Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    When climate change is not blamed: the politics of disaster attribution in international perspective
    Lahsen, Myanna ; Azevedo Couto, Gabriela de; Lorenzoni, Irene - \ 2020
    Climatic Change 158 (2020)2. - ISSN 0165-0009 - p. 213 - 233.
    attribution politics - Brazil - climate change - disasters - extreme events - framing - global South - United States

    Analyzing the politics and policy implications in Brazil of attributing extreme weather events to climate change, we argue for greater place-based sensitivity in recommendations for how to frame extreme weather events relative to climate change. Identifying geographical limits of current recommendations to emphasize the climate role in such events, we explore Brazilian framings of the two tragic national disasters, as apparent in newspaper coverage of climate change. We find that a variety of contextual factors compel environmental leaders and scientists in Brazil to avoid and discourage highlighting the role of climate change in national extreme events. Against analysts’ general deficit-finding assumptions, we argue that the Brazilian framing tendency reflects sound strategic, socio-environmental reasoning, and discuss circumstances in which attributing such events to climate change—and, by extension, attribution science—can be ineffective for policy action on climate change and other socio-environmental issues in need of public pressure and preventive action. The case study has implications beyond Brazil by begging greater attention to policies and politics in particular places before assuming that attribution science and discursive emphasis on the climate role in extreme events are the most strategic means of achieving climate mitigation and disaster preparedness. Factors at play in Brazil might also structure extreme events attribution politics in other countries, not least some other countries of the global South.

    Stakeholder interactions in nuclear emergency response for the Dutch food supply chain
    Asselt, E.D. van; Brandhoff, P.N. ; Twenhöfel, C.J.W. - \ 2015
    nuclear power stations - disasters - food industry - management - food contamination - multi-stakeholder processes - cooperation - kernenergiecentrales - rampen - voedselindustrie - bedrijfsvoering - voedselbesmetting - multi-stakeholder processen - samenwerking
    In the Netherlands, EPAn (Unit Planning and Advice – Nuclear) assesses the radiological situation and advises the national and regional levels on protective actions. This advice is based on radiological and human health expertise provided by the Crisis Expert Team (CET) radiation. At the start of the project, CET lacked insight in the measures taken by food producers in case of a nuclear accident and communication with these stakeholders was limited. Furthermore, experience on recovery measures was primarily focused on the first stage after an incident.
    Dutch Humanitarian Aid: now and in the future. A sector consultation in preparation of the Netherlands Humanitarian Summit (2015)
    Hilhorst, D. ; Pereboom, E. - \ 2014
    Wageningen, Groningen : Humanitarian Aid and Reconstruction, Wageningen University /Globalisation Studies Groningen, University Groningen - 55
    humanitarian aid - development aid - development agencies - development cooperation - netherlands - dutch - refugees - natural disasters - disasters - international conflicts - government policy - humanitaire hulp - ontwikkelingshulp - instellingen voor ontwikkelingshulp - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - nederland - nederlands - vluchtelingen - natuurrampen - rampen - internationale conflicten - overheidsbeleid
    A Best Practices Notebook for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: Guidance and Insights for Policy and Practice from the CATALYST Project
    Hare, M. ; Bers, C. van; Mysiak, J. ; Calliari, E. ; Haque, A. ; Warner, K. ; Yuzva, K. ; Zissener, M. ; Jaspers, A.M.J. ; Timmerman, J.G. - \ 2014
    Trieste, Italy : TWAS The World Academy of Sciences - for the advancement of science in developing countries - 76
    climate adaptation - climatic change - risk reduction - disasters - klimaatadaptatie - klimaatverandering - risicovermindering - rampen
    This publication, A Best Practices Notebook for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: Guidance and Insights for Policy and Practice from the CATALYST Project is one of two main CATALYST knowledge products that focus on the transformative approaches and measures that can support Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA). It is complemented by the Best Practices Papers: Before Disaster Strikes – Transformations in Practice and Policy prepared for each of the four CATALYST regions (South and Southeast Asia, Mediterranean Europe, East and West Africa, and Central America and the Caribbean). While the previous publications present the practices considered by stakeholders to be among the most important in each region, this publication summarises the key results of the entire project from a multi-regional perspective. In doing so, it focuses on some of the most essential themes that have emerged from the CATALYST Think Tank over the last two years: ecosystems-based DRR/CCA; mainstreaming DRR/CCA; urban DRR; drought risk management for agriculture; climate risk insurance; small island developing states, and how the Hyogo Framework for Action should be followed up, as well as how to continue the CATALYST legacy.
    Ex-ante raamwerk overheid bij rampen en calamiteiten in de land- en tuinbouw
    Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Bondt, N. ; Meulen, H.A.B. van der - \ 2014
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2014-023) - 61
    landbouwsector - rampen - overheidsbeleid - compensatiebedragen - uitkeringen - risicoanalyse - agricultural sector - disasters - government policy - compensatory amounts - allowances - risk analysis
    De overheid wil haar rol met betrekking tot risico’s in de land- en tuinbouw beperkt zien tot interventies bij rampen en calamiteiten. Publiek-private partnerships en ex-ante arrangementen worden nagestreefd bij rampen en calamiteiten die de capaciteit van de ondernemer ontstijgen. Er is in het beleid door de overheid een richting ingeslagen waarbij nadruk wordt gelegd op structurele oplossingen in plaats van ad-hochulp. Hierbij krijgt de verantwoordelijkheid van het individuele bedrijf meer nadruk. Om ad-hoc-regelingen te voorkomen is het bestaan van een robuust stelsel van compensatiemechanismen noodzakelijk. De uitdaging is om de ervaringen uit het verleden te gebruiken om te komen tot een coherent beleid ten aanzien van het ex-ante raamwerk. Deze studie probeert hier aan bij te dragen.
    Meerlaagsveiligheid in het Waddengebied : mogelijke maatregelen in ruimtelijke inrichting en rampenbestrijding met het oog op klimaatverandering
    Klostermann, J.E.M. ; Spijkerman, A. ; Vreugdenhil, H. ; Massop, H.T.L. ; Timmerman, J.G. ; Jaspers, A.M.J. ; Maaskant, B. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2541) - 129
    regionale planning - hoogwaterbeheersing - inundatie - rampen - waddenzee - veiligheid - wadden - nederlandse waddeneilanden - groningen - friesland - regional planning - flood control - flooding - disasters - wadden sea - safety - tidal flats - dutch wadden islands - groningen - friesland
    In het Nationaal Waterplan is het concept van meerlaagsveiligheid geïntroduceerd voor een duurzaam waterveiligheidsbeleid. Binnen het concept meerlaagsveiligheid worden drie lagen onderscheiden: preventie van overstromingen, duurzame ruimtelijke inrichting en rampenbeheersing. We passen dit concept toe op de vastelandskust van Friesland en Groningen, oftewel ‘Dijkring 6’, en voor de Waddeneilanden. Tweedelaags maatregelen zijn niet rendabel als ze in grote gebieden worden toegepast omdat het vrijwel altijd goedkoper is om de eerstelaags veiligheid verder te verbeteren. Waar tweedelaags maatregelen wel rendabel kunnen zijn: 1) In buitendijkse gebieden waar geen eerstelaags maatregelen mogelijk zijn is het zeker zinvol om naar tweedelaags maatregelen te zoeken: 2) Omdat de Eemsdelta vrijwel geen weerstand kan bieden aan een overstroming kan daar een tweede laag worden overwogen, vooral als die te combineren is met andere functies dan alleen veiligheid: 3) Onderdelen van vitale infrastructuur in een gebied met grote overstromingsrisico’s zouden extra beschermd kunnen worden om een cascade van rampen te voorkomen; voor het Waddengebied zijn dat de gasinstallaties in de Eemsdelta. Derdelaags maatregelen zijn in alle gevallen waardevol en kunnen in het Waddengebied zeker verder geoptimaliseerd worden. Voor de eilanden is een extra inspanning nodig in de derdelaags veiligheid.
    Reaching resilience : handbook resilience 2.0 for aid practioners and policymakers in disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and poverty reduction
    Heijmans, E.P.M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - 125
    rampen - risicovermindering - klimaatverandering - armoede - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - humanitaire hulp - ontwikkelingshulp - handboeken - disasters - risk reduction - climatic change - poverty - development programmes - humanitarian aid - development aid - handbooks
    Over the last few decades, the alarming increase in both the frequency and impact of disasters has drastically affected the livelihoods of people living in both developing and developed countries. A growing number of weather-related hazards can be observed such as floods, droughts and forest fires. Climate change most likely contributes to this rise, as well as people’s mounting vulnerability due to, for instance, population growth, insecure land rights, rising food prices and unemployment. Over the last few years a sense of urgency has emerged among platforms and networks related to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Poverty Reduction (PR) to integrate the three domains in order to cope with future risks more effectively. This handbook is designed to encourage thinking and provide insights and ideas about how to design well-integrated, step-by-step actions and strategies to foster resilience at the local level. The handbook aims to support students and young professionals in their DRR, CCA and PR related work and secondly to acquaint policymakers involved in these three domains with the integration issue and help them to take a resilience 2.0 approach into their (present or future) daily work.
    Trade-offs between catastrophic assistance and subsidized insurance in European agriculture
    Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Pietola, K. ; Niemi, J.K. - \ 2013
    Outlook on Agriculture 42 (2013)4. - ISSN 0030-7270 - p. 225 - 231.
    capital-markets - risk attitudes - disasters - utility
    Risk management in agriculture is a major policy issue in current EU agriculture policy reforms. Public support systems may play two different roles, one as a device to deliver disaster assistance and another to enhance insurance for marketable risks. This paper contributes to the literature by analysing the trade-offs between providing catastrophic assistance and subsidizing insurance premiums. The goal of the study is to highlight policy options that are coherent in stabilizing income volatility while limiting distortions of public intervention. In this study, farmer incomes were first modelled using Monte Carlo simulation, and options were then ranked by applying the stochastic efficiency with respect to a function. The results suggest that, if catastrophic assistance is available, even higher insurance support is needed to make it a preferred option. The results highlight the fact that well defined and credible ex ante rules for the use of disaster assistance are essential to enable insurance markets to develop. One possibility would be to make a farmer's eligibility for disaster aid conditional on his or her participation in the insurance programmes.
    Ecologische kwetsbaarheidskaarten voor drijvende en gedispergeerde olie op de Noordzee
    Lange, H.J. de; Lanen, R. van; Boois, I.J. de; Foekema, E.M. ; Asch, M. van; Lahr, J. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport 2477) - 49
    mariene gebieden - rampen - olieverontreinigingen - zeevogels - vissen - ecotoxicologie - noordzee - marine areas - disasters - oil spills - sea birds - fishes - ecotoxicology - north sea
    Bij calamiteiten op zee kan vrijkomende olie leiden tot ernstige ecologische effecten. De Landelijke Coördinatiecommissie Milieu (LCM) maakt bij de 24/7 advisering voor Rijkswaterstaat Zee en Delta gebruik van ecologische kwetsbaarheidskaarten bij het besluit om detergenten bij een olieverontreiniging in te zetten. De kaarten maken gebruik van verspreidingsgegevens van zeevogels en aanwezigheid van vissen (viseieren en -larven, en paaigebieden) en zijn bedoeld om direct, in het eerste uur na een olieverontreiniging, informatie te geven over wat te verwachten valt aan ecologische kwetsbaarheid op de locatie van het incident. Onderhavig rapport beschrijft de update van deze kaarten voor drijvende olie en het ontwikkelen van vergelijkbare kaarten voor gedispergeerde olie. Oil spills at sea can cause serious ecological effects. The National Coordination Committee on the Environment (LCM) uses ecological vulnerability maps in its 24/7 advice for Rijkswaterstaat Sea and Delta. These maps are used in the decision whether or not to deploy detergents. The maps use monitoring data of seabirds and fish (abundance of fish eggs and larvae and presence of spawning grounds) and are intended to provide information on the ecological vulnerability at the location of the incident. The present report describes the update of these maps for oil slicks, and the development of similar maps for dispersed oil.
    Crisiskansen: 'poweren' en 'puzzelen' onder hoge druk
    Warner, J.F. - \ 2013
    Water Governance 3 (2013)5-6. - ISSN 2211-0224 - p. 32 - 37.
    waterbeheer - rampen - risico-baten analyse - governance - besluitvorming - water management - disasters - risk-benefit analysis - governance - decision making
    Crisis als kans? – Het Chinese karakter voor ‘crisis’ staat voor ongeluk, maar ook voor kansen. Een crisis kan destructief zijn maar ook constructief, in de zin dat ze positieve ontwikkelingen kan bevorderen. ‘Never waste a good crisis’, zei Hillary Clinton: de huidige economische crisis zou heel positieve effecten kunnen sorteren op klimaat en onze energiezekerheid. Onder druk wordt alles vloeibaar: een crisis legitimeert noodmaatregelen die normaliter ondenkbaar zijn, en kan ongekende innovatie bewerkstelligen.
    Disaster, Conflict and Society in Crisis : Everyday Politics of Crisis Response
    Hilhorst, D. - \ 2013
    London : Routledge (Routledge humanitarian studies series ) - ISBN 9780415640817 - 304
    rampen - humanitaire hulp - conflict - crises - natuurrampen - politieke conflicten - conflictmanagement - noodhulp - politiek - peace building - wereld - disasters - humanitarian aid - conflict - crises - natural disasters - political conflicts - conflict management - emergency relief - politics - peacebuilding - world
    Humanitarian crises are usually perceived as a complete break from normality, spurring special emergency policies and interventions. In reality, there are many continuities and discontinuities between crisis and normality. What does this mean for our understanding of politics, aid, and local institutions during crises? This book, first in the new Routledge Humanitarian Studies Series, examines this question from a sociological perspective. It provides a qualitative inquiry into the social and political dynamics of local institutional response, international policy and aid interventions in crises caused by conflict or natural disaster.
    Olie op de golven : leren van olieramp met de Deepwater Horizon
    Murk, Tinka - \ 2013
    disasters - petroleum - risk assessment - marine areas - oil spills - mexico - models - water bottoms - monitoring - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
    Risky encounters : institutions and interventions in response to recurrent disasters and conflict
    Heijmans, A. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732675 - 308
    instellingen - interventie - risicofactoren - risico - plaatselijke bevolking - rampen - politieke conflicten - risicovermindering - sociale participatie - afghanistan - indonesië - filippijnen - ontwikkelingslanden - institutions - intervention - risk factors - risk - local population - disasters - political conflicts - risk reduction - social participation - afghanistan - indonesia - philippines - developing countries

    The thesis focuses on local level responses to recurrent small disasters and conflict in Afghanistan, Indonesia and the Philippines. It critically reflects on Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR) approaches to understand the gap between CBDRR policy and actual outcomes. It considers the multi-level institutions through with meaning and implementation of CBDRR policy are negotiated and transformed, from the conceptual policy design stage until the arena where decisions on risk solutions and resource allocation are made. Disasters and conflict are both understood as the product of a cumulative set of institutional arrangements and policy decisions over a long period of time. Vice versa, disasters and conflict affect institutional arrangements and re-order power relations. Interventions like CBDRR are not isolated, distinct entities, but are very much embedded in a context of particular institutional arrangements, which constrain or enable local actors to advance their risk-solutions. Through CBDRR interventions actors defend and mobilize around CBDRR practices that are meaningful to them, or resist institutions and practices that carry meanings they find disagreeable. This results in the manifold manifestations of CBDRR practices and outcomes. The research concludes that there is no such thing as the CBDRR approach. Instead, there are different processes through which local NGOs, civil society organizations, funding agencies and government agencies arrive at a specific framing of local realities and their responses in the context they live and work. These are related to their histories, current state - civil society relationships, and their mandate on how they legitimize their interventions. These actors either underscore the politics of their interventions or rather de-politicize them. From the experiences of this research it is plausible to conclude that when one ignores to view CBDRR interventions in a political and institutional manner, the out­comes of the interventions are likely to reproduce the status quo and are not supporting the vulnerable populations. The implication for humanitarian aid agencies is to include an institutional and political analysis in risk and vulnerability assessments to explain people’ vulnerability. This is crucial for strategizing actions and to engage in the political arena of disaster risk reduction with the aim to create safe and resilient communities. Rather than simply aiming for isolated village-level project objectives, CBDRR interventions have to think ahead of results to be achieved at district and even national level.

    Vismigratie en lozingspluimen: Samenvattend rapport
    Foekema, E.M. ; Winter, H.V. ; Kleissen, F. ; Keeken, O.A. van; Rippen, A.D. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. - \ 2011
    Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C077/11) - 25
    vismigratie - beschermende omgeving - waterverontreiniging - afvalwater - afvoerwater - rampen - fish migration - protective atmospheres - water pollution - waste water - effluents - disasters
    Zeewaarts migrerende schieralen laten een gedragsverandering zien wanneer zij geconfronteerd worden met een lozingspluim van rwzi-effluent. Ruim de helft van de vissen verandert van zwemrichting en tracht langs de rand van de pluim te passeren. Het risico dat een permanente migratie-barrière ontstaat is bij de meeste rwzi’s niet groot door het dynamische karakter van de lozingspluim. Bij rwzi’s die lozen op wateren met een beperkt afvoerdebiet kunnen wel migratie-barrières ontstaan, maar met relatief eenvoudige aanpassingen kan de kans daarop worden verkleind. De onderzoeksresultaten geven aan dat rwzi-effluentpluimen potentie hebben om te worden ingezet voor de geleiding van stroomafwaarts migrerende vissen naar een veilige route langs gevaarlijke situaties zoals koelwaterinlaten, gemalen en waterkrachtcentrales.
    Cultural Emergency in Conflict and Disaster
    Frerks, G.E. ; Klein Goldewijk, B. - \ 2011
    Rotterdam : NAi-publishers - ISBN 9789056628178 - 480
    cultuur - cultureel erfgoed - culturele waarden - identiteit - rampen - oorlog - erfgoed - culture - cultural heritage - cultural values - identity - disasters - war - heritage areas
    All that we're wrecking is stones" was Taliban leader Mullah Mohammed Omar's dismissal of the Taliban's destruction of the Buddhas of Bamyan, the largest standing statues of Buddha in the world. The intention of the fighters was not only the destruction of foreign idols, but breaking the soul of a culture. Cultural Emergency in Conflict and Disaster insists that culture is a necessity for national self-respect. International heritage specialists, relief workers and politicians discuss the importance of protecting cultural heritage that is threatened by war and calamity; and reports on projects in conflict zones are augmented by contributions on international administrative and legal aspects, as well as political and socio-cultural perspectives. The result is both an indictment of the senseless destruction of cultural heritage and an argument for culture as a priority in processes of restoration and reconstruction.
    The vulnerability of the European agriculture and food system for calamities and geopolitics : a stress test
    Weijden, W. van der; Burger, C.P.J. ; Jansen, D.M. ; Rougoor, C. ; Hees, E. - \ 2011
    [S.l.] : Platform Agriculture, Innovation and Society - 141
    voedselzekerheid - europese unie - zelfvoorziening - rampen - politieke conflicten - scenario-analyse - risicobeheersing - food security - european union - self sufficiency - disasters - political conflicts - scenario analysis - risk management
    During the 1960s and 1970s, the EU succeeded in becoming largely self-sufficient in food production, thus assuring its food security for the most part. However, it is unclear which areas of food security are still vulnerable and/or whether there are there new vulnerabilities. In this report we have focused on emergencies and geopolitical shocks that can have a major impact on food security, i.e. food volume. We have not included emergencies that affect food safety (such as a nuclear disaster) or emergencies that have a much broader effect than on food chains alone (such as a flu pandemic or power failure).
    The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya
    Jansen, B.J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858591 - 273
    rampen - oorlog - vluchtelingen - noodgevallen - sociologie - agressief gedrag - organisatie - bevolkingsverplaatsing - economie - vn - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - plaatselijk bestuur - plaatselijke bevolking - kenya - afrika - disasters - war - refugees - emergencies - sociology - aggressive behaviour - organization - resettlement - economics - un - non-governmental organizations - local government - local population - kenya - africa

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in

    Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of

    the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis

    per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorically and physically relevant. First,

    the metaphorical dimension of the city places refugees and their negotiation of

    space into the realm of the normal and the possible, contrary to prevailing notions

    of the camp as an abnormality. In this thesis, I analyze the ways in which refugees

    settle down in the camp and inhabit the humanitarian space. From a physical

    perspective, the camp has grown into a center of facilities in a wider region of

    insecurity, war and marginalized pastoral lands in a semi-desert. Compared to the

    region, the camp resembles a multicultural and cosmopolitan place, with various

    connections to the wider world.

    I have analyzed five domains in which social ordering takes place:

    humanitarian governance, the camp as a warscape, the camp economy, third

    country resettlement and repatriation. In all these domains, refugees seek to

    organize themselves and their surroundings vis-à-vis the humanitarian agencies

    and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

    In chapter two, I describe how UNHCR de facto became the government of

    the refugee camp on behalf of the Kenyan government. In this capacity it operates

    in a confusion of roles; it is both implementer of aid and assistance in the general

    administration of the camp, and monitor and guard of States’ obligations to

    respect refugee rights. This makes that UNHCR and its implementing NGOs not

    only offer, preach and teach entitlements, but are simultaneously for a large part

    responsible in their delivery and for the decision of who is granted inclusion in the

    camp’s services. I have recognized this in the notion of an entitlement arena,

    which highlights how refugees maneuver in the grey area between UNHCR’s

    camp governing and rights monitoring roles. The entitlements born out of refugee

    and human rights then translate into expectations and promises that become part

    of negotiations seeking to align, dodge or alter the camp’s organization. For a

    large part, this negotiation takes places along the interfaces between UNHCR and

    its implementing partners, and the refugees. By employing participation strategies

    in the governing of the camp, UNHCR contributed to the creation of subauthorities,

    which play an important role in the referral of refugees within the aid

    system, but also in the identification of vulnerabilities.

    In the domain of the warscape, I analyze how boundaries between refugee

    leadership and rebel movements have blurred, adding and altering these subauthorities.

    Apart from the camp having a function in the broader war tactics of

    rebel movements in the past and in the present, the notion of the camp as a

    warscape highlights how the politics of war and the dynamics of conflict reach

    and partly order the camp. This warscape notion, instead of being problematic, is

    analyzed from a perspective of place making, through which refugees claim

    political agency and room to organize themselves vis-à-vis the refugee regime,

    thereby reshaping the living arrangements of the camp and organizing where

    people settle on the basis of ethnic and violent histories in the past and in the

    camp. This authority transcends into everyday forms of power and governance,

    largely because of an understanding of imminent and symbolic violence between

    the different groups.

    In a socio-economic domain, I describe how refugees build on the resource of

    aid and create a diversity of livelihood strategies. Aid, more than just a handout or

    a necessity, is comparable to a natural resource in the contours of the camp. For

    refugees, once they are allowed inside the camp, aid is simply there. It is

    something one can vie for, and can harvest, until it is depleted. I describe this as a

    process of “digging aid,” comparable to subsistence farming. On the basis of this

    aid, a camp economy has grown, with linkages to informal and formal regional

    and international economies. The development of the camp economy has

    stimulated socio-economic changes. The local community has found a resource in

    the camp and “dropout pastoralists” have settled around the camp in a way that is

    comparable to the ways urban migrants flock to cities. The camp represents a

    cosmopolitan place where people of different backgrounds come together, meet

    each other, and adapt to each other.

    The fourth domain, described in chapter five, concerns the camp as a portal

    for resettlement. The perspective of third country resettlement in Kakuma has

    both been a reason for people to come to the camp, and a phenomenon that

    greatly contributed to its development. Resettlement can thus be seen as both an

    opportunity as a solution to which people seek access. With this, resettlement

    became an organizing principle for people in the camp. The large volume of

    resettlement from Kakuma contributes to the character of the camp as a transitory

    space. Many informants came to Kakuma not so much to return “home” again,

    but to move forward instead. Kakuma as a portal offers migratory routes to those

    who manage to be considered eligible according to the agencies’ and receiving

    countries’ qualifications. Although imagined as a measure to protect those most in

    need, in reality, becoming eligible for resettlement involves a combination of

    factors, including access to the agencies and a vulnerability or a fitting identity. It

    is here that the warscape and the entitlement arena intertwine to become the

    system of resettlement.

    Chapter six shows how repatriation becomes subject to maneuvering. Over the

    course of my fieldwork, peace broke out in Sudan and repatriation was initiated.

    The prospect was complicated, however. In Sudan, public amenities such as

    schools, health care, and water were scarce or lacking. Towns and urban centers

    were still largely under Arabic influence. The result was that the humanitarian

    government in the form of UNHCR and the NGOs sought to control return

    movements, while refugees sought to strategize and organize return in their own

    ways, and the Sudanese authorities in Sudan sought to keep the refugees in Kenya

    until further notice.

    The notion of the camp as an accidental city comes back in that the camp was

    recognized for its facilities and weighed against the lack thereof in Sudan. New

    arrivals similarly came for education, or for basic amenities and even food.

    Refugees from other nationalities had concerns because of a possible closure of

    Kakuma. Many of them had a rebel or military past, or feared being regarded as

    rebels in their home countries, and thus saw limited opportunities to go home.

    Also people from town were unsure of what would remain of Kakuma in the

    event of the camp being closed.

    This research contributes to earlier work in earlier stages of refugee hosting in

    other camps, and covering specific subthemes. With the analogy to the city, I

    bring together those subthemes in one common frame. The result can in part be

    understood as a history of the specific camp of Kakuma. This nicely captures the

    title of this research, for something that gains a history breaks free from the frame

    of temporality, perhaps by accident. With this approach, this book is not only

    relevant for social science or anthropology, but also as a historical record.

    Protracted refugee camps constitute an experiment in humanitarian action, but

    also in thinking about questions of governance and security in refugee hosting

    contexts in developing countries such as Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Nepal,

    Thailand and other locations where the content of this book may be relevant.

    Continuities in crisis : everyday practices of disaster response and climate change adaptation in Mozambique
    Artur, L. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859260 - 251
    rampen - natuurrampen - overstromingen - klimaatverandering - capaciteitsopbouw - humanitaire hulp - instellingen voor ontwikkelingshulp - mozambique - afrika - disasters - natural disasters - floods - climatic change - capacity building - humanitarian aid - development agencies - mozambique - africa

    Mozambiqueis a poor country located in the South-East coast of Africa. Due to its prevailing poverty and geographical location along the coastline of the Indian Ocean, and downstream of major regional rivers, the country experiences, in average, one disaster of great magnitude every year (triggered by floods, cyclones and drought) and ranks third in global weather damage. This has led, over years, to a massive deployment of aid. The need for aid is indeed taken for granted without questioning how local actors (i.e. local people) perceive and act upon both, disasters and aid, in building their livelihoods. This thesis looks at the everyday practices of disaster response by local people, government, donors and (I)NGOs in Mozambique. The major conclusion that I draw from the present thesis is that disaster management in Mozambique involves the crafting of continuities in crisis by the different actors involved. It can be stated that for poor people ‘normal life’ can hardly be disentangled from the exceptionalities of disaster situations. I found that people seek continuity in their livelihoods once disasters happen in institutions and their lives, that is, they do not wait for aid to (re)start their lives nor disasters crash completely their capacity to respond. Second, crises allow the continuity of humanitarianism- a deep political, economic and moral endeavor. Crafting continuities in crisis is, ultimately, what makes societies to move.

    De kwetsbaarheid van het Europese landbouw- en voedselsysteem voor calamiteiten en geopolitiek (2011 - 2020)
    Weijden, W.J. van der; Burger, C.P.J. ; Jansen, D.M. ; Rougoor, C. ; Hees, E. - \ 2011
    Culemborg : Platform Landbouw, Innovatie & Samenleving - 153
    europese unie - voedselzekerheid - zelfvoorziening - rampen - politieke conflicten - scenario-analyse - risicobeheersing - european union - food security - self sufficiency - disasters - political conflicts - scenario analysis - risk management
    De EU is er gedurende de jaren '60 en '70 in geslaagd grotendeels zelfvoorzienend te worden in voedsel en heeft daarmee zijn voedselzekerheid goeddeels veiliggesteld. De vraag is op welke punten landbouw en voedselvoorziening toch nog kwetsbaar zijn c.q. of er sprake is van nieuwe kwetsbaarheden. Dit rapport richt zich op calamiteiten en geopolitieke schokken die grote invloed kunnen hebben op de voedselzekerheid, d.w.z. op het voedselvolume. Niet meegenomen zijn calamiteiten voor de voedselveiligheid (zoals een kernramp) en calamiteiten die een veel breder effect hebben dan alleen op de voedselketens (zoals een grieppandemie of uitval van de elektriciteit).
    Resilience of food companies to calamities - perceptions in the Netherlands
    Meuwissen, M.P.M. ; Burger, C.P.J. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2010
    Culemborg : Platform Agriculture, Innovation & Society / Wageningen UR - 23
    voedselindustrie - risicobeheersing - voedselvoorziening - voedselzekerheid - rampen - food industry - risk management - food supply - food security - disasters
    Calamities such as extreme droughts and trade or infrastructure breakdowns potentially hamper the continuity of individual food companies, as well as the continuity of food supply in Europe at large. There is a lack of insight into food companies’ resilience in case of cumulative calamities or calamities that did not happen before in recent history. In this context, an expert elicitation study among feed and food companies in the Netherlands was undertaken. Results show that lengthy or structural unavailability of electricity and a lengthy crisis of road transport are perceived as the most threatening calamities.Outcomes also show a relatively limited implementation of BCM (business continuity management) at company level. Complete BCM programs for top-3 calamities perceived to threaten the continuity of food supply in Europe are reported by 0% to 30% of the companies. For calamities perceived to be important for business continuity this is between 20% and 40%. In the field of risk management a leading role is attributed to the public sector for improving international governance and setting up a so-called masterplan with measures such as larger raw-materials stocks and broad sourcing. Findings suggest that further actions are needed, starting with prioritised calamities and the design of a masterplan. Yet, stakeholders are also urged to pro-actively “think the unthinkable”
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