Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Farmers’ willingness to invest in livestock disease control: the case of voluntary vaccination against bluetongue
    Sok, Jaap - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.G.J.M. Oude Lansink; H. Hogeveen, co-promotor(en): A.R.W. Elbers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437059 - 214
    business economics - farmers - livestock - vaccination - bluetongue virus - animal diseases - animal disease prevention - netherlands - bedrijfseconomie - boeren - vee - vaccinatie - bluetonguevirus - dierziekten - dierziektepreventie - nederland

    Animal health authorities in the European Union nowadays consider voluntary approaches based on a neoliberal model of cost and responsibility sharing as a tool for controlling livestock diseases. Policy makers aim for policies that are soft and optional, and use insights from behavioural economics and social psychology. Voluntary approaches are flexible in terms of legislation and can be effective at lower costs, provided that farmers are willing to participate. In 2008, the Dutch animal health authorities used a voluntary vaccination approach to control an emerging bluetongue epidemic that started end of 2006. Nearly 60,000 holdings with ruminants were already affected by the end of 2007 and experts indicated that transmission could only be stopped through mass vaccination. Farmers were motivated to participate by informational and financial, incentive-based policy instruments.

    Economic theory predicts that farmers underinvest in private disease control measures in the presence of externalities. These studies, however, assume farmers only consider the private economic motives and that they only can be extrinsically motivated via (monetary) incentives. If the willingness to invest in livestock disease control is also driven by intrinsic and social motives, this could imply that not only financial compensation, but a mix of policy instruments is needed to make voluntary approaches work.

    The overarching research objective of this thesis was to assess the key determinants of farmers’ willingness to vaccinate against bluetongue and study the impact of different policy designs on the effectiveness of voluntary vaccination approaches to bluetongue disease control.

    A three-stage research approach was conducted. Two models of decision making, one from economics and one from social psychology, were first applied to the case study to obtain a solid understanding of important perceptions and motivations that farmers have to invest in livestock disease control. These motivations (sometimes incentives) and perceptions were then related to different attributes of a vaccination scheme to have a better understanding of how a higher uptake can be obtained. In the third stage, the effect of the interplay between farmers’ collective behaviour and disease epidemiology on disease rate and vaccination uptake was studied.

    Expected utility theory was used in combination with decision analysis and Monte Carlo simulation in chapter 2. The economic risk and monetary outcomes of the vaccination decision were considered, intrinsic or social motives ignored. The theoretical expectation from the analysis is that with high probabilities of herd exposure and disease effects at the start of the outbreak the farmer decides to vaccinate. Re-vaccination is uncertain during the course of the epidemic due to a lower probability of herd exposure and enduring protection against infection from previous vaccination. Factors that make re-vaccination more likely to happen are risk-averse behaviour and farm management aimed at the export of heifers. The decision moment – before or during an epidemic – and the characteristics of the disease – endemic, epidemic or emerging – are important factors in perceptions of disease risk.

    Chapters 3 to 5 used data from a survey that was based on the reasoned action approach. Data were analysed with a variety of statistical, mostly multivariate, techniques. The relative importance of the social-psychological constructs in predicting the intention to participate in a hypothetical reactive vaccination scheme against bluetongue was assessed in chapter 3. It was found that intended vaccination behaviour was mainly explained by farmers’ attitude, but also by social pressures from injunctive and descriptive norms. Perceived behavioural control was the least important predictor of intention.

    The most influential beliefs underlying the social-psychological constructs were assessed in chapter 4. Results suggested that instrumental beliefs (e.g. risk reduction) as well as experiential beliefs (e.g. animal welfare) were important drivers of the attitude towards vaccination against bluetongue. This indicates that in addition to monetary outcomes of the decision, at least a group of farmers also consider the non-monetary (or non-pecuniary) outcomes. The results further showed that the most influencing referents for the farmer are the veterinarian, his or her family members and colleague dairy farmers (peers). Two influencing control beliefs were associated with the provision of information and perceived trust and confidence in the vaccine safety, effectiveness and government approach to control the disease.

    The aim of chapter 5 was to explore factors that could explain heterogeneity in farmers’ attitudinal beliefs. In particular, perceived risk, measured by a relative risk attitude and risk perception, and the Big Five personality traits were associated with variability in these beliefs. Conscientiousness discriminated farmers into a group of ‘vaccination intenders’ and non-intenders although it remained somewhat unclear how it relates to the decision problem, as it can be a sense of duty, achievement striving or both. The perceived risk measures were related to the milk production intensity and also discriminated intenders from non-intenders. These differences in perceived risk indicated that farmers might not be commonly risk averse, however, it is important to account for the domain specificity of risk taking behaviour.

    A survey-based discrete choice experiment was used in chapter 6 to study more deeply farmers’ choices for different voluntary bluetongue vaccination scheme designs. A generalised random utility model of farmers’ behaviour allowed for heterogeneity in motives to invest in bluetongue disease control. Results showed that farmers have private economic motives (incentives) to participate in a vaccination scheme, such as to insure the production risk from disease infection and to maintain the export of heifers.

    Interaction effects found between social-psychological constructs and specific designs of policy instruments highlighted the importance of perceived trust and confidence in the vaccine safety and effectiveness and in the disease control strategy chosen by animal health authorities. Attitude interacted positively with government communication (information) provided via veterinarians. Descriptive norm interacted positively with a lower perceived probability of adverse effects. This suggests that farmers are more likely to vaccinate if they perceive that others in their social network perform vaccination without experiencing adverse effects. Injunctive norm interacted negatively with a higher level of government subsidy. This suggested a crowding-out mechanism through which subsidization adversely affect farmer’s motivation to comply with the vaccination policy.

    The interplay between farmers’ collective behaviour and bluetongue disease epidemiology was studied in chapter 7 with an agent-based model. The utility model specification from chapter 6 was used to describe the decision-making process of farmers. Other components that added to the dynamic nature of the model were a social network structure of the diffusion process of sharing information about vaccination status and a susceptible-latent-infectious-recovered model of disease spread. The effectiveness of different bluetongue vaccinations scheme designs was studied as measured by disease rate and vaccination uptake.

    Results of chapter 7 showed that vaccination schemes that focus more on motivating farmers via informational instruments were somewhat more effective than predicted from the comparative static analysis in chapter 6. Motivation via financial incentives resulted in a somewhat lower effectiveness than was predicted from that same model. This might be explained as an emergent effect that evolves under specific vaccination scheme designs from the interactions between farmers themselves and with the environment from which they observe the progress of the disease. These schemes focus more on serving the information needs of farmers and raising the perceived trust and confidence in the disease control approach rather than on incentivising with higher levels of subsidy.

    Three themes for livestock disease control emerged from the synthesis of the results in chapter 8, which were subsequently discussed in relation to the wider economic and (social) psychological literature. These themes coincide with shortcoming of the standard economic model of rational choice to describe and predict behaviour. The first theme was about understanding how farmers cope with risk in the context of livestock diseases. The second theme focused on the usefulness of financial compensation as a policy instrument. The third theme discussed the role of trust and social norms. After discussing the implications for policy making, main scientific contributions and suggestions for future research, the chapter concluded that:

    Dutch dairy farmers who operate large-scale and intensive farms or keep heifers for export are likely to have private economic motives to vaccinate against bluetongue (Chapter 2, 4, 5 and 6).Farmers’ willingness to vaccinate against bluetongue is mostly driven by attitude, followed by perceived social pressures from injunctive norms and descriptive norms. This implies farmers can be motivated intrinsically, extrinsically, or both (Chapter 3).Dutch dairy farmers have intrinsic motives to vaccinate against bluetongue. They do not want to be confronted with animal suffering but want to keep job satisfaction high from working with healthy animals (Chapter 4).Dutch dairy farmers have social motives to vaccinate against bluetongue. They consider what important referents, such as the veterinarian or family members, think they should do and take into account the perceived behaviour of peers (Chapter 3 and 4).

    Perceived risk, personality traits and past behaviour are important behavioural variables for explaining the heterogeneity in beliefs to vaccinate against bluetongue (Chapter 5).

    The efficacy of financial, incentive based instruments to motivate to vaccinate against bluetongue is heterogeneous and not necessarily positive for each farmer. They are not effective if farmers already expect a positive net benefit from vaccination or if they crowd-out the motivation to comply with the vaccination policy (Chapter 2, 4, 6, 7).

    The efficacy of informational policy instruments to motivate farmers to vaccinate against bluetongue is positively affected by farmers’ attitude towards vaccination and in case farmers perceive the communication channels used as credible and trustworthy (Chapter 3, 4, 6).

    The efficacy of social interaction mechanisms in policy making, such as the perceived social pressuretovaccinateagainstbluetongue,ispositivelyaffectedbyfarmers’trustandconfidence in the government approach to control the disease (Chapter 4, 6, 7).

    Bioeconomic modelling of foot and mouth disease and its control in Ethiopia
    Jemberu, W.T. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Henk Hogeveen, co-promotor(en): Monique Mourits. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576872 - 175
    foot-and-mouth disease virus - economic models - mathematical models - epidemiology - animal diseases - cattle - cattle diseases - ethiopia - mond- en klauwzeervirus - economische modellen - wiskundige modellen - epidemiologie - dierziekten - rundvee - rundveeziekten - ethiopië

    Keywords: Control, cost-benefit, economic impact, epidemiology, Ethiopia, Foot and mouth disease, intention, modelling, production system.

    Bioeconomic Modelling of Foot and Mouth Disease and Its control in Ethiopia

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease which affects cloven hoofed animals. FMD is endemic in Ethiopia with potential impact both on national and household economies because of its effect on production and trade. The general objective of this PhD research was to provide insight into the epidemiology and economics of FMD and its control in Ethiopia to support decision making in the control of the disease.

    A study of the national incidence of FMD outbreak revealed that the disease is endemic in all regional states affecting more than a quarter of the country every year, with the highest frequency of outbreaks occurring in the central, southern and southeastern parts of the country. The type of production system, presence of a major livestock market and/or route, and adjacency to a national parks or wildlife sanctuary were associated with the risk of outbreaks in the districts.

    Field outbreak study indicated that FMD morbidity rates of 85% and 95 % at herd level; and 74% and 61% at animal level in the affected herds in the crop–livestock mixed system (CLM) and pastoral system, respectively. The herd level economic loss estimates were on average USD 76 per affected herd in CLM and USD 174 per affected herd in the pastoral production system.

    Study of motivation of farmers to implement FMD control, through the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework, revealed that almost all farmers had high intention to implement FMD vaccination free of charge, which decreases, especially in CLM system, if the vaccine is charged. Farmers in the pastoral and crop-livestock mixed production systems had low intention to implement herd isolation and animal movement restriction control measure. Among the HBM perception constructs perceived barrier was found to be the most important predictor of the intention to implement FMD control measures.

    A modelling study on the national economic impact and cost-benefit analysis FMD control strategies showed that the annual cost of the disease is about 1,354 million birr. A stochastic cost-benefit analysis of three potential FMD control strategies indicated that all the strategies on average have a positive economic return but with variable degree of uncertainty including possibility of loss. Targeted vaccination strategy gives relatively the best economic return with relatively less risk of loss.

    H5N8 in Nederland in 2014 : Een nadere blik op de uitbraken
    Velkers, F.C. ; Elbers, A.R.W. ; Bouwstra, R.J. ; Stegeman, A. - \ 2015
    dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - dierziekten - diergezondheid - aviaire influenza - pluimveehouderij - animal welfare - animal production - poultry - animal diseases - animal health - avian influenza - poultry farming
    In opdracht van het Ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) is een analyse uitgevoerd van de H5N8 uitbraken om nader inzicht in binnenkomst, verspreiding en symptomen van het virus op pluimveebedrijven te krijgen. De bevindingen zijn tussentijds gerapporteerd via het overleg van de deskundigengroep dierziekten. De volledige
    rapportage is eind 2014 aangeboden aan het Ministerie van EZ. Dit document is een samenvatting hiervan.
    'Nederland is een veterinair voorbeeldland'
    Vermaas, M. ; Hellebrekers, L.J. - \ 2015
    Boerderij 100 (2015)38. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 16 - 18.
    dierziekten - diergezondheid - infectieziekten - onderzoek - zoönosen - volksgezondheid - animal diseases - animal health - infectious diseases - research - zoonoses - public health
    Ludo Hellebrekers is sinds 1 juni directeur van het Centraal Veterinair Instituut. Goede samenwerking met alle ketenpartijen en kennisgebieden is volgens hem essentieel.
    Prof. Henk Hogeveen over Maatwerk voor zieke dieren en betere beslissingsondersteuning voor boeren
    Hogeveen, H. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR
    melkveehouderij - dierziekten - diergezondheid - economie van de veehouderij - samenleving - veehouderij - dairy farming - animal diseases - animal health - livestock economics - society - livestock farming
    In this movie Prof. Henk Hogeveen explains his work and its added value for the Dutch society. His discipline revolves around economics of animal disease in dairy farming. When animals are kept to create income the costs of animal disease need to be considered. An interesting aspect of the past couple of years is the growing demand from society. Economic calculations need to be expanded with these demands.
    Dierenlab beschermt mensen
    Sikkema, A. ; Bianchi, A.T.J. - \ 2015
    WageningenWorld (2015)1. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 24 - 27.
    dierziekten - infectieziekten - zoönosen - virusziekten - onderzoek - diergezondheid - vaccins - aviaire influenza - q-koorts - animal diseases - infectious diseases - zoonoses - viral diseases - research - animal health - vaccines - avian influenza - q fever
    Nederland krijgt steeds meer te maken met besmettelijke dierziektes die ook mensen ziek kunnen maken, zoals vogelgriep. Om daar goed onderzoek naar te doen is een lab gebouwd waarin levende, besmette landbouwhuisdieren gehouden worden. Geen virus kan eruit ontsnappen. ‘Zelfs het DNA wordt vernietigd.’
    Economic optimization of surveillance in livestock production chains
    Guo, X. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Helmut Saatkamp; Frits Claassen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572485 - 180
    agrarische economie - optimalisatie - dierziekten - risico - risicobeheersing - gevaren - economie van de veehouderij - vee- en vleesindustrie - agro-industriële ketens - nederland - vee - agricultural economics - optimization - animal diseases - risk - risk management - hazards - livestock economics - meat and livestock industry - agro-industrial chains - netherlands - livestock


    Hazard surveillance in livestock production chains is an essential activity that is usually conducted by surveillance organizations. Its importance has been highlighted by the major crises that occurred in the field of livestock production and food safety during the last decades. Although extensive research has been conducted to achieve surveillance improvement in livestock production chains, they have limitations in terms of coverage of economic aspects and in the level of detail in modelling the interactions between hazard dynamics and surveillance activities. Hence, the dissertation aims to (1) improve the understanding of hazard surveillance in livestock production chains from an economic perspective, and (2) to apply the obtained knowledge for better model-based in-depth analysis of livestock hazard surveillance.

    In this thesis, we first presents a conceptual framework for the economic analysis of single-hazard surveillance systems in livestock production chains which differs from most of the previous research focusing on the technical aspect of livestock hazard surveillance. We conclude that that the conceptual approach is scientifically credible for economic analysis of single-hazard surveillance systems and that the applicability of the approach critically depends on data availability. Then we present a conceptual framework for the economic optimization of a surveillance- portfolio consisting of multiple livestock hazards to survey. This framework applies the portfolio perspective to investigate the surveillance resource allocation problem, which is beyond the state of art that mainly focuses on single hazard surveillance analyses. The credibility and practicability of the framework were also checked.

    To demonstrate the usefulness of the developed frameworks, two case studies are conducted. We applied the single-hazard surveillance framework to conduct a comprehensive economic analysis of classical swine fever (CSF) surveillance in the Netherlands. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance setups with “PCR on rendered animals” are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the surveillance setups with “routine serology in slaughterhouses” or “routine serology on sow farms” are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the moderately virulent CSF strain indicate that the current surveillance system in the Netherlands is adequate. From an economic perspective, there is little to be gained from intensifying surveillance. We also applied the surveillance-portfolio analysis framework to conduct economic optimization of a pig-hazard surveillance-portfolio, consisting of five pig-related hazards, in a Dutch food company. We draw the conclusion that surveillance organizations need to use a portfolio perspective to guide their surveillance resource allocation. This is because the case clearly shows that arbitrarily allocating surveillance resource can cause efficiency losses (either in terms of higher surveillance costs or low SP performance).

    Knelpunten bestrijding mond- en klauwzeer en klassieke varkenspest
    Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Bondt, N. ; Asseldonk, Marcel van - \ 2014
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2014-022) - ISBN 9789086156818 - 37
    mond- en klauwzeer - klassieke varkenspest - huisvesting, dieren - biggen - overschotten - dierenwelzijn - varkens - vleeskalveren - melkvee - schapen - geiten - ziektebestrijding - diergezondheid - dierlijke productie - dierziekten - foot and mouth disease - classical swine fever - animal housing - piglets - surpluses - animal welfare - pigs - veal calves - dairy cattle - sheep - goats - disease control - animal health - animal production - animal diseases
    Dit onderzoek inventariseert de belangrijkste knelpunten tijdens de uitbraakfase van Mond- en klauwzeer en Klassieke Varkenspest die voortkomen uit de geldende regelgeving en/of uit de structuur van veehouderijsectoren, en beschrijft de mogelijke oplossingsrichtingen.
    Effect of species richness on disease risk: dilution effect and underlying mechanisms
    Huang, Z. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): Fred de Boer; Frank van Langevelde. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570894 - 73
    dierziekten - bovidae - rundvee - risico - soortenrijkdom - ziektedistributie - pathogenen - ziekteoverdracht - modellen - afrika - animal diseases - bovidae - cattle - risk - species richness - disease distribution - pathogens - disease transmission - models - africa


    any pathogens infect multiple host species which can differ in their reservoir competence. Consequently the species richness and composition of the host community can considerably influence the dynamics of disease transmission.

    Recently, an increasing number of studies reported the existence of a dilution effect whereby high host species richness reduces the disease risk. However, the generality of the dilution effect and its mechanisms are still highly debated.

    In this thesis, I tested the existence of a dilution effect in bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and investigated the underlying mechanisms of the dilution effect.

    I detected a possible dilution effect in BTB, where higher mammal species richness reduced the probability of occurrence of BTB at a regional level in Africa, after correcting for cattle density (Chapter 2).

    This dilution effect might be caused by encounter reduction, i.e. the presence of non-competent mammal species might act as barriers to herd movement of cattle and reduce encounter rates among herds, which leads to a decreased probability of BTB outbreaks.

    Then I extended the study of the BTB dilution effect to the analysis of BTB persistence and recurrence (Chapter 3).

    The results showed that mammal species richness was also negatively correlated with the BTB persistence and recurrence.

    Besides, I demonstrated that the presence of African buffalo, as a maintenance host for

    Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of BTB), had a positive identity effect and increased the risk of BTB persistence and recurrence, whereas greater kudu distribution was not correlated with BTB persistence or recurrence.

    In addition, BTB persistence and recurrence were correlated with different sets of risk factors.

    In Chapter 4, I showed that interspecific variation in species’ reservoir competence could be partly explained by life-history traits in three vector borne diseases, namely Lyme disease, West Nile Encephalitis (WNE) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE). Species with larger body mass (for hosts of Lyme disease and WNE) or smaller clutch size (for hosts of EEE) had a lower reservoir competence. Given that both larger body mass and smaller clutch size are linked to higher extinction risk of local populations, the results indicate that species with a higher reservoir competence are more likely to remain in the community when biodiversity declines, and thereby potentially increase the risk of transmitting these pathogens.

    This might be a possible mechanism underlying the dilution effect.

    Combing the results about the relationships between species’ reservoir competence and life-history traits, I constructed a compartmental model to investigate the effect of connectivity on the risk of directly transmitted diseases in metapopulations (Chapter 5).

    I showed that different indicators of disease risk (infection prevalence and number of infected individuals) reacted differently to increasing connectivity.

    Higher connectivity can not only decrease disease risk due to the dilution effect by increasing species richness, but can also increase disease risk through increasing contact rates among patches (facilitation effect).

    The net impact of connectivity depends on the relative importance of the dilution versus facilitation effect.

    These results may reconcile the current debate on the dilution effect, and contributes to a better understanding of the impacts of fragmentation on disease risks and the generality of the dilution effect.

    M Finally, I combined these findings and reviewed the evidence and critiques on the dilution effect (Chapter 6).

    Latest studies (also the BTB study in this thesis) tried to test species identity effects, caused by particular species in communities, and found that the identity effect and dilution effect can operate simultaneously in the host community.

    I suggest that the identity effect could act as an additional mechanism explaining the effect of species richness on disease risk.

    A weak correlation between host reservoir competence and local extinction risk can create inconsistent effects of host species richness on disease risk.

    Moreover, different indicators of disease risk may react differently to the changes in species richness.

    This could also be one of the reasons for the controversial results from previous studies that used different indicators (e.g., prevalence or number of infection) of disease risk.

    In conclusion, this thesis presents both evidence and critique for the existence of the dilution effect.

    Since factors may simultaneously influence community compostion and the characteristics of pathogen transmission (e.g., susceptibility, survival of pathogen etc.), future studies should also consider these factors, rather than only species richness, to better understand the effect of species richness on disease risk.

    Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico
    Oseguera Montiel, D. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Akke van der Zijpp, co-promotor(en): Henk Udo; Klaas Frankena. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462570344 - 150
    geiten - brucellose - kleine landbouwbedrijven - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - brucella - dierziekten - goats - brucellosis - small farms - livelihood strategies - brucella - animal diseases

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has a range of functions for farmers, like income, food, insurance, credit, and a reason for not having to migrate to the US. However, caprine brucellosis, a zoonosis endemic in Mexico caused by Brucella melitensis, has a negative impact on flock productivity. Although brucellosis is rarely a fatal disease in humans, it can be very debilitating and disabling due to complications such as arthritis and spondylitis. The main objectives of this thesis were to assess the impact of brucellosis on smallholder goat husbandry and to evaluate brucellosis control strategies in enhancing farmers' livelihoods. The research approach was that of a case study, incorporating methods from natural and social sciences, such as archival and secondary data review, surveys, ethnography and veterinary epidemiological modelling. The case study was conducted in two states within the Bajío region with high rates of migration: Michoacán and Jalisco. In Michoacán free cost vaccination and testing was applied whereas in Jalisco farmers had to bear part of those costs and there was a lack of veterinarians offering the service. Goat farmers considered that they were better off than farmers who did not keep goats: 'it is better to herd than to be herded'. Farmers' knowledge, labour and good social capital allowed them to maintain relatively large flocks given the amount of crop land owned. The prevalence of testing positive to brucellosis in goats was 38% in Jalisco and 11% in Michoacán. Access to communal land and crop residues were key for the pastoral management system prevalent in the study area, but grazing goats had higher risk of testing positive to brucellosis. Farmers avoided drinking goat milk, as it was seen as a cause of 'fever'. The milk price was low and controlled by the caramel industry. Vaccination and test-and-cull strategies are options to control brucellosis. Simulations showed that vaccination is economically feasible but will not bring the prevalence below to 10% within 5-years. Test-and-slaughter is not economically rewarding at the current milk price. At present, culling of seropositive goats to brucellosis does not happen because an adequate infrastructure for culling does not exist. Farmers perceived that brucellosis control measures cause losses such as abortion due to untimely vaccination and infections due to ear tagging. Moreover, farmers did not always know that brucellosis and Malta fever (human brucellosis) are synonyms, neither were they aware of all consequences of brucellosis infection. Brucellosis control is stagnant because of a two way lack of communication: farmers are not well informed about brucellosis and policies are formulated without knowledge of goat farming practices and of farmers' perceptions. Successful brucellosis control would enhance smallholder goat farmers' livelihoods but the control policy needs to be redesigned. Important factors to consider in the design of a new policy are: (1) a comprehensive compensation for losses when applying test-and-cull; (2) the integration of farmers' expertise and experience; (3) diffusion of knowledge about brucellosis control, its prevention and its impact on human health and livestock production; (4) a regional planning is a must to succeed.

    Cross-border collaboration in contagious livestock disease management
    Hop, G.E. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Alfons Oude Lansink, co-promotor(en): Helmut Saatkamp; Monique Mourits. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739452 - 285
    ziektebestrijding - vee - dierziekten - samenwerking - economische impact - economische aspecten - nederland - duitsland - disease control - livestock - animal diseases - cooperation - economic impact - economic aspects - netherlands - germany
    Slimme monitor bindt strijd aan met bloedluis
    Mul, M.F. - \ 2014
    V-focus 2014 (2014)1. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 20 - 21.
    pluimveehouderij - pluimvee - diergezondheid - pluimveeziekten - dierziekten - dierpathologie - parasieten - mijtenbestrijding - monitoring - prototypes - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - dermanyssus - poultry farming - poultry - animal health - poultry diseases - animal diseases - animal pathology - parasites - mite control - monitoring - prototypes - animal welfare - animal production - dermanyssus
    Bloedluis of vogelmijt is een serieus probleem in de pluimveehouderij. De huidige bestrijdingsmiddelen bieden geen totaaloplossing. Binnen het project ‘Beheersen Bloedluisproblematiek’ wordt nu een slimme monitor ontwikkeld die pluimveehouders moet helpen om de bloedluisproblematiek op hun bedrijf te minimaliseren. Een werkend prototype is inmiddels gebouwd, in 2014 wordt deze gevalideerd.
    Geografische patronen in sterfte / geen sterfte
    Scheer, H. van der; Blacquière, T. - \ 2013
    Bijenhouden 6 (2013)september. - ISSN 1877-9786 - p. 19 - 22.
    apidae - honingbijen - wilde bijenvolken - rassen (dieren) - doodsoorzaken - wereld - varroa - insecticiden - virussen - varroa jacobsoni - resistentie van variëteiten - dierziekten - apidae - honey bees - wild honey bee colonies - breeds - causes of death - world - varroa - insecticides - viruses - varroa jacobsoni - varietal resistance - animal diseases
    Sinds 2006 worden uit Europa en Noord-Amerika op grote schaal ernstige verliezen van honingbijvolken gemeld; maar niet uit andere werelddelen. Er ijn verschillende oorzaken aan te wijzen. Neonicotinen worden aangewezen als (mede) oorzaak van de verliezen, maar waarom worden die verliezen dan vooral uit Europa en Noord-Amerika en slechts incidenteel uit het Midden-Oosten en Azië (Japan) gemeld? De gewraakte insecticiden worden wereldwijd toegepast. Om verschillende redenen moet er eerder aan problemen door varroamijten en virussen worden gedacht.
    Betere diagnostiek voor luchtweginfecties bij kalveren
    Klein Haneveld, J. ; Antonis, A.F.G. - \ 2013
    Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 138 (2013)11. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 38 - 41.
    dierziekten - diagnostiek - kalverziekten - kalveren - diergezondheid - ademhalingsziekten - infecties - animal diseases - diagnostics - calf diseases - calves - animal health - respiratory diseases - infections
    Adriaan Antonis werkt dertien jaar bij het Centraal Veterinair Instituut onderdeel van Wageningen UR in Lelystad. Daar wordt onderzoek gedaan naar de bedrijfsgebonden dierziekten, onder andere naar luchtweginfecties op kalverbedrijven. Adriaan werkt mee aan de ontwikkeling van nieuwe diagnostische tests. "Je moet weten wat er op een bedrijf aan de hand is, dan kun je gerichter behandelen".
    Missie CVI : wij beschermen de dier- en volksgezondheid door veterinair onderzoek op topniveau
    Anonymous, - \ 2012
    diagnostiek - volksgezondheid - Veterinary Science (General) - animal diseases - onderzoeksinstituten - diagnostics - melkveehouderij - public health - dierziekten - dairy farming - research institutes - Diergeneeskunde (algemeen) - diergeneeskunde - veterinary science - diagnostiek - volksgezondheid - Veterinary Science (General) - animal diseases - onderzoeksinstituten - diagnostics - melkveehouderij - public health - dierziekten - dairy farming - research institutes - Diergeneeskunde (algemeen) - diergeneeskunde - veterinary science
    Presentatie op de landelijke onderwijsdag van Produktschap Zuivel op 27 november 2012.
    Het Dutch Wildlife Health Centre – kennis over wildziekten in Nederland
    Rijks, J.M. ; Giessen, J. van der; Roest, H.I.J. ; Kuiken, T. ; Grone, A. - \ 2012
    Infectieziekten bulletin 23 (2012)10. - ISSN 0925-711X - p. 339 - 342.
    dierziekten - wilde dieren - zoönosen - volksgezondheid - diergezondheid - animal diseases - wild animals - zoonoses - public health - animal health
    Veel dierziekten inclusief zoönosen hebben wilde dieren als reservoir. Kennis over ziekten onder wilde dieren is van belang voor zowel de dier- en volksgezondheid, en vormt een essentieel onderdeel van het One health-concept. Een expertisecentrum wildziekten, waar dergelijke kennis vermeerderd en gebundeld wordt, ontbrak in Nederland. Mede daarom is het Dutch Wildlife Health Centre (DWHC) opgericht.
    Risicobeheer in de land- en tuinbouw; Het belang van bewustwording en preventie
    Meulen, H.A.B. van der; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Verstegen, J.A.A.M. - \ 2012
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-nota : Onderzoeksveld Sector & ondernemerschap ) - 52
    landbouw - tuinbouw - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - risicobeheersing - gewasbescherming - dierziekten - weer - marktprijzen - overheidsbeleid - agriculture - horticulture - farm management - risk management - plant protection - animal diseases - weather - market prices - government policy
    Het ministerie van EZ wil de komende jaren naar een vorm van integraal risicobeheer met aandacht voor risicobewustwording en preventie. Hiermee wordt de vraag relevant hoe de overheid in wisselwerking met bedrijfsleven, belangenbehartiging en onderwijs het gedrag van ondernemers kan beïnvloeden, zodat ze zich meer bewust zijn van de risico's en meer aan risicopreventie doen om schade te voorkomen. Bewustwording van risico's bij agrarische ondernemers moet verbeteren voor de vier onderzochte risicogebieden: fytosanitair, veterinair, weer, en markt en prijs.
    Economic aspects of antiviral agents to control Classical Swine Fever epidemics
    Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Backer, J.A. - \ 2012
    The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Research area Agriculture & entrepreneurship ) - ISBN 9789086156023
    agrarische economie - antivirale middelen - classical swine fever virus - epidemieën - dierziekten - dierziektepreventie - economische aspecten - nederland - agricultural economics - antiviral agents - classical swine fever virus - epidemics - animal diseases - animal disease prevention - economic aspects - netherlands
    Outbreaks of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever have detrimental effects on the livestock sector in an affected country as well as on society at large. The development of antiviral agents to control these epidemics can reduce the consequences of such outbreaks. The economic impact of applying these antiviral agents is until now unknown. In this report these consequences are investigated.
    Monitoring infecties and zoönosen in de biologische varkenshouderij
    Groot, M.J. ; Kluivers-Poodt, M. ; Mul, M.F. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Rapport / RIKILT 2012.015) - 39
    varkenshouderij - veehouderij - biologische landbouw - dierziekten - varkensziekten - zoönosen - varkens - monitoring - pig farming - livestock farming - organic farming - animal diseases - swine diseases - zoonoses - pigs - monitoring
    Op verzoek van de productwerkgroep Varkensvlees van Biologica is een overzicht gemaakt van infecties in de biologische en gangbare varkenshouderij. Er is speciaal gekeken welke infecties vaker voorkomen bij bij biologisch gehouden dieren. Daarnaast zijn de bestaande monitoringssystemen in kaart gebracht en is gekeken naar mogelijke lacunes hierin. Ook is aandacht besteed aan zoönosen.
    CHIP: Commodity based Hazard Identification Protocol for emerging diseases in plants and animals
    Bremmer, J. ; Swanenburg, M. ; Galen, M.A. van; Hoek, Maarten ; Rau, M.L. ; Hennen, W.H.G.J. ; Benninga, J. ; Ge, L. ; Breukers, M.L.H. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR / EFSA (Supporting publications 2012 EN-327)
    risicoschatting - risicoanalyse - plantenziekten - dierziekten - epidemiologie - gewasbescherming - diergezondheid - beslissingsmodellen - risk assessment - risk analysis - plant diseases - animal diseases - epidemiology - plant protection - animal health - decision models
    This project comprised the development of a commodity-based hazard identification protocol for biological hazards in plants and animals as a decision support tree programmed in Excel. The content of the decision tree is based on the results of a systematic review of pest and pathogen characteristics, a review of risk assessment schemes and on expert judgement. Application of the protocol results in an indication of the level of likelihood of entry of animal and plant pathogens/pests in the area of destination associated with the commodity/pathway, and it guides the decision regarding potential actions to be undertaken in the search for existing and emerging pathogens/pests.
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