, the older name Coniella having priority. To address the generic question, sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, ITS2), 5.8S gene, large subunit (LSU) and elongation factor 1-[alpha] gene (EF 1-[alpha]) were analysed to compare the type species of Pilidiella and Coniella. All three gene regions supported the separation of Coniella from Pilidiella, with the majority of taxa residing in Pilidiella. Pilidiella is characterised by having species with hyaline to pale brown conidia (avg. length[ratio]width >1.5), in contrast to the dark brown conidia of Coniella (avg. length[ratio]width [less-than-or-eq, slant]1.5). Pilidiella diplodiella, which is a pathogen associated with white rot of grapevines, was shown to be an older name for C. petrakii. To delineate species in the P. diplodiella species complex, isolates were also compared based on histone (H3) gene sequences. Analyses derived from these sequence data separated P. diplodiella from a newly described species, P. diplodiopsis. The new species P. eucalyptorum sp. nov. is proposed for isolates formerly treated as C. fragariae and associated with leaf spots of Eucalyptus spp. This species clustered basal to Pilidiella, and may represent yet a third genus within this complex. Pilidiella destruens sp. nov. is newly described as anamorph of Schizoparme destruens, which is associated with twig dieback of Eucalyptus spp. in Hawaii. A key based on morphological characteristics is provided to separate the taxa treated in this study
Epidemiologie en bestrijding van de schimmel Gnomonia radicicola bij roos in steenwol
Amsing, J.J. - \ 1997
Aalsmeer etc. : Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente, Vestiging Aalsmeer (Rapport / Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente 80) - 26
plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - sierplanten - steenwol - gewasbescherming - plagenbestrijding - ziektebestrijding - plantenplagen - plantenziekten - epidemiologie - distributie - diaporthales - nederland - rosa - plant pathogenic fungi - ornamental plants - rockwool - plant protection - pest control - disease control - plant pests - plant diseases - epidemiology - distribution - diaporthales - netherlands - rosa
Onderzoekingen over Ophiobolus graminis Sacc. en Ophiobolus herpotrichus (Fr.) Sacc. en over de door deze fungi veroorzaakte ziekten van Triticum vulgare Vill. en andere Gramineae
Laar, J.H.J. van de - \ 1931
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.M. Quanjer. - Wageningen : Veenman - 146
plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - graansoorten - voedselgewassen - diaporthales - ophiobolus - gaeumannomyces graminis - cum laude - ophiobolus - gaeumannomyces graminis - plant pathogenic fungi - cereals - food crops - diaporthales
Due to the increasing importance of the wheat disease 'tarwehalmdoder' in the Netherlands, research was started on its occurrence and cause. An extensive literature review proved the identity of 'tarwehalmdoder' with take-all or whiteheads, which were caused by 0. graminis. The symptoms of the disease were root rot, decreased growth with drying of the leaves, blackening of the stem base and premature ripening.
Other fungi found on the stubble of Ophiobolus-diseased plants were described.
Ascosporous isolates of O. graminis and O. herpotrichus in pure culture were used in artificial inoculations. Inoculation with 0. graminis resulted in whiteheads. Only about half the isolates of O. herpotrichus were virulent on wheat and barley causing death of seedlings. This symptom was different from foot-rot and root-rot.
The occurrence of O. graminis on many Gramineae was reported. Resistance did not occur in existing wheat varieties. Environmental factors influenced the severity of the disease. Good crop rotation and cultural practices could limit economic losses.