Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Bedrijven en hun impact op en afhankelijkheid van natuurlijk kapitaal
    Smits, M.J.W. ; Bos, E.J. ; Heide, C.M. van der; Selnes, T. ; Vogelzang, T.A. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-060) - ISBN 9789462578395 - 27
    natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ecosystemen - dienstensector - bedrijven - organisaties - natural resources - sustainability - ecosystems - services - businesses - organizations
    What tools and data do companies use to measure their impact on natural capital, and what are the gaps in terms of instruments ? The main findings, based on interviews are: i) companies mainly work with LCA ii) companies with many products prefer to work with labels, iii) there is a need for standardisation at the sector level, iv) availability of data at field level is a bottleneck, v) nonfrontrunners could be more involved in natural capital.
    Decision making under the tree: gender perspectives on decentralization reforms in service delivery in rural Tanzania
    Masanyiwa, Z.S. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof; Katrien Termeer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738998 - 195
    decentralisatie - overheidssector - dienstensector - plattelandsgemeenschappen - geslacht (gender) - man-vrouwrelaties - tanzania - afrika - decentralization - public sector - services - rural communities - gender - gender relations - tanzania - africa

    In recent decades, decentralization has been upheld by governments, donors and policy makers in many developing countries as a means of improving people’s participation and public services delivery. In 1996, the government of Tanzania embarked on major local government reforms reflecting the global trends and as part of the wider public sector reforms. The reforms aim at improving the access, quality and equitable delivery of public services through a policy of ‘decentralization by devolution’. Since then, many studies have examined the fiscal, administra­tive, legal and political aspects of the reforms. However, the gender dimensions of both the process and outcomes of the reforms have been less examined. In Tanzania, like in other sub-Saharan African countries, little is documented about decentrali­zation and gender, especially at the village level. This study, therefore, examines the impact of decentralization reforms on service delivery in rural Tanzania using a gender perspective.The study addresses the question of how decentralization affects the user-provider interactions and gender-sensitivity of water and health services in the rural villages. Specifically, it focuses on the institu­tional characte­ristics for decentralized service delivery, the impact of the reforms on service users’ participation in decision-making processes, on access to gender-sensitive water and health services, and on cooperation and trust at the village level.

    To investigate this, the study draws on governance theory and sociological theory, including an institutional, principal-agent, an actor and a gender perspective. In this study, gender is seen as a cross-cutting perspective taking in account the wider socio-cultural and political structures that influence the process and outcomes of decentralization in a specific context. The study is based on quantitative and qualitative data obtained at district, village and household levels in the districts of Kondoa and Kongwa in the Dodoma Region in Tanzania. The fieldwork consisted of three overlapping phases: an exploratory phase, house­hold survey and in-depth qualitative study. Mixed data collection methods were used because they enrich our understanding of the topic and contribute to the validity and reliability of findings. A house­hold survey was used to collect quantitative data, whereas semi-structured and unstruc­tured interviews, focus group discussions, observations, case studies and life histories were used to collect qualitative data. Overall, 513 respondents (236 men and 277 women) were involved in the study: 332 in the survey (115 men and 227 women), 69 in the focus group discussions (44 men and 25 women), 107 in the interviews (77 men and 30 women) and five women in life histories. In addition, review and analysis of available data at district and village levels provided secondary data to complement the primary data.

    The study found that the reforms have resulted in a number of institutional changes by restructuring the district and village councils, and by establishing service boards and commi­ttees at each administrative level or service delivery point. These changes have incre­ased local govern­ments’ autonomy to plan and imple­ment service delivery functions, and service users’ participation in planning and managing public services. However, the existing central-local relations limit local governments’ autonomy to fully exercise their decentralized mandates and to address local service delivery needs. Local govern­ments have limited financial and technical capacity, and the central government controls their functions through intergovernmental trans­fers, guidelines and national priorities. At the village level, conflicting roles and responsi­bi­lities of village councils and service committees limit the latter to fun­ction effectively. Thus, decent­ralized service delivery in Tanzania takes on different forms where the nature of sector is an important factor in the kind of institutional arrangements.

    It was revealed that decentralization reforms have created spaces for service users’ participation in planning and decision-making processes. Men and women participate in these spaces through attending meetings, contributing labour, cash or both, in construction of service infrastructures, membership in committees, speaking up and influencing decisions in meetings. The majority of women participate passively by attending meetings, consultation or through activity-specific spaces. Although the proportion of women in village councils and committees has increased because of the quota-based representation, local decision-making processes conti­nue to be largely male dominated. Women’s participation contributes to meeting practical gender needs, but to a lesser extent addresses their strategic gender needs because of the gende­red power rela­tions which have been largely untouched by the reforms. The main const­raints to effective women’s participation include patriarchy, household respo­nsibilities, compli­cated elec­tion proce­dures, lack of self-confidence and less experience in public affairs. Gender also inter­sects with religion, ethnicity, age and marital status, and may compound women’s disadva­ntaged position in local decision-making structures. While dece­nt­ralization is expected to address gender inequalities, instead it repro­duces them, because it does not address the socio-cultural barriers that inhibit women’s effec­tive participation in local structures.

    The study shows that the impact of reforms on water and health services delivery is mixed. Access to the services has improved for some users but decentralization has also led to marginalization of other users. The number of water and health services infrastructure has increased, thereby raising the service coverage. However, there is still inade­quate infrastructure to provide full service coverage, and the situation is more critical in the health sector because most villages do not have their own health facilities. Despite improvements in coverage, less has been achieved in other respects, such as adequate staffing and availability of drugs and other essential supplies. Comparatively, more users are satisfied with water services than with health services. For both services, there are overlaps and differences between the users’ and the gender perspectives. Men and women hold similar opinions on some aspects, but there are also marked differences. This confirms the fact that men and women are actually different users because they have different needs, and are positioned differently regarding their access to basic services. Understanding these simi­larities and differences is, thus, an important step in making basic services ‘gender-sensitive’.

    It was shown that the reforms have strengthened formal cooperation aimed at improving public services and the informal mechanisms of social networks and groups. Decentralization outcomes in terms of increased citizen’s participation in decision-making processes and improved services influence political trust, and also here gender relations proved to play an important role. There is a two-way interface between trust and decentra­lization reforms: trust enhances participation in local institutions and ‘good’ decentrali­zation outcomes can generate trust. Conversely, ‘bad’ decentralization outcomes decrease trust. The study further revealed that political trust is a multi-layered concept where citizens judge local leaders and service providers at different administrative levels differently. These levels are crucial in analysing political trust and the impact of gender on political trust at different levels.

    The general conclusion of this study is that the current decentralization reforms in Tanzania present both opportunities and challenges for increasing service users’ participation, cooperation and trust, addressing gender equality issues and, for improving service delivery. In order to improve the user-provider interactions and service delivery, a number of design and implementation issues should be addressed. At the national level, policy makers need to address the existing imbalance in central-local relations by redefining the relationship, functions and roles of central and local governments. District councils need to clarify the roles and responsibi­lities of service committees in relation to those of village councils, provide regular gender-sensitive training to service committees, and integrate local needs into district plans. Village leaders should consider holding meetings at times and in locations that are convenient for women, announce meetings and agenda in advance, and address village concerns adequately and transparently in the meeti­ngs. Actors at all levels need to explore effective strategies for transforming the socio-cultural norms that underlie women’s subordinate position in decision-making processes, and in their access to basic services.

    Public and private service provision of solid waste management in Kampala, Uganda
    Katusiimeh, M.W. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Erwin Bulte, co-promotor(en): Kees Burger. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732903 - 186
    afvalbeheer - vaste afvalstoffen - afvalverwijdering - uganda - milieubeleid - overheidsdiensten - dienstensector - afrika - cost effective analysis - sociale economie - waste management - solid wastes - waste disposal - uganda - environmental policy - public services - services - africa - cost effectiveness analysis - socioeconomics

    Following the largely unimpressive performance of the public sector in the provision of solid waste services in many cities of African countries, the search for alternative strategies for addressing this challenge became inevitable. One of the strategies is the involvement of the private sector in solid waste management. As of today, the contribution by the private sector to solid waste service provision is now a common phenomenon in most cities in developing countries. However, SWM cannot be easily left to be handled by the private sector alone because it has strong external effects and markets may not achieve socially acceptable levels of equity. Therefore, public intervention is necessary for example in form of regulation of the private sector. Public intervention has sometimes involved governments allocating huge sums of money for beautification of cities especially when major events are hosted in those cities with upgrading of waste management services given a special consideration. Even without government involvement, a proportion of people who make a living from activities in the informal sector have played a big role in solid waste management in many cities in the developing world.

    Despite the active involvement of many actors in SWM and the policies and initiatives introduced and implemented in recent decades in East Africa, many urban centres are still facing major problems. Even where successes have been registered, the question is whether that success can be sustained for a long time. This study addresses the situation of household waste collection in Kampala. It is one of the key factors in ensuring the health and safety of the population. This study is part of the Partnerships for Research on Viable Environmental Infrastructure in East Africa (PROVIDE), towards sustainable waste water and solid waste infrastructures in East African cities. It contributes to the PROVIDE project by addressing issues of governance and management of solid waste in Kampala. The study’s contribution is a deeper understanding of the various actors in solid waste collection and the performance of the interventions and policies so far implemented in the solid waste management sector in Kampala. Specifically, the study compares the operations and assesses the effectiveness of public and private provision of solid waste collection in Kampala; examines the effect of removal of communal containers popularly known as ‘skips’ in Kampala; examines how the informal sector co-exists with the formal sector in solid waste collection in Kampala and lastly examines the environmental legacies related to solid waste management from hosting the 2007 CHOGM event in Uganda.

    Chapter two compares the operations and discusses the effectiveness of public and private sector provision of solid waste collection in Kampala, Uganda. Household data suggest that the private sector is more effective than the public sector. Private sector companies provide services like container provision and providing timely and fixed collection time tables. Contrary to popular perception, fees charged by private companies are moderate. Public sector clients are charged fees even when the service is supposed to be free. Clients of private sector providers are more satisfied than those of public sector providers. It is however, revealed that while public sector serve mainly the low incomes, the private sector serves mainly the rich. In spite of these notable differences, clients of both public and private sector perceive the problem of solid waste management (SWM) in Kampala to be very serious. The effectiveness of public and private sector operations in solid waste collection in Kampala is hampered by corruption and lack of transparency.

    Chapter three examines the impact of the removal of communal containers (skips) in Kampala. From the analysis related to the choices made and the perceptions after most of the skips were removed, the major alternative to skips was the use of the commercial services, mainly private sector’s services. When asked to rate the skips system, the respondents in the surveys indicated a strong association of skips with lack of cleanliness. The lack of satisfaction with the skip system (and appreciation of the current system) was most notably recorded in high-income areas. On average the present system was much better evaluated. We found that the evaluation of skips is negatively affected by not only the income level of the neighbourhood but also the household income and education level. In addition, we found a weak positive effect of the current fees paid. The effects of income are strong enough to render the evaluation of the skips system equal, if not superior to the current system for the households with lower income and education and outside the rich areas. The removal of many of the skips not only induced the former skip-users to switch to commercial services, but also enabled many non-users of skips to avail of these services. The lowest benefits are derived from mere dumping and many households have chosen to abandon this practice in exchange for commercial solid waste collection services, typically much more expensive. Formerly many households paid people (informal workers) to take their waste to collection points, including the skips. These informal workers continued to do so, though some shifted to using commercial services especially (formal) private sector. The advent of the (formal) private sector thus led to a decrease of the demand for informal services. The evaluation by households of the waste disposal services before and after the removal of skips shows that richer households are clearly pleased with the removal, but that poorer households, particularly those with low levels of education do not feel better served than they were before.

    Chapter four addresses the co-existence of formal and informal providers in solid waste collection in Kampala. Study findings show that the informal collectors distinguish themselves from the formal waste collectors by providing ‘first-line’ services only, taking garbage away from households, but not taking this all the way to the dumpsite. They avoid regulation more than large firms. As the opportunities for restricting themselves to this stage are typically enhanced by KCC that offers (free-access) container services, informal collectors can be seen as structurally linked to the formal public sector. And the informal providers provide a cheaper, but lower rated level of service, and more often (but certainly not exclusively) to poorer households. The fairly large market shares of informal collectors can be explained by their competitiveness vis-à-vis the formal private sector: their fees are substantially lower than private sector fees. The informal collectors can do so as they provide less packaging material, have little equipment, and do not carry waste far. In fact they exploit the lapse in enforcement of environmental regulation. Their continued role next to public service provision is explained by them filling a niche in taking garbage from the households to collection points, while earning incomes at par with alternative occupations.

    Chapter five examines the environmental legacies of major events in cities of the developing world. The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Kampala is taken as a case study. Although CHOGM was not a mega-event (in terms of infrastructure construction, masses of people attending, and intense global media coverage), for Uganda and Kampala it was a major event with international visibility. Hence, significant efforts were made by the Uganda and Kampala authorities to invest in the city in the road towards CHOGM 2007. Solid waste management was one of the main areas that received additional resources and faced institutional changes. This resulted in considerable improvements in solid waste management practices during CHOGM, as could be expected. As solid waste management often differs throughout metropolitan cities in developing countries and major events are not equally spread over these cities one can expect that environmental legacies are unequally distributed over the city. Following CHOGM, we found that there are no longer significant different perceptions in solid waste management between Central and Kawempe divisions. Central division and Kawempe division are perceived as equally clean (or equally dirty), suggesting that solid waste management innovations are gradually spreading across divisions. In a more fine-tuned comparison between citizens living close to places where the CHOGM events took place and locations more peripheral to CHOGM, the distinction in solid waste management started to fade somewhat during CHOGM, but there are signs of a reemerging distinction, indicating the erosion of leveling effects. However, this does not dispute the fact that, one year after CHOGM, solid waste management was perceived to be still significantly better than before CHOGM.

    Generally, this research has shown the dynamics involved in the public and private provisioning of solid waste services. The reform initiatives introduced have had an impact on the general organization of SWM. What clearly comes out of this study are the challenges faced in public and private provisioning of solid waste services. It is also clear that certain policies like privatization if not well thought out could end up being not helpful to some sections of the population especially the marginalized ones. Finally, in agreement with the modernized mixtures approach, we can derive the conclusion that SWM initiatives and reforms are likely to have a positive impact if all actors and stakeholders are involved. The mixture of actors and strategies are required for solid waste management to improve for instance an appropriate mix of public and private service (formal and informal).

    Nederland regieland. Transactiekosten van internationale handel in agrarische grondstoffen en voeding
    Bunte, F.H.J. ; Dijkxhoorn, Y. - \ 2010
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport : Markt & ketens ) - ISBN 9789086154678 - 82
    tuinbouw - dienstensector - export - internationaal transport - agrarische handel - sierteelt - ketenmanagement - agrodistributie - agro-industriële ketens - logistiek - horticulture - services - exports - international transport - agricultural trade - ornamental horticulture - supply chain management - agro distribution - agro-industrial chains - logistics
    Dit rapport gaat in op het belang van transactiekosten voor de internationale handel. Het rapport geeft een uiteenzetting van de theorie en past deze toe op de troetreding van de Centraal Europese landen tot de EU en op de ontwikkeling van de keten voor snijbloemen.
    Effect btw-verlaging hoveniersdiensten
    Meer, R.W. van der; Bunte, F.H.J. - \ 2010
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI-nota : Onderzoeksveld Sector & ondernemerschap ) - 16
    tuinbouwbedrijven - beroepen - dienstensector - belasting toegevoegde waarde - heffingen - bedrijfsvoering - omzet - werkgelegenheid - hoveniers - bedrijfseconomie - groenbeheer - boomverzorging - market gardens - occupations - services - value added tax - levies - management - turnover - employment - landscape gardeners - business economics - management of urban green areas - tree care
    Onderzoek van LEI, naar de omzet werkgelegeheid in de hoveniersbranche als het btw-tarief van 19% naar 6% wordt verlaagd. De Vereniging van Hoveniers en Groenvoorzieners (VHG) heeft het LEI deze vraag voorgelegd, omdat andere arbeidsintensieve diensten het lage tarief gebruiken. Conclusie is dat ruim 3000 extra fte werkgelegenheid beschikbaar komt en de omzet met maximaal 16% toeneemt.
    Uitbreidingsmogelijkheden voor groene en blauwe diensten in Nederland : ervaringen uit het buitenland
    Smits, M.J.W. ; Polman, N.B.P. ; Westerink - Petersen, J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 183) - 42
    overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - landbouwbeleid - boeren - professionele dienstverlening - dienstensector - waterbeheer - stimulatie - nederland - agrarisch natuurbeheer - natuurbeheer - governance - landschapsbeheer - integraal waterbeheer - government policy - environmental policy - agricultural policy - farmers - professional services - services - water management - stimulation - netherlands - agri-environment schemes - nature management - governance - landscape management - integrated water management
    Het doel van dit onderzoek is het beschrijven van beleidsprogramma’s uit het buitenland waarin boeren (financieel) gestimuleerd worden om groene en blauwe diensten aan te bieden, en die mogelijk interessant zijn voor Nederland. Er is gekozen voor een aantal thema’s die interessant zijn binnen de huidige Nederlandse beleidscontext, namelijk: • beleidsprogramma’s met een puntensysteem; • beleidsprogramma’s gericht op blauwe diensten; • beleidsprogramma’s gericht op realisatie van EU-verplichtingen (zoals Natura 2000); • beleidsprogramma’s gericht op gebiedsniveau; • beleidsprogramma’s met een alternatieve coördinatiewijze, met name veilingen.
    Tactiek voor de ondernemer. Maatschappelijke effecten van de multifunctionele landbouw
    Buck, A.J. de - \ 2009
    Ekoland 2009 (2009)7-8. - ISSN 0926-9142 - p. 12 - 13.
    agrarische bedrijfsvoering - dienstensector - multifunctionele landbouw - gemeentebestuur - farm management - services - multifunctional agriculture - municipal administration
    Wageningen UR heeft in samenwerking met deelnemers aan het netwerk WaardeWerken de MAatschappelijke Effect Rapportage (MAER) ontwikkeld. Deze bedrijfsscan helpt de ondernemer in het beschrijven van de maatschappelijke meerwaarde van het multifunctionele bedrijf
    Logistics outsourcing in the food processing industry : a study in the Netherlands and Taiwan
    Hsiao, L. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta; Jack van der Vorst, co-promotor(en): Ron Kemp. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854203 - 127
    voedselindustrie - voedselverwerking - dienstensector - prestatieniveau - nederland - taiwan - logistiek - ketenmanagement - food industry - food processing - services - performance - netherlands - taiwan - logistics - supply chain management
    Scoping agriculture-wetland interactions. Towards a sustainable multiple-response strategy
    Wood, A. ; Halsema, G.E. van - \ 2008
    Rome, Italy : FAO (FAO water reports 33) - ISBN 9789251060599 - 156
    wetlands - landbouw - dienstensector - wetlands - agriculture - services
    This publication is the result of a two-and-a-half-year process that has drawn together critical thinking and practical experience concerning agriculture and wetland interactions. The process began at the Ramsar Conference of Parties (COP) 9 in Uganda, involved a workshop in Wageningen (the Netherlands) in early 2006. This report has been prepared for presentation at the Ramsar COP 10 in the Republic of Korea in October 2008
    Meervoudig landgebruik in Winterswijk : zelforganisatie voor een aantrekkelijk landschap
    Polman, N.B.P. ; Slangen, L.H.G. - \ 2008
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 5, Milieu, natuur en landschap ) - ISBN 9789086152520 - 35
    landgebruik - meervoudig landgebruik - meervoudig gebruik - landschap - regionale ontwikkeling - dienstensector - plattelandsontwikkeling - waarden - kosten - nederland - toekomst - organisatie - achterhoek - land use - multiple land use - multiple use - landscape - regional development - services - rural development - values - costs - netherlands - future - organization - achterhoek
    Dit onderzoek komt voort uit een behoefte om in een proces van gebiedsontwikkeling vraag en aanbod van landschapdiensten op elkaar af te stemmen en te concretiseren. De relatie tussen ontwikkelingen en wensen in het gebied en ontwikkelingen op provinciaal en landelijk niveau is hierbij van belang. De vraag speelt in hoeverre een dergelijk proces kan worden ondersteund. Door samen te werken kunnen interne baten zoals kostenbesparingen bij het organiseren van activiteiten worden gerealiseerd. Meer concreet, gemeenschappelijke doelstellingen zouden kunnen worden ondersteund door het aanstellen van 1 of 2 personen gedurende een paar jaar om trekkracht te organiseren (het schrijven van projectvoorstellen), door met een aantal projecten de zichtbaarheid te vergroten en door het organiseren van een comité van aanbeveling. De verzilvering van externe baten kreeg tijdens het atelier de nodige aandacht door te kijken naar geld dat beschikbaar is voor landschap
    Onder de groene zoden: verdwijnt de landbouw uit Nederland en Europa? : feiten, cijfers, argumenten, verwachtingen, en zoekrichtingen voor oplossingen
    Klijn, J.A. ; Slingerland, M.A. ; Rabbinge, R. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 68) - 58
    landbouw - dienstensector - landbouwbeleid - landschap - meervoudig landgebruik - nederland - europa - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - platteland - toekomst - agriculture - services - agricultural policy - landscape - multiple land use - netherlands - europe - sustainability - rural areas - future
    Discussies over de inhoud, de meervoudige maatschappelijke betekenis en de toekomst van de landbouw in Nederland en Europa worden gefrustreerd door verschil in definities, gebrek aan feiten en cijfers, en door veelal impliciete ideologieën en onvolledige of weinig plausibele toekomstbeelden. Dit rapport geeft achtergronden en cijfers, plaatst de sector in de context van de duurzaamheidprincipes en schetst perspectieven. In Nederland en Europa is er in alle scenario’s economisch perspectief voor de sector; daarnaast is de grondgebonden landbouw bovendien een belangrijke beheerder van het landschap en levert andere maatschappelijke diensten. Een actief overheidsbeleid (EU, nationaal) blijft onmisbaar om de marktwerking te sturen en aan te vullen. Een grotere rol van een maatschappelijk en politiek debat is nodig voor een evenwichtig beleid. Trefwoorden: agro-food cluster, EU-landbouwbeleid, groen-blauwe diensten, landschap, maatschappelijk-politiek debat, overheidsbeleid, scenario’s
    Stedelijke druk als kans voor het platteland in Oost-Zuid-Holland en de Zeeuwse Eilanden
    Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Vader, J. - \ 2006
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 7, Gamma, instituties, mens en beleving ) - ISBN 9789086150472 - 35
    relaties tussen stad en platteland - sociale economie - plattelandsontwikkeling - dienstensector - natuurbescherming - landbouw - recreatie - huisvesting - nederland - zeeland - zuid-holland - rural urban relations - socioeconomics - rural development - services - nature conservation - agriculture - recreation - housing - netherlands - zeeland - zuid-holland
    Door de ruimtelijke druk vanuit de steden en toeristencentra dreigen plattelandsgebieden hun karakter te verliezen. In het RURBAN-project is in Finland, Frankrijk, Hongarije, Nederland en Spanje onderzocht hoe landelijke gebieden via ontwikkeling van publieke en private goederen en diensten van het platteland hun relatie met de steden kunnen versterken. Dit rapport vat de resultaten samen van de Nederlandse studiegebieden Oost-Zuid-Holland en de Zeeuwse Eilanden. Vaak zijn de directe stad-landrelaties beperkt. Deze worden versterkt als het gebiedsgerichte beleid zowel dorpen als (grote) steden beslaat en bij bestemmingswijzigingen financiële compensatie voor publieke goederen en diensten wordt gerealiseerd. Het aanbod van private goederen en diensten kan sterker inspelen op de stedelijke vraag en de ontwikkeling van de recreatieve infrastructuur, natuur en landschap.
    Infrastructures of Consumption. Environmental Innovation in the Utility Industries
    Vliet, B.J.M. van; Chappels, H. ; Shove, E. - \ 2005
    London : Earthscan - ISBN 9781853839962 - 130
    milieu - sociologie - milieubeleid - consumenten - consumptie - economie - industrie - infrastructuur - innovaties - verandering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - dienstensector - environment - sociology - environmental policy - consumers - consumption - economics - industry - infrastructure - innovations - change - sustainability - services
    This book examines the ongoing environmental restructuring of consumption and provision in energy, water, and waste systems. In accounting for the distinctive environmental qualities, technical features, and institutional dynamics of utility systems this book challenges contemporary conceptualizations of consumers as the autonomous drivers of environmental change. Instead, utilities and users are positioned as the "co-managers" of utility systems, and processes of environmental innovation are seen to depend on creating contexts for the systemic restructuring of demand
    Blauwe diensten
    Bommel, K.H.M. van; Hoekstra, J.R. ; Stuyt, L.C.P.M. ; Reinhard, A.J. ; Boland, D.J.K. ; Gerritsen, A.L. - \ 2002
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 3, Natuurlijke hulpbronnen en milieu ) - ISBN 9789052427683 - 128
    agrarische economie - waterbeheer - dienstensector - contracten - aanbesteding - grondwaterspiegel - veengronden - natuurbescherming - wateropslag - retentie - nederland - overeenkomsten - bufferzones - waterstand - agricultural economics - water management - services - contracts - tendering - water table - peat soils - nature conservation - water storage - retention - netherlands - agreements - buffer zones - water level
    Dit rapport geeft een beschrijving van de mogelijkheden van 'blauwe diensten'. Een blauwe dienst is een aan de waterbeheerstaak gerelateerde, op zakelijke grondslag voor anderen verrichte activiteit. Naast de analyse van een aantal mogelijke diensten ligt de nadruk op hoe deze overeenkomsten tot stand kunnen komen. In dit rapport is het concept blauwe diensten uitgewerkt voor drie situaties: peilverhoging in het veenweidegebied, bufferzone rond de EHS en piekberging. Het rapport concludeert dat blauwe diensten haalbaar zijn en doet aanbevelingen voor verdere uitwerking en implementatie.
    Money for Value: Pricing from a Resource-Advantage Perspective
    Ingenbleek, P.T.M. - \ 2002
    [Tilburg : CentER, Tilburg University] - ISBN 9789056681098 - 200
    prijsbeleid - consumenten - klantrelaties - prijzen - nieuwe producten - marktconcurrentie - dienstensector - price policy - prices - consumers - customer relations - services - new products - market competition
    Verschillen in leefbaarheid tussen stad en platteland
    Rijk, P.J. - \ 2001
    De Landeigenaar 47 (2001). - ISSN 0166-5839
    kwaliteit van het leven - platteland - stedelijke gebieden - steden - nederland - dienstensector - basisbehoeften - openbare veiligheid - gemeenten - quality of life - rural areas - urban areas - towns - netherlands - services - basic needs - public safety - municipalities
    Aan de hand van een aantal 'leefbaarheidsindicatoren' per Nederlandse gemeente heeft het LEI de verschillen tussen stad en platteland onderzocht
    Voedingsmiddelen dreigen afhandeling weborders te bederven
    Veerdonk, W. van de - \ 2001
    Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 34 (2001)5. - ISSN 0042-7934 - p. 41 - 43.
    dienstensector - gemaksvoedsel - kant-en-klaarvoedsel - voedingsmiddelen - elektronica - computers - geïntegreerde circuits - marketingkanalen - verkooptechniek - internet - logistiek - bedrijfseconomie - services - convenience foods - instant foods - foods - electronics - integrated circuits - marketing channels - salesmanship - logistics - business management
    De virtuele verkoop van levensmiddelen. Het systeem moet niet alleen kostenefficient zijn maar moet ook de voedselveiligheid en de productkwaliteit garanderen
    Distribution service : competition within and among retail formats
    Koelemeijer, K. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): M.T.G. Meulenberg. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058082336 - 312
    marketing - distributie - producten - consumenten - aanbod - vraag - dienstensector - marketing voor de detailhandel - marketingkanalen - logistiek - marketing - distribution - products - consumers - supply - demand - services - retail marketing - marketing channels - logistics

    Distribution service provision is an important instrument for the creation of availability. The book addresses in five parts the role of distribution service in individual channel member decision making in a competitive retailing environment through theoretical and empirical modeling and analysis. The empirical applications all concern the Dutch domestic cut flower market. The book starts in part I with development of a new and integrative conceptualization for distribution service elaborating on views from logistics, economics, and psychology. The second part of the book addresses the theory underlying consumer evaluation of and choice from assortments. It provides a theoretical framework of consumption goals, situational, and contextual variables, including retailer distribution service provision, as determinants of consumer evaluation of and choice from assortments. Several hypotheses are tested in an empirical study. Extended multinomial logit modeling of the experimental choice data has been used as a tool for optimization of retail assortments. Part III investigates the role of retail distribution service provision in consumer post-purchase evaluation processes and extends existing research on consumer post-purchase evaluation. Part IV focuses on the role of distribution service in vertical and horizontal strategic interactions between channel members, particularly between manufacturers and retailers, and its consequences for the emergence of different channel structures and retail formats. A game-theoretic model has been developed for retail competition with respect to price and distribution service and its consequences for the emergence of differentiated retail formats. Finally, part V discusses research implications and future research challenges.

    Kostprijsvergelijking varkenshouderij in Europees verband
    Vaessen, M. ; Backus, G. - \ 1997
    Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij 11 (1997)2. - ISSN 1382-0346 - p. 2 - 3.
    kostenanalyse - economische sectoren - landen van de europese unie - varkens - productie - dienstensector - cost analysis - economic sectors - european union countries - pigs - production - services
    De concurrentiepositie van de varkenshouderij in de Europese lidstaten hangt onder meer af van de kostprijs in relatie tot de opbrengstprijs. De gemiddelde kostprijs over alle bedrijven in Nederland én Denemarken bedroeg in 1995 f 3,47 per kg karkas. In Frankrijk was de gemiddelde kostprijs per kg karkas 5 cent hoger.
    Inzet van een tendersysteem bij de SBL-regeling
    Ham, A. van den; Kolkman, G. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : IBN-DLO - 45
    bosbouw - weiden - bossen - landbouwgrond - relaties - ontbossing - bebossing - subsidies - premies - regering - bedrijfsvoering - bestedingen - dienstensector - overheidsbestedingen - nederland - voorzieningen - forestry - pastures - forests - agricultural land - relationships - deforestation - afforestation - grants - government - management - expenditure - services - public expenditure - netherlands - facilities
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