Back to the Roots: Revisiting the Use of the Fiber-Rich Cichorium intybusL. Taproots
Puhlmann, Marie Luise ; Vos, Willem M. de - \ 2020
Advances in Nutrition 11 (2020)4. - ISSN 2161-8313 - p. 878 - 889.
chicory roots - dietary fiber - human nutrition - inulin - traditional medicine
Fibers are increasingly recognized as an indispensable part of our diet and vital for maintaining health. Notably, complex mixtures of fibers have been found to improve metabolic health. Following an analysis of the fiber content of plant-based products, we found the taproot of the chicory plant (Cichorium intybusL.) to be 1 of the vegetables with the highest fiber content, comprising nearly 90% of its dry weight. Chicory roots consist of a mixture of inulin, pectin, and (hemi-)cellulose and also contain complex phytochemicals, such as sesquiterpene lactones that have been characterized in detail. Nowaday, chicory roots are mainly applied as a source for the extraction of inulin, which is used as prebiotic fiber and food ingredient. Chicory roots, however, have long been consumed as a vegetable by humans. The whole root has been used for thousands of years for nutritional, medicinal, and other purposes, and it is still used in traditional dishes in various parts of the world. Here, we summarize the composition of chicory roots to explain their historic success in the human diet. We revisit the intake of chicory roots by humans and describe the different types of use along with their various methods of preparation. Hereby, we focus on the whole root in its complex, natural form, as well as in relation to its constituents, and discuss aspects regarding legal regulation and the safety of chicory root extracts for human consumption. Finally, we provide an overview of the current and future applications of chicory roots and their contribution to a fiber-rich diet.
Sugar Beet Pectin Supplementation Did Not Alter Profiles of Fecal Microbiota and Exhaled Breath in Healthy Young Adults and Healthy Elderly
An, Ran ; Wilms, Ellen ; Smolinska, Agnieszka ; Hermes, Gerben D.A. ; Masclee, Ad A.M. ; Vos, Paul de; Schols, Henk A. ; Schooten, Frederik J. van; Smidt, Hauke ; Jonkers, Daisy M.A.E. ; Zoetendal, Erwin G. ; Troost, Freddy J. - \ 2019
Nutrients 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 2072-6643
aging - dietary fiber - elderly - exhaled air - microbiota - pectin - young adults
Aging is accompanied with increased frailty and comorbidities, which is potentially associated with microbiome perturbations. Dietary fibers could contribute to healthy aging by beneficially impacting gut microbiota and metabolite profiles. We aimed to compare young adults with elderly and investigate the effect of pectin supplementation on fecal microbiota composition, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) while using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. Fifty-two young adults and 48 elderly consumed 15 g/day sugar beet pectin or maltodextrin for four weeks. Fecal and exhaled breath samples were collected before and after the intervention period. Fecal samples were used for microbiota profiling by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and for analysis of SCFAs by gas chromatography (GC). Breath was used for VOC analysis by GC-tof-MS. Young adults and elderly showed similar fecal SCFA and exhaled VOC profiles. Additionally, fecal microbiota profiles were similar, with five genera significantly different in relative abundance. Pectin supplementation did not significantly alter fecal microbiota, SCFA or exhaled VOC profiles in elderly or young adults. In conclusion, aside from some minor differences in microbial composition, healthy elderly and young adults showed comparable fecal microbiota composition and activity, which were not altered by pectin supplementation.
The effect of fiber and prebiotics on children’s gastrointestinal disorders and microbiome
Wegh, Carrie A.M. ; Schoterman, Margriet H.C. ; Vaughan, Elaine E. ; Belzer, Clara ; Benninga, Marc A. - \ 2017
Expert Review of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 11 (2017)11. - ISSN 1747-4124 - p. 1031 - 1045.
children - dietary fiber - functional gastrointestinal disorders - Gut microbiota - oligosaccharides - prebiotics
Introduction: The bacteria received upon birth are the start of colonization of the approximately 1014 bacteria that are present in the mature human gastrointestinal tract, better known as the microbiota. The gut microbiota is implicated in gastrointestinal health, nutrient metabolism and benefits such as prevention of infection. Dietary fiber, including prebiotics, escape digestion in the small intestine and reach the colon intact, where they are partially or completely fermented by the gut microbiota. Areas covered: The possible interactions between dietary fiber, prebiotics and microbiota are discussed as well as how this relates to functional gastrointestinal disorders. During the first years of life the microbiota have not yet reached a stable state and is sensitive to disturbance by environmental factors. An imbalance in the microbiota early in life is found to be associated with several functional gastrointestinal disorders such as colic, functional abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and constipation. Expert commentary: A better understanding of how gut microbial changes in early-life can impact gastrointestinal health might lead to new treatments or disease prevention. Nutritional strategies with fiber or prebiotics may support health due to modification of colonic microbiota composition and metabolic activity, for example by growth stimulation of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus.
Water-holding capacity of soluble and insoluble polysaccharides in pressed potato fibre
Ramasamy, U. ; Gruppen, H. ; Kabel, M.A. - \ 2015
Industrial Crops and Products 64 (2015). - ISSN 0926-6690 - p. 242 - 250.
dietary fiber - side-chains - pectin - pulp - fractionation - cellulose - mobility
Pressed potato fibres (PPF), a by-product of starch production, has a high water-holding capacity (WHC).In this study, it is shown that the WHC is caused by a network of mainly insoluble, non-cellulosic cellwall polysaccharides (CWPs). Despite the solubilization of one-fourth of the CWPs from PPF, repre-senting 40–60 w/w% of pectic CWPs (rhamnosyl, uronyl, galactosyl and arabinosyl residues) presentin PPF, the insoluble residues still had similar WHCs as PPF. Only after enzymatic hydrolysis of mainlynon-cellulosic CWPs, the WHC decreased substantially (by 61%). Combining the cellulose-rich residueobtained after enzyme hydrolysis with a polymeric homogalacturonan (HG)-rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I)-arabinogalactan (AG) extract increased the WHC. This increased hydration is suggested to result fromthe observed adsorption of the soluble HG-RG-I-AG to the insoluble cellulose-rich residue. No adsorptionwas observed of the HG-RG-I-AG to an insoluble residue enriched in non-cellulosic CWPs.
Arabinoxylans concentrates from wheat bran by electrostatic separation
Wang, J. ; Smits, E. ; Boom, R.M. ; Schutyser, M.A.I. - \ 2015
Journal of Food Engineering 155 (2015). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 29 - 36.
dietary fiber - phenolic-acid - particle-size - soft wheat - extraction - quality - (glucurono)arabinoxylans - carbohydrate - fractions - hydroxide
Electrostatic separation has been recently proposed as a novel method to fractionate wheat bran into valuable ingredient fractions. However, systematic study into the influence of parameters on electrostatic separation was lacking. Therefore, this study aimed at a more detailed evaluation of electrostatic separation for enriching arabinoxylans (AX) from wheat bran. The influence of wheat bran particle size, carrier gas velocity and charging tube length were investigated with a lab-scale electrostatic separator. A combination of larger particle size (D[4,3] of 210 µm compared to 110 µm), higher gas velocity (>28 m/s) and shorter charging tube (125 mm compared to 225 mm) can sufficiently charge the particles, and at the mean time avoid agglomeration by oppositely charged particles. With the optimal settings, single step electrostatic separation of wheat bran could increase the AX content from 23% dm to 30% dm, which is similar as can be obtained by sieving. However, in comparison to sieving, the yield of the enriched fraction from electrostatic separation is lower due to the horizontal design of the setup. Improvement of the yield is expected when adjusting the system design from horizontal to vertical. A sieving step added after the electrostatic separation could effectively remove starch and protein and resulted in a fraction with an AX content of 43% dm, which is around the theoretical maximum value that can be reached by dry fractionation.
Pearling barley to alter the composition of the raw material before brewing
Donkelaar, L.H.G. van; Noordman, T.R. ; Boom, R.M. ; Goot, A.J. van der - \ 2015
Journal of Food Engineering 150 (2015). - ISSN 0260-8774 - p. 44 - 49.
hull-less barley - liquid-chromatography - phenolic-compounds - hordeum-vulgare - rich fractions - alpha-amylase - malt extracts - dietary fiber - quality - components
Partly replacing malt with unmalted barley is a trend in brewing. The use of unmalted barley, however, leads to issues such as haze and high mash viscosity, due to its higher content of undesired components. Pearling, an abrasive method to remove the outer layers of the barley kernels has been shown to reduce the content of insoluble fibre, ash, protein and polyphenols; the ß-amylase activity and starch content of the remaining kernel were hardly affected. Removing the outer 5% of the kernel, for example, results in a 15% reduction of insoluble arabinoxylans, 23% of the insoluble fibre content and 25% of the water holding capacity of the non-starch components. It also reduces the ash content by 19% and the polyphenol content by 11%, but only 0.20% of the starch is pearled off. A relation was found between the insoluble fibre content and the water holding capacity of a fraction. Lower fibre content reduces the water holding capacity and thus the volume of the spent grains, which implies that less wort and sugar are lost during filtration. In addition, that the bran fraction remains dry, implies a reduction in energy required to dry the spent grains.
In vivo degradation of alginate in the presence and in the absence of resistant starch
Jonathan, M.C. ; Souza Da Silva, C. ; Bosch, G. ; Schols, H.A. ; Gruppen, H. - \ 2015
Food Chemistry 172 (2015). - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 117 - 120.
nonstarch polysaccharides - dietary fiber - acids - pigs
This study evaluated the intestinal degradability of alginate during 74 days intake in pigs as models for humans. Diets contained pregelatinized starch, retrograded starch, alginate, or a mix of retrograded starch and alginate. Faeces were collected on day 1, 3, 7, 14, 39 and 74. Clear trends in intestinal alginate degradation were observed. Up to day 39, the total tract digestibility of alginate was limited (0.52±0.10), and was lower with the inclusion of retrograded starch in the diet (0.34±0.02). More than 90% of the faecal alginate was insoluble in water, which may explain the low digestibility of the alginate. The digestibility of mannuronic acid (M) was 2-3 times higher than that of guluronic acid (G). The changes of G:M ratio and the relative amounts of alginate oligosaccharides between day 39 and 74 indicated that the microbiota needed more than 39 days to adapt to alginate. This study demonstrated that in-depth analyses of dietary fibres are valuable in understanding the fate of the dietary fibres in the large intestine as it was shown that degradation of a dietary fibre depends not only on the properties of the fibre itself, but also on the other dietary fibres present in the diet and the adaptation time.
Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation by beta 2 -> 1-Fructans Protects Barrier Function of T84 Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a Chain Length-Dependent Manner
Vogt, L.M. ; Meyer, D. ; Pullens, G. ; Faas, M.M. ; Venema, K. ; Ramasamy, U. ; Schols, H.A. ; Vos, P. - \ 2014
The Journal of Nutrition 144 (2014)7. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1002 - 1008.
cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury - kinase-c isoforms - dietary fiber - bronchial-asthma - tyrosine kinase - dendritic cells - gut microbiota - celiac-disease - fatty-acids - pkc-alpha
Dietary fiber intake is associated with lower incidence and mortality from disease, but the underlying mechanisms of these protective effects are unclear. We hypothesized that beta 2 -> 1-fructan dietary fibers confer protection on intestinal epithelial cell barrier function via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and we studied whether beta 2 -> 1-fructan chain-length differences affect this process. T84 human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers were incubated with 4 beta 2 -> 1-fructan formulations of different chain-length compositions and were stimulated with the proinflammatory phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was analyzed by electric cell substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) as a measure for tight junction-mediated barrier function. To confirm TLR2 involvement in barrier modulation by beta 2 -> 1-fructans, ECIS experiments were repeated using TLR2 blocking antibody. After preincubation of T84 cells with short-chain beta 2 -> 1-fructans, the decrease in TEER as induced by PMA (62.3 +/- 5.2%, P <0.001) was strongly attenuated (15.2 8.8%, P <0.01). However, when PMA was applied first, no effect on recovery was observed during addition of the fructans. By blocking TLR2 on the T84 cells, the protective effect of short-chain beta 2 -> 1-fructans was substantially inhibited. Stimulation of human embryonic kidney human TLR2 reporter cells with beta 2 -> 1-fructans induced activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, confirming that beta 2 -> 1-fructans are specific ligands for TLR2. To conclude, beta 2 -> 1-fructans exert time-dependent and chain length-dependent protective effects on the T84 intestinal epithelial cell barrier mediated via TLR2. These results suggest that TLR2 located on intestinal epithelial cells could be a target of beta 2 -> 1-fructan-mediated health effects.
The effects of functional fiber on postprandial glycemia, energy intake, satiety, palatability and gastrointestinal wellbeing: a randomized crossover trial
Yuan, J.Y.F. ; Smeele, R.J.M. ; Harington, K.D. ; Loon, F.M. van; Wanders, A.J. ; Venn, B.J. - \ 2014
Nutrition Journal 13 (2014). - ISSN 1475-2891
type-2 diabetes-mellitus - desk-top guide - dietary fiber - digestive tolerance - insulin - foods - metaanalysis - glucose - index
Background: Fiber intakes in developed countries are generally below those recommended by relevant authorities. Given that many people consume fiber-depleted refined-grain products, adding functional fiber will help to increase fiber intakes. The objective of the study was to determine metabolic and sensory effects of adding fiber to bread. Methods: A double-blind pair of randomized crossover trials with a two-week washout in which two fiber-containing breads were compared with control bread. The functional fiber (fruit fiber and FibreMax (TM)) was added to yield 10 g fiber per serve (two slices). Eighty participants (n = 37 fruit fiber and n = 43 FibreMax (TM)) consumed one serve of bread (fiber or control) followed three hours later by a pasta meal consumed ad libitum. Outcome measures included glycemia, satiety, palatability, gastrointestinal wellbeing, visual appeal and subsequent energy intake of the pasta meal. Multivariate regression was undertaken to test for differences between treatment and control for blood glucose, satiety, and cumulative energy intake. Satiety responses were also compared by splitting the data into an immediate response after eating (0-30 min) and a return to hunger analysis (30-180 min). A Wilcoxon sign rank test was used for the first component (0-30 min) and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test for the second component (30-180 min). Between treatment differences for gastrointestinal wellbeing were tested using Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Results: Consumption of the fruit fiber bread reduced postprandial glycemia by 35% (95% CI 13 to 51; P = 0.004) and cumulative energy intake by 368 kJ (95% CI 163 to 531; P = 0.001). There was little influence on satiety and the bread was rated as having poor taste and smell whilst generating feelings of nausea in some participants. FibreMax (TM) enriched bread reduced glycemia by 43% (95% CI 17 to 61; P = 0.004) without influence on energy intake or satiety. Apart from a lower visual appeal, the FibreMax (TM) bread was palatable. Neither bread caused gastrointestinal discomfort related to flatulence or bloating. Conclusions: Enriching bread with 10 g of functional fiber per serve is feasible although reformulation is needed to create not only an acceptable bread, but a desirable product.
Mechanism of Isoflavone Adsorption from Okara extracts onto Food-Grade Resins
Méndez Sevillano, D. ; Jankowiak, L. ; Gaalen, T.L.T. van; Wielen, L.A.M. van der; Hooshyar, N. ; Goot, A.J. van der; Ottens, M. - \ 2014
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 53 (2014)39. - ISSN 0888-5885 - p. 15245 - 15252.
defatted soybean flakes - dietary fiber - by-product - soy milk - polyphenols - selection - caffeine - binding
Okara is a byproduct of the soy milk industry containing valuable phytochemicals, called isoflavones, among other components (i.e., proteins, sugars, fibers, etc.). As a waste product, okara is an interesting source material for obtaining valuable chemicals, and knowledge of the behavior of such components in their complex matrix is a key step for design of a purification process. Six commercially available macroporous polymeric resins are investigated to measure and model the equilibrium properties of the adsorption of isoflavones, proteins, and total solids onto these resins. A new model is evaluated in which adsorption of isoflavones onto a protein layer is proposed describing the system isoflavones–resin XAD 4 better than a linear isotherm model. Parameters for both the linear model and the bilayer model are regressed and reported with their accuracy and correlated to the hydrophobicity of each of the isoflavones.
Effects of acid-extrusion on the degradability of maize distillers dried grain with solubles in pigs
Vries, S. de; Pustjens, A.M. ; Rooijen, C. van; Kabel, M.A. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2014
Journal of Animal Science 92 (2014)12. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 5496 - 5506.
dietary fiber - growing pigs - amino-acid - reactive lysine - nonstarch polysaccharides - nutritional implications - gastrointestinal-tract - ethanol-production - large-intestine - wheat bran
Commonly used feed processing technologies are not sufficient to affect recalcitrant non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) such as arabinoxylans present in maize distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS). Instead, hydrothermal treatments combined with acid catalysts might be more effective to modify these NSP. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of hydrothermal maleic acid treatment (acid-extrusion) on the degradability of maize DDGS in growing pigs. It was hypothesized that acid-extrusion modifies DDGS cell wall architecture and, thereby, increases fermentability of NSP. Two diets, containing either 40% (wt/wt) unprocessed or acid-extruded DDGS, were restrictedly fed to groups of gilts (n = 11, with 4 pigs per group; initial mean BW: 20.8 ± 0.2 kg) for 18 d and performance and digestibility were analyzed. Acid-extrusion tended to decrease apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP (~3 percentage units, P = 0.063) and starch (~1 percentage unit, P = 0.096). Apparent digestibility of CP and starch measured at the mid colon (2 percentage units, P = 0.030 for CP and 0.3 percentage units, P <0.01 for starch) and total tract (ATTD; 3 percentage units, P <0.01 for CP and 0.2 percentage units, P = 0.024 for starch) were lower for the acid-extruded diet compared with the control diet. Hindgut disappearance was, however, not different between diets indicating that reduced CP and starch digestibility were mainly due to decreased AID. Acid-extrusion tended to increase AID of NSP (6 percentage units, P = 0.092) and increased digestibility of NSP measured at the mid colon (6 percentage units, P <0.01), whereas, hindgut disappearance and ATTD of NSP did not differ between diets. Greater NSP digestibility was mainly due to greater digestibility of arabinosyl, xylosyl, and glucosyl residues, indicating that both arabinoxylan and cellulose degradability were affected by acid-extrusion. In conclusion, these results show that acid-extrusion did not improve degradation of DDGS for growing pigs. Although acid-extrusion seemed to facilitate more rapid degradation of NSP and shifted fermentation to more proximal gastrointestinal segments, total extent of NSP degradation was not affected. More than 35% of the NSP from DDGS remained undegraded, independent of technological processing. Enzyme technologies that specifically target ester-linked acetyl, feroloyl, or coumaroyl groups were identified to be of interest for future research.
Improved starch recovery from potatoes by enzymes and reduced water holding of the residual fibres
Ramaswamy, U.R. ; Lips, S.J.J. ; Bakker, R.R. ; Gruppen, H. ; Kabel, M.A. - \ 2014
Carbohydrate Polymers 113 (2014). - ISSN 0144-8617 - p. 256 - 263.
dietary fiber - in-vitro - polygalacturonase - capacity
During the industrial extraction of starch from potatoes (Seresta), some starch remains within undisrupted potato cells in the fibrous side-stream. The aim of this study was to investigate if enzymatic degradation of cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs) can enhance starch recovery and lower the water holding capacity (WHC) of the “fibre” fraction. The use of a pectinase-rich preparation recovered 58% of the starch present in the “fibre” fraction. Also, the “fibre” fraction retained only 40% of the water present in the non-enzyme treated “fibre”. This was caused by the degradation of pectins, in particular arabinogalactan side chains calculated as the sum of galactosyl and arabinosyl residues.
Effects of alginate and resistant starch on feeding patterns, behaviour and performance in ad libitum-fed growing pigs
Souza Da Silva, C. ; Bosch, G. ; Bolhuis, J.E. ; Stappers, L.J.N. ; Hees, H.M.J. van; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Kemp, B. - \ 2014
Animal 8 (2014)12. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 1917 - 1927.
satiety-related hormones - adult female pigs - dietary fiber - food-intake - nonstarch polysaccharides - energy-metabolism - physical-activity - appetite regulation - body-composition - potato starch
This study assessed the long-term effects of feeding diets containing either a gelling fibre (alginate (ALG)), or a fermentable fibre (resistant starch (RS)), or both, on feeding patterns, behaviour and growth performance of growing pigs fed ad libitum for 12 weeks. The experiment was set up as a 2×2 factorial arrangement: inclusion of ALG (yes or no) and inclusion of RS (yes or no) in the control diet, resulting in four dietary treatments, that is, ALG-RS- (control), ALG+RS-, ALG-RS+, and ALG+RS+. Both ALG and RS were exchanged for pregelatinized potato starch. A total of 240 pigs in 40 pens were used. From all visits to an electronic feeding station, feed intake and detailed feeding patterns were calculated. Apparent total tract digestibility of energy, dry matter (DM), and CP was determined in week 6. Pigs’ postures and behaviours were scored from live observations in weeks 7 and 12. Dietary treatments did not affect final BW and average daily gain (ADG). ALG reduced energy and DM digestibility (P
Evaluation of the nutritive value of muiumba (Baikiaea plurijuga) seeds: chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility and in vitro gas production
Rodrigues, M.A.M. ; Lourenço, A.L. ; Cone, J.W. ; Nunes, F.M. ; Santos, A.S. ; Cordeiro, J.M.M. ; Guedes, C.M.V. ; Ferreira, L.M.M. - \ 2014
SpringerPlus 3 (2014). - ISSN 2193-1801
nonstarch polysaccharides - production profiles - plant materials - dietary fiber - tree fodder - fermentation - feed - fractions - leaves - fruits
One of the main constraints hindering the increase of animal production in semi-arid regions of Africa is the inadequate supply of nutrients during the dry season. Incorporation of alternative feed resources in ruminant diets during this period could be a viable approach to overcome these limitations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value of muiumba (Baikiaea plurijuga) tree seeds as an alternative nutrient source for ruminants. Muiumba seeds were compared to other eight feedstuffs including two cereal grains (corn and oat), two wheat by-products (wheat bran and distilled wheat) and four protein meals (coconut meal, sunflower meal, soybean meal and rapeseed meal) as to its chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and in vitro gas production. The moderate crude protein concentrations (145 g/kg DM) of muiumba seeds indicate that this feedstuff could not be used as a protein supplement, contrarily to the majority of multipurpose tree seeds. Although the starch content was scarce (15 g/kg DM), the low neutral detergent fibre (235 g/kg DM), low molecular weight sugar (76.1 g/kg DM) and non-starch polysaccharide (510.5 g/kg DM) contents indicate that this feedstuff has potential feeding value. This was confirmed by the IVOMD (0.770) and by the data provided by the in vitro gas production showing that muiumba seeds had high (P <0.05) maximum gas production and fractional fermentation rates, suggesting that these seeds are characterized by a highly fermentable fraction.
Release of Antioxidant Capacity from Five Plant Foods during a Multistep Enzymatic Digestion Protocol
Papillo, V.A. ; Vitaglione, P. ; Graziani, G. ; Gokmen, V. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2014
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 62 (2014)18. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 4119 - 4126.
in-vitro digestion - dietary fiber - phaseolus-vulgaris - phenolic-compounds - whole grains - risk - health - polyphenols - phytochemicals - quality
This study aimed at elucidating the influence of food matrix on the release of antioxidant activity from five plant foods (apple, spinach, walnut, red bean, and whole wheat). To this purpose a protocol based on sequential enzymatic digestion was adopted. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of both solubilized and insoluble materials was measured at each step. Results showed that the overall TAC obtained by enzyme treatments was usually higher than that obtained by chemical extraction-based methods. In apple most of the TAC was released upon water washing and after pepsin treatment, whereas in spinach, beans, and whole wheat the TAC released by treatments with bacterial enzymes was prominent. Walnut had the highest TAC value, which was mainly released after pancreatin treatment. Therefore, the enzyme treatment is fundamental to estimate the overall potential TAC of foods having a high amount of polyphenols bound to dietary fiber or entrapped in the food matrix.
Short-Chain Fatty Acids Activate AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Ameliorate Ethanol-Induced Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers
Eamin, E.E. ; Masclee, A.A. ; Dekker, J. ; Pieters, H.J. ; Jonkers, D.M. - \ 2013
The Journal of Nutrition 143 (2013)12. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 1872 - 1881.
alcoholic liver-disease - induced gut leakiness - paracellular permeability - signaling pathway - oxidative stress - epithelial-cells - colonic function - dietary fiber - leaky gut - butyrate
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been shown to promote intestinal barrier function, but their protective effects against ethanol-induced intestinal injury and underlying mechanisms remain essentially unknown. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of SCFAs on ethanol-induced barrier dysfunction and to examine the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a possible mechanism using Caco-2 monolayers. The monolayers were treated apically with butyrate (2, 10, or 20 mmol/L), propionate (4, 20, or 40 mmol/L), or acetate (8, 40, or 80 mmol/L) for 1 h before ethanol (40 mmol/L) for 3 h. Barrier function was analyzed by measurement of transepithelial resistance and permeation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran. Distribution of the tight junction (TJ) proteins zona occludens-1, occludin, and filamentous-actin (F-actin) was examined by immunofluorescence. Metabolic stress was determined by measuring oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and ATP using dichlorofluorescein diacetate, dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, and bioluminescence assay, respectively. AMPK was knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA), and its activity was assessed by a cell-based ELISA. Exposure to ethanol significantly impaired barrier function compared with controls (P <0.0001), disrupted TJ and F-actin cytoskeleton integrity, and induced metabolic stress. However, pretreatment with 2 mmol/L butyrate, 4 mmol/L propionate, and 8 mmol/L acetate significantly alleviated the ethanol-induced barrier dysfunction, TJ and F-actin disruption, and metabolic stress compared with ethanol-exposed monolayers (P <0.0001). The promoting effects on barrier function were abolished by inhibiting AMPK using either compound C or siRNA. These observations indicate that SCFAs exhibit protective effects against ethanol-induced barrier disruption via AMPK activation, suggesting a potential for SCFAs as prophylactic and/or therapeutic factors against ethanol-induced gut leakiness.
Incubation of selected fermentable fibres with feline faecal inoculum: correlations between in vitro fermentation characteristics and end products
Rochus, K. ; Bosch, G. ; Vanhaecke, L. ; Velde, H. van de; Depauw, S. ; Xu, J. ; Fievez, V. ; Wiele, T. van der; Hendriks, W.H. ; Janssens, G.P.J. ; Hesta, M. - \ 2013
Archives of Animal Nutrition 67 (2013)5. - ISSN 1745-039X - p. 416 - 431.
gas-production kinetics - chain fatty-acids - dietary fiber - domestic cat - human gut - substrate - feces - food - progression - propionate
This study aimed to evaluate correlations between fermentation characteristics and end products of selected fermentable fibres (three types of fructans, citrus pectin, guar gum), incubated with faecal inocula from donor cats fed two diets, differing in fibre and protein sources and concentrations. Cumulative gas production was measured over 72 h, fermentation end products were analysed at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-incubation, and quantification of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and bacteroides in fermentation liquids were performed at 4 and 48 h of incubation. Partial Pearson correlations, corrected for inoculum, were calculated to assess the interdependency of the fermentation characteristics of the soluble fibre substrates. Butyric and valeric acid concentrations increased with higher fermentation rates, whereas acetic acid declined. Concentrations of butyric acid (highest in fructans) and propionic acid were inversely correlated with protein fermentation end products at several time points, whereas concentrations of acetic acid (highest in citrus pectin) were positively correlated with these products at most time points. Remarkably, a lack of clear relationship between the counts of bacterial groups and their typically associated products after 4 h of incubation was observed. Data from this experiment suggest that differences in fibre fermentation rate in feline faecal inocula coincide with typical changes in the profile of bacterial fermentation products. The observed higher concentrations of propionic and butyric acid as a result of fibre fermentation could possibly have beneficial effects on intestinal health, and may be confounded with a concurrent decrease in the production of putrefactive compounds. In conclusion, supplementing guar gum or fructans to a feline diet might be more advantageous compared with citrus pectin. However, in vivo research is warranted to confirm these conclusions in domestic cats.
Immune Modulation by Different Types of ß2¿1-Fructans Is Toll-Like Receptor Dependent
Vogt, L. ; Ramasamy, U. ; Meyer, D. ; Pullens, G. ; Venema, K. ; Faas, M.M. ; Schols, H.A. ; Vos, P. de - \ 2013
PLoS ONE 8 (2013)7. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 12 p.
chain fatty-acids - nf-kappa-b - blood mononuclear-cells - dendritic cells - lactobacillus-rhamnosus - bifidobacterium-lactis - signal-transduction - innate immunity - dietary fiber - inulin
Introduction ß2¿1-fructans are dietary fibers. Main objectives of this study were 1) to demonstrate direct signalling of ß2¿1-fructans on immune cells, 2) to study whether this is mediated by the pattern recognition receptors Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-containing proteins (NODs), and 3) to relate the observed effects to the chain length differences in ß2¿1-fructans. Methods Four different ß2¿1-fructan formulations were characterised for their chain length profile. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated in vitro with ß2¿1-fructans, and production of IL-1Ra, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, and TNF-a was analysed. Reporter cells for TLRs and NODs were incubated with ß2¿1-fructans and analysed for NF-¿B/AP-1 activation. Results Cytokine production in human PBMCs was dose- and chain length-dependent. Strikingly, short chain enriched ß2¿1-fructans induced a regulatory cytokine balance compared to long chain enriched ß2¿1-fructans as measured by IL-10/IL-12 ratios. Activation of reporter cells showed that signalling was highly dependent on TLRs and their adapter, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88). In human embryonic kidney reporter cells, TLR2 was prominently activated, while TLR4, 5, 7, 8, and NOD2 were mildly activated. Conclusions ß2¿1-fructans possess direct signalling capacity on human immune cells. By activating primarily TLR2, and to a lesser extent TLR4, 5, 7, 8, and NOD2, ß2¿1-fructan stimulation results in NF-¿B/AP-1 activation. Chain length of ß2¿1-fructans is important for the induced activation pattern and IL-10/IL-12 ratios.
Human intestinal metagenomics: state of the art and future
Blottière, H.M. ; Vos, W.M. de; Ehrlich, S.D. ; Doré, J. - \ 2013
Current Opinion in Microbiology 16 (2013)3. - ISSN 1369-5274 - p. 232 - 239.
irritable-bowel-syndrome - human gut microbiome - early-life - gastrointestinal microbiota - dietary fiber - disease - diversity - health - mice - susceptibility
Over the last few years our understanding of human biology has undergone profound transformation. The key role of the 'world inside us', namely the gut microbiota, once considered a forgotten organ, has been revealed, with strong impact on our health and well-being. The present review highlights the most important recent findings on the role of gut microbiota and its impact on the host and raises crucial questions to be considered in future studies
Soluble Antioxidant Compounds Regenerate the Antioxidants Bound to Insoluble Parts of Foods
Celik, E.E. ; Gökmen, V. ; Fogliano, V. - \ 2013
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61 (2013)43. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 10329 - 10334.
dietary fiber - phenolic-compounds - health - capacity
This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of antioxidant capacity of an insoluble food matrix. Investigations were performed in vitro with several food matrices rich in dietary fiber (DF) and bound antioxidants. After removal of the soluble fraction, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of the insoluble fraction was measured by the QUENCHER procedure using ABTS(•+) or DPPH(•) radicals. After measurement, the insoluble residue was washed out to remove the excess of radicals and treated with pure antioxidant solution or antioxidant-rich beverage to regenerate depleted antioxidants on the fiber. Results revealed that the antioxidant capacity of compounds chemically bound to the insoluble moiety could be reconstituted in the presence of other hydrogen-donating substances in the liquid phase. Regeneration efficiency was found to range between 21.5 and 154.3% depending on the type of insoluble food matrix and regeneration agent. Among the food matrices studied, cereal products were found to have slightly higher regeneration efficiency, whereas antioxidant-rich beverages were more effective than pure antioxidants as regeneration agents. Taking wheat bran as reference insoluble material, the regeneration abilities of beverages were in the following order: green tea > espresso coffee > black tea > instant coffee > orange juice > red wine. These results highlighted the possible physiological relevance of antioxidants bound to the insoluble food material in the gastrointestinal tract. During the digestion process they could react with the free radicals and at the same time they can be regenerated by other soluble antioxidant compounds present in the meal