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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Understanding poverty-related diseases in Cameroon from a salutogenic perspective
    Makoge, Valerie - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M.A. Koelen, co-promotor(en): H. Maat; H.W. Vaandrager. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463434515 - 193
    armoede - kameroen - malaria - tyfus - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - hiv-infecties - cholera - tuberculose - diarree - gezondheidsgedrag - gezondheidsvoorzieningen - spanningen - poverty - cameroon - malaria - typhoid - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - hiv infections - cholera - tuberculosis - diarrhoea - health behaviour - health services - stresses

    Poverty-related diseases (PRDs) assume poverty as a determinant in catching disease and an obstacle for cure and recovery. In Cameroon, over 48 % of the population lives below the poverty line. This dissertation starts from the premise that the relation between poverty and disease is mediated by a person’s capacity to cope with the challenges posed by the natural and social environment. The central problem addressed is that in (inter)national health promotion, disease eradication is overemphasized whereas strengthening the capacity of people to cope with harsh conditions is disregarded. Research efforts show a similar division in emphasis, resulting in a limited understanding of the way people deal with health challenges in conditions of poverty. This dissertation is based on the salutogenic model of health that emphasizes the combined effects of (natural) disease conditions, mental conditions and social factors as determinants of health. This implies an emphasis on health as a positive strategy to deal with stressors and also an emphasis on the agency of people to respond to challenges that hamper their health and wellbeing. The study is carried out among two different groups of people in Cameroon. These are workers including dependants of workers of the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC) and students from the universities of Buea and Yaoundé. The overall aim of this dissertation is to understand how conditions of poverty impact the health of people and how they manage these challenges. Specifically, the study aims to unravel the interlinkages between poverty and health by creating a deeper understanding of the social and material dynamics which enable people’s capacity to preserve health, anticipate health risks, and mitigate or recover from stressors such as PRDs. The main research question addressed is: What factors underlie the maintenance of good health and overcoming stressors in the face of PRDs in Cameroon?

    Different research methods were used to collect data. Interviews were carried out with respondents from both groups addressing PRDs, other stressors and coping strategies. General surveys were carried out to identify perceptions as well as health behaviour patterns across the two groups. Standardised surveys were carried out to measure individual factors such as sense of coherence, resilience, self-efficacy, subjective well-being and self-rated health. Results presented in different empirical chapters of the thesis each respond to a specific research question. In Chapters 2 and 3 are presented surveys with 272 students and 237 camp-dwellers respectively. Perceptions, attributed causes of, and responses towards PRDs are explored as well as motivations for given responses to health challenges. In chapter 4, a qualitative study with 21 camp-dwellers and 21 students is presented in which the dynamics of health-seeking behaviour is highlighted. In this chapter also, factors which are influential in seeking formal healthcare are indicated. Chapter 5 elaborates on what people experience as stressors and the mechanisms they put in place to cope with the stressors. In this chapter, not only is the diversity of stressors outlined for both groups, but also presented are the different identified coping mechanisms put in place by respondents. Chapter 6 which is the last empirical chapter presents coping with PRDs through an analysis of individual, demographic and environmental factors.

    Based on the studies carried out, this thesis concludes that the two groups investigated are very aware of what PRDs are and can differentiate them from common diseases. Major PRDs listed by the two groups of respondents were malaria, cholera and diarrhoea. This classification is different from what is considered major PRDs by (inter)national health bodies such as the World Health Organisation and the Ministry of Public Health in Cameroon. Also, organisations such as CDC and Universities, offer limited contributions towards better health for camp-dwellers and students respectively. This is experienced relative to the living conditions, quality of the healthcare system and poor work or study conditions. That notwithstanding, people play an active role in maintaining their health through diverse coping mechanisms. Coping was most strongly related to enabling individual factors such as sense of coherence and subjective health, perceptions of effective strategies to respond to diseases as well as social factors such as the meaningful activities in the social groups to which they belong. The results presented in this thesis are intended to contribute to sustainable and effective response strategies towards PRDs.

    Effectiveness of zinc fortified drinking water on zinc intake, status and morbidity of rural Kenyan pre-school children
    Kujinga-Chopera, P. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michael Zimmermann, co-promotor(en): Inge Brouwer; D. Moretti. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577572 - 127
    preschool children - drinking water - zinc - fortification - kenya - diarrhoea - nutrient deficiencies - morbidity - childhood diseases - diet - diet studies - peuters en kleuters - drinkwater - zink - fortificatie - kenya - diarree - voedingsstoffentekorten - morbiditeit - kinderziekten - dieet - dieetstudies
    Praktijk weerbarstig bij aanpak kalverdiarree
    Cappellen, J. van; Boumans, I.J.M.M. ; Stassen, E.N. - \ 2013
    Veeteelt 30 (2013)7. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 38 - 39.
    melkveehouderij - kalveren - kalverziekten - diarree - kalvervoeding - colostrum - maatregelen - dairy farming - calves - calf diseases - diarrhoea - calf feeding - colostrum - measures
    Veehouders weten goed welke maatregelen er zijn tegen kalverdiarree, maar passen ze in de praktijk vaak niet toe. ‘Geen noodzaak’, ‘te weinig tijd’ of ‘te onpraktisch voor de eigen situatie’ zijn veelgehoorde argumenten om geen actie te ondernemen.
    Diarrhea and loss of production on Dutch dairy farms caused by the Schmallenberg virus
    Muskens, J. ; Smolenaars, A.J. ; Poel, W.H.M. van der; Mars, M.H. ; Wuijckhuise, L. van; Holzhauer, M. ; Weering, H. van; Kock, P. - \ 2012
    Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 137 (2012)2. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 112 - 115.
    melkveehouderij - melkopbrengst - diarree - schmallenbergvirus - rundveeziekten - orthobunyavirus - virusziekten - bloedmonsters verzamelen - dairy farming - milk yield - diarrhoea - schmallenberg virus - cattle diseases - orthobunyavirus - viral diseases - blood specimen collection - adult cattle - coronavirus
    At the end of August and the first two weeks of September 2011 dozens of veterinary practitioners reported to GD Veekijker (Animal Health Service) several dairy herds with cows with sudden decreased milk production, watery diarrhea and sometimes fever. In the beginning these reports came from the Eastern region of the Netherlands, after that also from the other three regions. The percentages of diseased herds per veterinary practice varied from a few till dozens per cent. Extensive bacteriological, virological and parasitological testing of the feces of sick cows did not reveal an infectious cause of the clinical problems. Recently, 50 stored blood samples of clinically diseased cattle were tested for the Schmallenbergvirus using a PCR, and 36% (18/50) tested positive. A large group of control cows (n=115) was also tested with the PCR and all cattle tested negative. Likely the Schmallenbergvirus was the primary cause of the clinical symptoms in the Dutch dairy herds. Further research will be done to confirm this.
    Probiotics, calcium and acute diarrhea : a randomized trial in Indonesian children
    Agustina, R. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok; A. Firmansyah, co-promotor(en): I.M.J. Bovee-Oudenhoven. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461733726 - 174
    probiotica - calcium - diarree - ademhalingsziekten - peuters en kleuters - indonesië - voedingstoestand - probiotics - calcium - diarrhoea - respiratory diseases - preschool children - indonesia - nutritional state

    Background
    Acute diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) continue to lead the infectious cause of morbidity and mortality among children <5 years of age in developing countries, including Indonesia. Efforts to prevent diarrheal disease by probiotics and milk calcium supplementation as alternative strategy are promising. We investigated the efficacy of calcium with or without two probiotic strains, tested independently, on incidence and duration of acute diarrhea and ARTIs among Indonesian children. In addition, cumulative duration and severity of diarrhea due to rotavirus or other causes, growth, and iron and zinc status were tested. The associations of food-hygiene practices with diarrhea prevalence in children were also determined.
    Methods
    We conducted a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 494 Indonesian healthy children aged 1 to 6 years randomly received low-lactose milk with low calcium content (LC; ∼50 mg/day; n = 124), regular calcium content (RC; ∼440 mg/day; n = 126), RC with 5.108 colony-forming units per day of Lactobacillus casei CRL 431 (casei; n = 120), or RC with 5.108 colony-forming units per day of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (reuteri; n = 124). Incidence and duration of diarrhea were the primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes were incidence and duration of ARTIs, severity of diarrhea (modified Vesikari score and fecal osmolarity, calprotection and mucin), growth, and iron and zinc status. The cross-sectional association between food-hygiene practices and 7-day record period of diarrhea prevalence was assessed among 274 randomly selected children aged 12-59 months in a low socioeconomic urban area of Jatinegara sub-district of East Jakarta, Indonesia.
    Results
    Incidence of World Health Organization-defined diarrhea (≥3 loose/liquid stools in 24 hours) was not significantly different between RC and LC (relative risk 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62-1.58), between casei and RC (relative risk 1.21; 95% CI: 0.76-1.92), or between reuteri and RC (relative risk 0.76; 95% CI: 0.46-1.25) groups. Incidence of all reported diarrhea (≥2 loose/liquid stools in 24 hours) was significantly lower in the reuteri versus RC group (relative risk 0.68; 95% CI: 0.46-0.99). Irrespective of the definition used, reuteri significantly reduced diarrhea incidence in children with lower nutritional status (below-median height-and-weight-for-age z score). None of the interventions affected ARTIs. The mean total duration (131 children, 190 diarrheal episodes) was 1.35 days shorter in the reuteri group (relative risk 0.60; 95% CI: 0.36-0.99) in a 6-month period, likely by mainly affecting rotavirus-positive diarrhea. Rotavirus prevalence in diarrheal cases (30%) was not significantly different across the groups. None of the supplements affected diarrhea severity based on Vesikari score and fecal markers, except for a higher fecal mucin concentration in the casei group (P = .006). The increase in weight gain, weight-for-age z score (WAZ) changes and monthly weight and height velocities were significantly higher in the reuteri compared with RC group over 6 months period, whereas. L. casei, although giving less benefit, modestly improved weight velocity. Changes in underweight and stunting prevalence, anemia prevalence and iron and zinc status were similar among groups. No serious adverse events related to the interventions were reported. Children living in a house with clean sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not have one or had dirty sewage (adjusted odds ratio 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03-0.73). The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged <2 years (adjusted odds ratio 4.55; 95% CI: 1.08-19.1).
    Conclusion
    L. reuteri may prevent diarrhea especially in children with lower nutritional status, reduce total duration of diarrheal episodes, and modestly improve growth over 6 months, but does not affect diarrhea severity. L. casei modestly improves monthly weight velocity, but does not reduce diarrhea incidence, duration or severity. However, it seems too early to recommend probiotics (e.g. L. reuteri) for routine use or for follow-up in public health programs to prevent diarrhea in children in developing countries. Milk calcium alone does not affect any of the outcomes. Moreover, none of the dietary treatments affect incidence and duration of ARTIs, and iron and zinc status in Indonesian children. In addition to other major determinants, poor mother’s food-hygiene practices contributes to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children <2 years.


    Multi-micronutrient supplementation in HIV-infected South African children : effect on nutritional s tatus, diarrhoea and respiratory infections
    Mda, S. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Joop van Raaij; F.P.R. de Villiers. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858577 - 168
    voedselsupplementen - minerale supplementen - vitaminetoevoegingen - humane immunodeficiëntievirussen - hiv-infecties - voedingstoestand - diarree - ademhalingsziekten - kinderen - zuid-afrika - food supplements - mineral supplements - vitamin supplements - human immunodeficiency viruses - hiv infections - nutritional state - diarrhoea - respiratory diseases - children - south africa

    Background: The nutritional status of HIV-infected children is reported to be poor. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections tend to be more common and severe in HIV-infected children than in uninfected ones. Deficiencies of micronutrients may result in poor growth and increased risk of diarrhoea and respiratory infections. Micronutrient deficiencies are common in HIV-infected children. The poor growth, diarrhoea and respiratory infections seen in HIV-infected children may be partly due to micronutrient deficiencies. The studies in this thesis had two main objectives: (1) to evaluate the effect of short-term (during hospitalization) and long-term (6 months) multi-micronutrient supplementation on episodes of diarrhoea and respiratory infections in HIV-infected children who are not yet on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and (2) to assess the effects of long-term multi-micronutrient supplementation on appetite and growth performance of HIV-infected who are not on ART.

    Methods and results: Four studies were conducted. Initially a cross-sectional study was performed in which the duration of hospitalization, weight, length, micronutrient status and appetite of HIV-infected children admitted with diarrhoea or pneumonia was compared with the results of HIV-uninfected children. Duration of hospitalization was 2.8 days (52%) longer in HIV-infected children. Appetite as measured by amount of test food eaten (g per kg body weight) was 26% poorer in HIV-infected children. Mean length-for-age Z-scores were lower in HIV-infected children; there was no difference in level of wasting.

    Subsequently multi-micronutrient supplementation studies were performed, one short-term and two long-term studies. The effect of supplementation on the duration of hospitalization in HIV-infected children with diarrhoea or pneumonia was assessed in the short-term study. One long-term study assessed the supplement’s impact on growth and frequency of episodes of diarrhoea and of pneumonia in HIV-infected children. The other evaluated the effect of the supplement on the appetite of these children. The supplement contained vitamins A, B complex, C, D, E and folic acid, and the minerals copper, iron, selenium and zinc at levels based on recommended dietary allowances.

    In the short-term supplementation study HIV-infected children aged 4-24 months who were hospitalized with pneumonia or diarrhoea received the supplement or a placebo until discharge from hospital. The duration of hospitalization was 1.7 days (19%) shorter in the supplement group.

    Long-term multi-micronutrient supplementation improved the weight-for-age and weight-for-height Z-scores of HIV-infected children aged 4-24 months by 0.4 over the 6-month period. There was no improvement in stunting. Children in the supplement group had substantially fewer episodes of respiratory symptoms per month than the placebo group (0.66 ± 0.51) per month vs (1.01 ± 0.67) (P < 0.05) and marginally fewer episodes of diarrhoea per month (0.25 ± 0.31) vs (0.36 ± 0.36) (P = 0.09). There was no effect on CD4 lymphocytes. Long-term supplementation with micronutrients had benefits on the appetite of HIV-infected children aged 6-24 months as well. Improvements in amount of test food eaten over the 6-month period were much higher among children who received the supplement (4.7 ± 14.7 g/kg body weight) than the changes in those who received the placebo (-1.4 ± 11.6 g/kg body weight).

    Conclusion: Multi-micronutrient supplementation reduces the duration of diarrhoea and of pneumonia and incidence of diarrhoea and of respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected children who are not yet on ART. Multi-micronutrient supplementation also improves appetite and weight in these children but not height. The results of these studies indicate that multi-micronutrient supplementation should be considered in HIV-infected infant and young children who have not commenced ART.

    Effect of preventive supplementation with zinc and other micronutrients on malaria and diarrhoeal morbidity in African children
    Veenemans, J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Savelkoul; A.M. Prentice. - s.n. - ISBN 9789085858294 - 214
    zink - sporenelementen - voedselsupplementen - malaria - diarree - ziektepreventie - preventieve voeding - kinderen - tanzania - kenya - nadelige gevolgen - voedingsstoffentekorten - zinc - trace elements - food supplements - malaria - diarrhoea - disease prevention - preventive nutrition - children - tanzania - kenya - adverse effects - nutrient deficiencies
    Background: Zinc is important for innate and adaptive immune responses
    to infection. Preventive zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce
    the incidence of acute diarrhoea by 20%. Few trials have evaluated its effect
    against malaria. Because trial results for both outcomes are inconsistent,
    research priorities must shift from studies to measure efficacy to identifying
    factors that determine the magnitude of the effect of zinc supplementation.
    We hypothesized that protection by zinc supplementation depends on
    concomitant supplementation with other nutrients.
    Objectives: Specific objectives were: a) to assess the effect of supplementation
    with zinc, alone or in combination with other nutrients, on the rates of malaria
    (primary objective); b) to assess intervention effects on rates of diarrhoea and
    other common diseases; c) to identify factors that determine the magnitude
    of the effect of the interventions. Our studies also provided an opportunity to
    assess effects of α+-thalassaemia on malaria and malaria-associated anaemia.
    This haemoglobin disorder is highly prevalent in eastern Africa and that has
    recently been reported to protect against severe malaria.
    Methods: In a highly malaria-endemic area in rural Tanzania, we randomised
    children (n=612) aged 6-60 months with height-for-age z-score ≤ –1.5 SD to
    daily supplementation with: a) zinc, vitamins and other mineral elements
    (‘multi-nutrients’); b) zinc; c) multi-nutrients without zinc; or d) placebo.
    Those with Plasmodium infection at baseline were treated. Field staff
    and participants were blinded to treatment. Sick children were detected
    and evaluated in a research clinic. The primary outcome, an episode of
    malaria, was pre-defined as current Plasmodium antigenaemia in children
    with guardian-reported fever and any of the following: a) confirmed fever
    (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5 °C), or b) unconfirmed fever with inflammation
    (whole blood C-reactive protein concentrations ≥ 8 mg/L), separated by at
    least 14 days from a previous malaria episode.
    Results: The primary analysis included 1,572 episodes of malaria and 526
    child-years of observation. The prevalence of zinc deficiency (plasma zinc
    concentration < 9.9 μmol/mL) was 67% overall, and 60% in those without
    inflammation (plasma C-reactive protein concentration < 8 mg/L). This
    prevalence was dramatically reduced by zinc supplementation.
    We found no evidence that concurrent supplementation with multi-nutrients
    influenced the magnitude of the effect of zinc on rates of malaria or diarrhoea,
    so that marginal effects will be presented in the remainder of this summary.
    Although we found no evidence that zinc alone protected against malaria, it
    reduced rates of diarrhoea by 24% (95% CI: 4%–40%) and of episodes of fever
    without localising signs by 25% (4%–43%), two disorders with mutually
    exclusive case definitions.
    We found no effect of multi-nutrients on the overall rate of malaria episodes,
    regardless the case definition used, but the effect estimate was likely
    underestimated by children becoming asymptomatically infected in the
    course of the intervention period. In the first 100 days of intervention, and
    in the analysis of first events, supplementation with multi-nutrients, with
    or without zinc, increased the hazard of malaria by one-third. In addition,
    subgroup analysis indicated that this effect depended strongly on age and
    iron status at baseline, with rates of episodes with parasite densities > 10,000
    parasites/ μL increasing by 27 % (1%-61%) and 53% (11%–111%) in the
    youngest children (6-17 months) and in children with iron deficiency, whilst
    there was no evident effect in older children or those without iron deficiency
    (p-values for interaction: 0.02 and 0.007).
    Despite the increase in malaria rates, the children who had the lowest
    haemoglobin concentrations during malaria (those aged 6-17 months)
    were better able to maintain their haemoglobin concentrations when
    having received multi-nutrients. Direct epidemiological evidence is
    lacking, however, if and under what conditions the higher haemoglobin
    concentrations during malaria (and expected reduced risk of death due to
    severe malarial anemia) outweigh the possible increase in other potentially
    lethal disease manifestations.
    Multi-nutrient supplementation seemed to increase the rate of diarrhoea by
    19% (–6% to 50%). Subgroup analysis indicated that this effect depended
    on Giardia intestinalis infection at baseline (p-values for interaction: 0.03): in
    those without multi-nutrients, infection was associated with a reduction in
    rates of diarrhoea by 68% (34%-85%), whilst there was no evidence for such
    protection in those receiving multi-nutrients. Similar effect modification was
    found for fever without localizing signs.
    Of 612 children in the trial, 50% had normal genotype, whilst 41% and 9%
    were heterozygote and homozygous, respectively, for α+-thalassaemia. We
    found no evidence of group differences in malaria rates between genotypes.
    Subgroup analysis suggested, however, that the effect of α+-thalassemia
    depended on age. Thus in children below 18 months, malaria rates were
    increased by 30% (2%–65%) in heterozygotes, whereas they were decreased
    by 20% (5%–32%) in older children (p-value for interaction: 0.001). Similar
    patterns were found for homozygotes, even though estimates were less
    precise due the smaller numbers of children in this age class. Based on data
    from a pilot survey and a study in Kenya, we found that children with α+-
    thalassaemia (particularly homozygotes) were protected against the decline in
    haemoglobin concentration associated with mild to asymptomatic infections,
    particularly when these infections were accompanied by inflammation.
    Interpretation and conclusions for policies: We found no evidence that addition
    of vitamins and other mineral elements increased the health benefits of zinc
    supplements. The beneficial effects of zinc described in this thesis strengthen
    the case for scaling up zinc interventions in deficient populations of African
    children, without concerns that it will cause adverse effects due to malaria.
    Multi-nutrient supplementation may be unsafe in malaria-endemic areas,
    particularly in young children with iron deficiency. Thus the recommendation
    by the World Health Organization that iron supplements should be
    administered routinely to iron-deficient infants in settings with adequate
    access to anti-malarial treatment is insufficiently supported by evidence and
    should be reconsidered. Our results underscore that supplementation or
    home fortification, even when targeting deficient subgroups in settings with
    access to adequate primary care, should not be recommended in malariaendemic
    areas until their safety has been demonstrated.
    Bioactive components of fermented soya beans effective against diarrhoea-associated bacteria
    Roubos-van den Hil, P.J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marcel Zwietering; Harry Gruppen, co-promotor(en): Rob Nout. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857136 - 152
    tempé - sojabonen - diarree - enzymactiviteit - arabinose - fermentatie - bioactieve verbindingen - tempeh - soyabeans - diarrhoea - enzyme activity - arabinose - fermentation - bioactive compounds
    Tempe is a fermented food, obtained by fungal fermentation of soya beans. During the processing specific flavour, texture and nutritional properties are achieved. Previous research has indicated that tempe reduced the incidence and severity of diarrhoea. In this thesis the bioactive effects of tempe on diarrhoea-associated bacteria are described.
    Tempe appeared to be antibacterial against Bacillus cereus cells and spores, but not against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Nevertheless, tempe was found to inhibit the adhesion of ETEC to intestinal epithelial cells.
    Experiments showed that the inhibition of adhesion was caused by an interaction between ETEC and tempe extracts. A range of ETEC strains was shown to be sensitive for the anti-adhesive component, making the bioactivity of broader interest for applications in feed matrices.
    Furthermore, several substrates (legumes and cereals) were fermented and all fermented legumes tested were equally bioactive as the fermented soya beans, whereas the fermented cereals were not active. The use of different starter cultures showed that Bacillus spp., moulds and some yeasts were capable to release or form the bioactive component during fermentation, thus the bioactivity was not specific for one microbial species.
    After heating, defatting and protease treatment of the bioactive tempe extracts, they remained bioactive. On the contrary, after treatment with polysaccharide degrading enzyme mixtures the bioactivity was lost. This suggests that the bioactive component contains carbohydrates, and explains the interaction between ETEC and tempe extracts, which could indeed be established by carbohydrates of the tempe extract. Ultra-filtration revealed the bioactive component to have molecular masses >30 kDa. Further purification yielded an active fraction with an increased carbohydrate content. Monosaccharide analysis showed the importance of arabinose in the bioactive components.
    In conclusion, the bioactive component is released or formed during fermentation by enzymatic degradation of legumes. The bioactive component is of carbohydrate nature and contains arabinose, which originates from arabinan or arabinogalactan chains of the pectic cell wall polysaccharides of legumes.
    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in humans and the food chain in Bangladesh
    Islam, M.A. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Marcel Zwietering, co-promotor(en): A.E. Heuvelink. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852919 - 183
    escherichia coli - bacteriële toxinen - microbiële ecologie - diarree - ziekteprevalentie - voedselketens - vee - bangladesh - escherichia coli - bacterial toxins - microbial ecology - diarrhoea - disease prevalence - food chains - livestock - bangladesh
    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are significant pathogenic bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal diseases and also the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Domestic ruminants appear to be the main reservoirs of these organisms. Although Bangladesh is an endemic zone for diarrhea caused by different enteric pathogens, no systematic study on STEC has yet been done there. We estimated the prevalence of STEC infections among diarrheal patients and the occurrences of STEC in the human food chain in Bangladesh. In addition, we evaluated methods for the isolation of STEC O157 from animal feces and foods. We found that the prevalence of STEC was low among diarrhoeal patients compared with other diarrheagenic pathogens. In contrast, there is a high prevalence of STEC including serogroup O157 in animal reservoirs and in the food chain. We concluded that the lack of STEC O157 infection among Bangladeshi population might be due to the protective immunity against these pathogens acquired by the frequent exposure to the antigens.
    Neonatal diarrhoea in pigs: alpha- and beta(2)-toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens
    Hendriksen, S.W.M. ; Leengoed, L.A.M.G. van; Roest, H.I.J. ; Nes, A. van - \ 2006
    Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 131 (2006)24. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 910 - 913.
    varkenshouderij - clostridium perfringens - diergeneeskunde - diarree - biggenziekten - toxinen - vaccinatie - vaccinontwikkeling - autovaccins - diagnostische technieken - diagnose - pig farming - clostridium perfringens - veterinary science - diarrhoea - piglet diseases - toxins - vaccination - vaccine development - autogenous vaccines - diagnostic techniques - diagnosis - beta2 toxin - animals - prevalence - piglets - gene
    Since 2001 the Pig Health Unit of Utrecht University has been consulted by various pig farms regarding neonatal diarrhoea. When preventive measures against E. coli-induced diarrhoea had no or limited results, the diarrhoeic piglets were investigated further. The microbiological and pathological findings were indicative of infection with Clostridium perfringens. Toxin typing by polymerase chain reaction led to the detection of genes encoding a-toxin (cpa) and beta2-toxin (cpb2). Surprisingly, alpha- and beta2-toxin-producing C. perfringens was isolated from all tested herds with piglets with neonatal diarrhoea. From our observations, it is likely that many herds in the Netherlands are infected with beta2-toxin-producing C. perfringens strains. As present vaccines lack beta2-toxoid and thus do not provide piglets with protection against beta2-induced diarrhoea.
    Homeopathie, een oplossing voor kalverdiarree!
    Ellinger, L. ; Baars, E. ; Baars, T. ; Eekeren, N.J.M. van - \ 2006
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Extern rapport / Bioveem 12) - 21 p.
    kalveren - diarree - homeopathie - melkveehouderij - biologische landbouw - kennis - calves - diarrhoea - homeopathy - dairy farming - organic farming - knowledge
    Door verschillende veehouders, binnen en buiten het project Bioveem, en door studenten van agrarische hogescholen is onderzoek gedaan naar het gebruik van homeopathische middelen bij de preventie en de behandeling van kalverdiarree. Het rapport geeft een verslag van de ervaringen die de veehouders hebben opgedaan met het gebruik van homeopathische middelen bij kalverdiarree. Uitgaande van deze ervaringen is dubbelblind onderzoek opgezet naar de preventie en de behandeling van kalverdiarree met behulp van homeopathische middelen.
    Sterfte door cyathostominosis
    Roumen, M. ; Borgsteede, F.H.M. ; Vos, J.H. de - \ 2004
    Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 129 (2004)19. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 628 - 630.
    paarden - cyathostominae - salmonella - diarree - fatale infecties - postmortale onderzoeken - anthelmintica - dierziektepreventie - horses - cyathostominae - salmonella - diarrhoea - fatal infections - postmortem examinations - anthelmintics - animal disease prevention - strongyle eggs - reappearance - feces - ivermectin - pyrantel
    In autumn 2002 and 2003, the Animal Health Service received several young horses for post mortem investigation that had died or had been euthanised. It was found that severe cyathostominosis was the cause of death. The aetiology, pathology and diagnosis of this infection is discussed. Advice is given for preventative measures and usage of anthelmintics.
    Kalveren eerste weken bij de koe voorkomt diarree
    Heutinck, L.F.M. ; Bestman, M.W.P. - \ 2004
    V-focus 1 (2004)okt.. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 26 - 27.
    melkveehouderij - kalveren - kalverziekten - diarree - ziektepreventie - maternale effecten - zoogkoeien - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - finland - dierziektepreventie - dairy farming - calves - calf diseases - diarrhoea - disease prevention - maternal effects - nurse cows - farm management - finland - animal disease prevention
    Hoewel in Nederland wordt geadviseerd koe en kalf na de geboorte te scheiden, valt naar Fins voorbeeld ook hier te overwegen om kalveren de eerste 3 tot 4 weken bij de koe te laten
    Homeopathische behandeling van speendiarree bij biggen (nog) niet praktijkrijp
    Eijck, I.A.J.M. ; Binnendijk, G. - \ 2003
    Praktijkkompas. Varkens 17 (2003)3. - ISSN 1570-8578 - p. 20 - 21.
    varkenshouderij - varkens - biologische landbouw - biggen - varkensziekten - ziektebestrijding - diergezondheid - diarree - antidiarrhoica - veterinaire producten - diergeneeskunde - veeartsenijkunde - homeopathie - homeopathische geneesmiddelen - pig farming - pigs - organic farming - piglets - swine diseases - disease control - animal health - diarrhoea - antidiarrhoea agents - veterinary products - veterinary science - veterinary medicine - homeopathy - homeopathic drugs
    Behandeling van speendiarree bij biggen met homeopathische middelen leiden niet tot verbetering van speendiarree. Speendiarree is een belangrijk probleem in de biologische varkenshouderij.
    De strijd tegen Campylobacter vraagt grote inspanningen
    Wagenaar, J.A. ; Jacobs-Reitsma, W.F. ; Bolder, N.M. - \ 2001
    Vleesindustrie 7 (2001)8. - ISSN 1385-7312 - p. 16 - 17.
    campylobacter - spirillaceae - voedselbesmetting - voedselhygiëne - voedselveiligheid - microbiële besmetting - pluimvee - slachtdieren - diarree - spijsverteringsstoornissen - decontaminatie - karkassen - campylobacter - spirillaceae - food contamination - food hygiene - food safety - microbial contamination - poultry - meat animals - diarrhoea - digestive disorders - decontamination - carcasses
    In Nederland wordt veel onderzoek gedaan naar de beheersing van Campylobacter; naast onderzoek op pluimveebedrijven tracht men vleeskuikens minder gevoelig te maken voor een Campilobacterinfectie. Tevens wordt gewerkt aan snelle testmethoden voor decontaminatie van karkassen
    Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea
    Kiers, J.L. - \ 2001
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): F.M. Rombouts; M.J.R. Nout; M.J.A. Nabuurs. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084729 - 110
    gefermenteerde voedingsmiddelen - tempé - natto - sojaproducten - metabolisme - voedingsfysiologie - spijsvertering - absorptie - diarree - darmmicro-organismen - fermented foods - tempeh - natto - soyabean products - metabolism - nutrition physiology - digestion - absorption - diarrhoea - intestinal microorganisms

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This study describes effects of fermented soya beans on gastrointestinal physiology and addresses digestion, absorption and diarrhoea.

    Using an in vitro digestion model it appeared that fermentation increased solubility and absorbability to a large extent as a result of protein and carbohydrate degradation. The level of water-soluble dry matter increased during fermentation with Rhizopus sp. (tempe) from an initial 7 up to 27%, and during fermentation with Bacillus sp. from an initial 22 up to 65%. In vitro digestibility was only slightly higher for the fermented soya beans. Soya beans are more or less pre-digested by the action of the micro-organisms and can therefore serve as a source of easily available nutrients.

    Tempe extracts did not inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) induced haemagglutination of red blood cells was strongly inhibited by tempe extracts, and in vitro adhesion of ETEC to brush border membranes isolated from the small intestine of piglets was inhibited up to 95% by several tempe extracts.

    Perfusion of small intestinal segments of anaesthetised piglets showed an inverse relationship between osmolality and net fluid absorption (linear correlation). ETEC infection of small intestinal segments prior to perfusion resulted in an osmolality independent reduction of net fluid absorption of approximately 400μl/cm 2. Both cooked soya bean and tempe were able to minimise this reduction in net fluid absorption induced by ETEC. However, sodium losses as a result of ETEC infection were lower and dry matter and total solute absorption were higher for tempe when compared to cooked soya bean. A fraction containing high-molecular-weight components (> 5kDa) was shown to be mainly responsible for the observed protective effect of tempe. Several possible mechanisms of action are outlined and discussed.

    Soya beans fermented with Rhizopus microsporus showed better protection against ETEC-induced diarrhoea compared to cooked and especially toasted (commercial) soya beans in weaned piglets in vivo . Furthermore, fermentation of cooked soya beans, especially with Bacillus subtilis , resulted in increased feed efficiency probably as a result of increased digestibility. These characteristics imply the potential of using fermented soya beans in individuals suffering from diarrhoea and malnutrition.

    Voeropname van gespeende biggen: effecten van speengewicht en lichtschema
    Bruininx, E. ; Peet-Schwering, C. van der - \ 1999
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 13 (1999)6. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 18 - 20.
    varkensvoeding - biggen - spenen - korrelvoer - groeistudies - diarree - speengewicht - lichtregiem - groepshuisvesting - pig feeding - piglets - weaning - pelleted feeds - growth studies - diarrhoea - weaning weight - light regime - group housing
    Er is een aanmerkelijke variatie in individuele voeropname tussen in groepen gehuisveste gespeende biggen. Problemen met speendiarree lijken in de praktijk vaak beperkt tot enkele biggen binnen een hok.
    Heeft voeropname relaties met speendiarree?
    Bruininx, E. ; Peet-Schwering, C. van der - \ 1998
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 12 (1998)5. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 3 - 3.
    dierpathologie - biggen - spenen - diarree - animal pathology - piglets - weaning - diarrhoea
    De individuele voeropname van biggen gedurende de eerste dagen na spenen lijkt een belangrijke rol te spelen bij het ontstaan van speendiarree. Op het PV wordt met behulp van voerstations onderzocht of dit werkelijk zo is.
    Gezondheidsproblemen op zeugenbedrijven
    Vaessen, M. ; Binnendijk, G. ; Backs, G. - \ 1998
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 12 (1998)2. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 24 - 25.
    diergeneeskunde - zeugen - ademhalingsziekten - diarree - huidziekten - dermatologie - influenza - virusziekten - bewegingsstoornissen - veterinary science - sows - respiratory diseases - diarrhoea - skin diseases - dermatology - influenza - viral diseases - movement disorders
    Uit een enqulte op 438 zeugenbedrijven bleek dat op meer dan de helft van die bedrijven problemen voorkomen bij de gespeende biggen bij vijf van tien onderscheiden aandoeningen.
    BVD-uitbraak kan kostbaar zijn: een praktijkgeval.
    Stelwagen, J. ; Dijkhuizen, A.A. - \ 1998
    Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 123 (1998)9. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 283 - 286.
    diergeneeskunde - melkvee - melkveehouderij - virusziekten - diarree - productiekosten - Nederland - veterinary science - dairy cattle - dairy farming - viral diseases - diarrhoea - production costs - Netherlands
    Voor een praktijkgeval met een Boviene Virus Diarree-besmetting is de bedrijfseconomische schade bepaald. Toen er op het bewuste veebedrijf een BVD-drager geboren werd, hadden de kalveren van koppelgenoten, die ten tijde van de vermoedelijke infectie eveneens in de eerste 4 maanden van de dracht waren, ook onderzocht moeten worden op BVD. Aangezien dit is nagelaten ontstond er, naast schade die onvermijdelijk was, schade die voorkomen had kunnen worden
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